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Psychopathic Traits Seen in Children’s Brains

Psychopathic Traits Seen in Children’s Brains | Project 5 | Scoop.it
Brain patterns could warn of vulnerability to psychopathy.

 

Children with severe behavioral problems have a suppressed response to others' pain, according to new brain-scan research.

 

Researchers examined brain scans of kids with conduct disorder, which is marked by aggression, cruelty to others and anti-social behavior. Some kids with conduct disorder also display what psychologists call "callous-unemotional traits," which means they lack guilt and empathy.

 

Stephanie Pappas, LiveScience Senior Writer


Via Edwin Rutsch
Angela Nielsen's insight:

This  article is in agreement with my personal theory that children exhibiting psychopathic traits early will often end up with adult substance abuse and potential violence problems. Our textbook shows data and research to back this theory up. (Meyers, 2014)

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Holly 's curator insight, February 21, 2014 8:09 PM

This is an interesting report on current neuroscience research into the brains of children with conduct disorder. Children with Conduct Disorder (CD) often display "callous-unemotional traits", which means that they do not feel guilt or empathy towards other individuals. It is reported that children with CD have a suppressed response to others' pain. The brain scans performed on children with Conduct disorder and those without show a reduction in the brain activity of kids with conduct disorder when they view images of pain. This type of brain pattern appears to show a vulnerability to developing a psychopathy later on. 

It is important to note that these kids are not destined to psychopathy, but just show a vulnerability. The goal of this type of research is to help determine why these kids are vulnerable in hopes of being able to treat them more effectively. 

 

 

 

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There's a pill to bring your brain back to its childhood - Quartz

There's a pill to bring your brain back to its childhood - Quartz | Project 5 | Scoop.it
There's a pill to bring your brain back to its childhood
Quartz
“Our main interest is not really to create super humans but to help with developmental disorders or brain injury in adulthood,” he told me.

 

Shannon is one of those people. Her entire life, she’s worn glasses with a thin non-prescription lens on one side, and a thick corrective lens on the other. As a toddler, her parents tried to make her wear therapeutic eye patches, but she would fling them off.

 

A few months ago, Shannon enrolled in a clinical study at Boston Children’s Hospital for which she’s taking donepezil, a drug that’s typically used to treat Alzheimer’s. Donepezil is a cholinesterase inhibitor, meaning it increases the amount of acetylcholine circulating around nerve endings. It’s been shown to improve memory function in some patients with dementia.

 

But of course, Shannon doesn’t have memory problems. Her team of doctors is instead using the donepezil to encourage her brain to learn new skills as quickly and nimbly as an infant’s would. Shannon’s vision has improved markedly over the past four months, her mother told me by phone.

 

Takao Hensch, a Harvard professor of cellular biology who is part of the Boston Children’s team, has found that behavioral drugs like donepezil can help return the chemistry of the brain to so-called “critical periods” in its development—the times during early childhood when the brain was rapidly growing. Critical periods help explain why children younger than about 7 can pick up new skills, like language and music, much faster than adults can. This is why you see parents attempting to plant foreign languages in their kids while they’re still in Pampers. It’s much easier than trying to conjugate French verbs for the first time when you’re 30.


Via iPamba, Jocelyn Stoller
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Early Intervention Reduces Aggressive Behavior in Adulthood - Association for Psychological Science

Early Intervention Reduces Aggressive Behavior in Adulthood - Association for Psychological Science | Project 5 | Scoop.it

An educational intervention program for children between kindergarten and 10th grade, known as Fast Track, reduces aggressive behavior later in life, according to research published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

The research, led by psychological scientist Justin Carré of Nipissing University in Ontario, Canada, indicates that dampened testosterone levels in response to social threats may account for the intervention’s success in reducing aggression.

The Fast Track intervention program teaches children social cognitive skills, such as emotional regulation and social problem solving, and previous research suggests that the program may lead to decreased antisocial behavior and aggression in childhood and adolescence.

Carré and colleagues suspected that the program would have long-term effects, and that those effects would be linked to a specific biological mechanism: alterations in testosterone reactivity to social provocation.

Half of those participants were involved in the Fast Track program from ages 5 to 17, consisting of tutoring, peer coaching, home and family visits, and social-emotional learning lessons with friends. The rest of the participants attended the same schools but weren’t involved in the Fast Track program.

More than 8 years after the intervention ended, the researchers brought the participants into the lab to play a game, the goal of which was to earn as much money as possible by pressing three buttons: one which accrued money, one which prevented money from being stolen, and another which stole money from an opponent. The participants believed they were playing against an actual opponent, but the game was actually determined by a computer program. The fictitious opponent provoked participants during the task by stealing their hard-earned money.

Overall, participants who completed the Fast Track program showed less aggression toward their opponent – that is, they opted to steal less money from their opponent than did participants who didn’t complete Fast Track

Ultimately, the findings suggest that Fast Track was successful in reducing participants’ aggression toward a hostile peer in part because it changed the way their neuroendocrine systems responded to social provocation.

Angela Nielsen's insight:

This is interesting to me because it suggests that early intervention could help reduce psychopathic tendencies. 
If that is true, then there seems to be a way in which we can change brain chemistry and activity. Our textbook shows that this is possible.  

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Teens Prescribed Anti-Anxiety or Sleep Medications More Likely to Abuse Those Drugs Illegally

Teens Prescribed Anti-Anxiety or Sleep Medications More Likely to Abuse Those Drugs Illegally | Project 5 | Scoop.it
Imperial Valley News Pressing all envelopes

Via American Institute Health Care Professionals
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American Institute Health Care Professionals's curator insight, December 3, 2014 11:50 AM

As parents, we want to help our children, but sometimes the help we give them can hurt them.  This is especially true with prescription pills for anti-anxiety or sleep.  Teens, if not monitored can become victims to their own medication and misuse it.

If you are interested in substance abuse counseling, then please review the program.

#substanceabuseprogram

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Profile of the Sociopath

Profile of the Sociopath

This website summarizes some of the common features of descriptions of the behavior of sociopaths.

Glibness and Superficial Charm Manipulative and Conning They never recognize the rights of others and see their self-serving behaviors as permissible. They appear to be charming, yet are covertly hostile and domineering, seeing their victim as merely an instrument to be used. They may dominate and humiliate their victims.Grandiose Sense of Self Feels entitled to certain things as "their right."Pathological Lying Has no problem lying coolly and easily and it is almost impossible for them to be truthful on a consistent basis. Can create, and get caught up in, a complex belief about their own powers and abilities. Extremely convincing and even able to pass lie detector tests.Lack of Remorse, Shame or Guilt A deep seated rage, which is split off and repressed, is at their core. Does not see others around them as people, but only as targets and opportunities. Instead of friends, they have victims and accomplices who end up as victims. The end always justifies the means and they let nothing stand in their way.Shallow Emotions When they show what seems to be warmth, joy, love and compassion it is more feigned than experienced and serves an ulterior motive. Outraged by insignificant matters, yet remaining unmoved and cold by what would upset a normal person. Since they are not genuine, neither are their promises.Incapacity for LoveNeed for Stimulation Living on the edge. Verbal outbursts and physical punishments are normal.  Promiscuity and gambling are common.Callousness/Lack of Empathy Unable to empathize with the pain of their victims, having only contempt for others' feelings of distress and readily taking advantage of them.Poor Behavioral Controls/Impulsive Nature Rage and abuse, alternating with small expressions of love and approval produce an addictive cycle for abuser and abused, as well as creating hopelessness in the victim. Believe they are all-powerful, all-knowing, entitled to every wish, no sense of personal boundaries, no concern for their impact on others.Early Behavior Problems/Juvenile Delinquency Usually has a history of behavioral and academic difficulties, yet "gets by" by conning others. Problems in making and keeping friends; aberrant behaviors such as cruelty to people or animals, stealing, etc.Irresponsibility/Unreliability Not concerned about wrecking others' lives and dreams. Oblivious or indifferent to the devastation they cause. Does not accept blame themselves, but blames others, even for acts they obviously committed.Promiscuous Sexual Behavior/Infidelity Promiscuity, child sexual abuse, rape and sexual acting out of all sorts.Lack of Realistic Life Plan/Parasitic Lifestyle Tends to move around a lot or makes all encompassing promises for the future, poor work ethic but exploits others effectively.Criminal or Entrepreneurial Versatility Changes their image as needed to avoid prosecution.  Changes life story readily.

Other Related Qualities:  

Contemptuous of those who seek to understand themDoes not perceive that anything is wrong with themAuthoritarianSecretiveParanoidOnly rarely in difficulty with the law, but seeks out situations where their tyrannical behavior will be tolerated, condoned, or admiredConventional appearanceGoal of enslavement of their victim(s)Exercises despotic control over every aspect of the victim's lifeHas an emotional need to justify their crimes and therefore needs their victim's affirmation (respect, gratitude and love)Ultimate goal is the creation of a willing victimIncapable of real human attachment to anotherUnable to feel remorse or guiltExtreme narcissism and grandioseMay state readily that their goal is to rule the world 

(The above traits are based on the psychopathy checklists of H. Cleckley and R. Hare.)

NOTE: In the 1830's this disorder was called "moral insanity." By 1900 it was changed to "psychopathic personality." More recently it has been termed "antisocial personality disorder" in the DSM-III and DSM-IV.  Some critics have complained that, in the attempt to rely only on 'objective' criteria, the DSM has broadened the concept to include too many individuals. The APD category includes people who commit illegal, immoral or self-serving acts for a variety of reasons and are not necessarily psychopaths.

DSM-IV Definition
Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a lack of regard for the moral or legal standards in the local culture. There is a marked inability to get along with others or abide by societal rules. Individuals with this disorder are sometimes called psychopaths or sociopaths.
Diagnostic Criteria (DSM-IV)
1. Since the age of fifteen there has been a disregard for and violation of the right's of others, those right's considered normal by the local culture, as indicated by at least three of the following:      A. Repeated acts that could lead to arrest.     B. Conning for pleasure or profit, repeated lying, or the use of aliases.     C. Failure to plan ahead or being impulsive.     D. Repeated assaults on others.     E. Reckless when it comes to their or others safety.     F. Poor work behavior or failure to honor financial obligations.     G. Rationalizing the pain they inflict on others.
2. At least eighteen years in age.
3. Evidence of a Conduct Disorder, with its onset before the age of fifteen.
4. Symptoms not due to another mental disorder.

Antisocial Personality Disorder Overview (Written by Derek Wood, RN, BSN, PhD Candidate)
Antisocial Personality Disorder results in what is commonly known as a Sociopath. The criteria for this disorder require an ongoing disregard for the rights of others, since the age of 15 years. Some examples of this disregard are reckless disregard for the safety of themselves or others, failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors, deceitfulness such as repeated lying or deceit for personal profit or pleasure, and lack of remorse for actions that hurt other people in any way. Additionally, they must have evidenced a Conduct Disorder before the age of 15 years, and must be at least 18 years old to receive this diagnosis.
People with this disorder appear to be charming at times, and make relationships, but to them, these are relationships in name only. They are ended whenever necessary or when it suits them, and the relationships are without depth or meaning, including marriages. They seem to have an innate ability to find the weakness in people, and are ready to use these weaknesses to their own ends through deceit, manipulation, or intimidation, and gain pleasure from doing so.
They appear to be incapable of any true emotions, from love to shame to guilt. They are quick to anger, but just as quick to let it go, without holding grudges. No matter what emotion they state they have, it has no bearing on their future actions or attitudes.
They rarely are able to have jobs that last for any length of time, as they become easily bored, instead needing constant change. They live for the moment, forgetting the past, and not planning the future, not thinking ahead what consequences their actions will have. They want immediate rewards and gratification. There currently is no form of psychotherapy that works with those with antisocial personality disorder, as those with this disorder have no desire to change themselves, which is a prerequisite. No medication is available either. The only treatment is the prevention of the disorder in the early stages, when a child first begins to show the symptoms of conduct disorder.

THE PSYCHOPATH NEXT DOOR (Source: http://chericola57.tripod.com/infinite.html)
Psychopath. We hear the word and images of Bernardo, Manson and Dahmer pop into our heads; no doubt Ted Bundy too. But they're the bottom of the barrel -- most of the two million psychopaths in North America aren't murderers. They're our friends, lovers and co-workers. They're outgoing and persuasive, dazzling you with charm and flattery. Often you aren't even aware they've taken you for a ride -- until it's too late. 
Psychopaths exhibit a Jekyll and Hyde personality. "They play a part so they can get what they want," says Dr. Sheila Willson, a Toronto psychologist who has helped victims of psychopaths. The guy who showers a woman with excessive attention is much more capable of getting her to lend him money, and to put up with him when he strays. The new employee who gains her co-workers' trust has more access to their chequebooks. And so on. Psychopaths have no conscience and their only goal is self-gratification. Many of us have been their victims -- at work, through friendships or relationships -- and not one of us can say, "a psychopath could never fool me." 
Think you can spot one? Think again. In general, psychopaths aren't the product of broken homes or the casualties of a materialistic society. Rather they come from all walks of life and there is little evidence that their upbringing affects them. Elements of a psychopath's personality first become evident at a very early age, due to biological or genetic factors. Explains Michael Seto, a psychologist at the Centre for Addiction and Mental health in Toronto, by the time that a person hits their late teens, the disorder is almost certainly permanent. Although many clinicians use the terms psychopath and sociopath interchangeably, writes psychopath expert Robert Hare on his book 'Without Conscience', a sociopath's criminal behavior is shaped by social forces and is the result of a dysfunctional environment. 
Psychopaths have only a shallow range of emotions and lack guilt, says Hare. They often see themselves as victims, and lack remorse or the ability to empathize with others. "Psychopaths play on the fact that most of us are trusting and forgiving people," adds Seto. The warning signs are always there; it's just difficult to see them because once we trust someone, the friendship becomes a blinder. 
Even lovers get taken for a ride by psychopaths. For a psychopath, a romantic relationship is just another opportunity to find a trusting partner who will buy into the lies. It's primarily why a psychopath rarely stays in a relationship for the long term, and often is involved with three or four partners at once, says Willson. To a psychopath, everything about a relationship is a game. Willson refers to the movie 'Sliding Doors' to illustrate her point. In the film, the main character comes home early after just having been fired from her job. Only moments ago, her boyfriend has let another woman out the front door. But in a matter of minutes he is the attentive and concerned boyfriend, taking her out to dinner and devoting the entire night to comforting her. All the while he's planning to leave the next day on a trip with the other woman. 
The boyfriend displays typical psychopathic characteristics because he falsely displays deep emotion toward the relationship, says Willson. In reality, he's less concerned with his girlfriend's depression than with making sure she's clueless about the other woman's existence. In the romance department, psychopaths have an ability to gain your affection quickly, disarming you with words, intriguing you with grandiose plans. If they cheat you'll forgive them, and one day when they've gone too far, they'll leave you with a broken heart (and an empty wallet). By then they'll have a new player for their game. 
The problem with their game is that we don't often play by their rules. Where we might occasionally tell a white lie, a psychopath's lying is compulsive. Most of us experience some degree of guilt about lying, preventing us from exhibiting such behavior on a regular basis. "Psychopaths don't discriminate who it is they lie to or cheat," says Seto. "There's no distinction between friend, family and sucker." 
No one wants to be the sucker, so how do we prevent ourselves from becoming close friends or getting into a relationship with a psychopath? It's really almost impossible, say Seto and Willson. Unfortunately, laments Seto, one way is to become more suspicious and less trusting of others. Our tendency is to forgive when we catch a loved one in a lie. "Psychopaths play on this fact," he says. "However, I'm certainly not advocating a world where if someone lies once or twice, you never speak to them again." What you can do is look at how often someone lies and how they react when caught. Psychopaths will lie over and over again, and where other people would sincerely apologize, a psychopath may apologize but won't stop. 
Psychopaths also tend to switch jobs as frequently as they switch partners, mainly because they don't have the qualities to maintain a job for the long haul. Their performance is generally erratic, with chronic absences, misuse of company resources and failed commitments. Often they aren't even qualified for the job and use fake credentials to get it. Seto talks of a patient who would get marketing jobs based on his image; he was a presentable and charming man who layered his conversations with educational and occupational references. But it became evident that the man hadn't a clue what he was talking about, and was unable to hold down a job. 
How do you make sure you don't get fooled when you're hiring someone to baby-sit your child or for any other job? Hire based on reputation and not image, says Willson. Check references thoroughly. Psychopaths tend to give vague and inconsistent replies. Of course the best way to solve this problem would be to cure psychopaths of their 'illness.' But there's no recipe for treating them, say psychiatrists. Today's traditional methods of psychotherapy (psychoanalysis, group and one-on-one therapy) and drug treatments have failed. Therapy is more likely to work when an individual admits there's a problem and wants to change. The common problem with psychopaths, says Sets, "Is they don't see a problem with their behavior." 
Psychopaths don't seek therapy willingly, says Seto. Rather, they're pushed into it by a desperate relative or by a court order. To a psychopath, a therapist is just one more person who must be conned, and the psychopath plays the part right until the therapist is convinced of his or her 'rehabilitation.' 
Even though we can't treat psychopaths effectively with therapy, it doesn't mean we can't protect ourselves, writes Hare. Willson agrees, citing the most important factor in keeping psychopaths at bay is to know your vulnerabilities. We need to "realize our own potential and maximize our strengths" so that our insecurities don't overcome us. Because, she says, a psychopath is a chameleon who becomes "an image of what you haven't done for yourself." Over time, she says, "their appearance of perfection will begin to crack," but by that time you will have been emotionally and perhaps financially scathed. There comes a time when you realize there's no point in searching for answers; the only thing is to move on.  
Taken in part from MW -- By Caroline Konrad -- September 1999  
THE MALIGNANT PERSONALITY: 
These people are mentally ill and  extremely dangerous! The following precautions will help to protect  you from the destructive acts of which they are capable. 
First, to recognize them, keep the following guidelines in mind. 
(1) They are habitual liars. They seem incapable of either knowing or telling the truth about anything. 
(2) They are egotistical to the point of narcissism. They  really believe they are set apart from the rest of humanity by some special grace. 
(3) They scapegoat; they are incapable of either having the insight or willingness to accept responsibility for anything they do. Whatever the problem, it is always someone else's fault. 
(4) They are remorselessly vindictive when thwarted or exposed. 
(5) Genuine religious, moral, or other values play no part in their lives. They have no empathy for others and are capable of violence. Under older psychological terminology, they fall into the category of psychopath or sociopath, but unlike the typical psychopath, their behavior is masked by a superficial social facade.
If you have come into conflict with such a person or persons, do the following immediately! 
(1) Notify your friends and relatives of what has happened. 
Do not be vague. Name names, and specify dates and circumstances. Identify witnesses if possible and provide supporting documentation if any is available. 
(2) Inform the police. The police will do nothing with this information except to keep it on file, since they are powerless to act until a crime has been committed. Unfortunately, that often is usually too late for the victim. Nevertheless, place the information in their hands. 
Obviously, if you are assaulted or threatened before witnesses, you can get a restraining order, but those are palliative at best. 
(3) Local law enforcement agencies are usually under pressure if wealthy or politically powerful individuals are involved, so include state and federal agencies as well and tell the locals that you have. In my own experience, one agency that can help in a pinch is the Criminal Investigation Division of the Internal Revenue Service or (in Canada) Victims Services at your local police unit. It is not easy to think of the IRS as a potential friend, but a Swedish study  showed that malignant types (the Swedes called them bullies) usually commit some felony or other by the age of twenty. If the family is wealthy, the fact may never come to light, but many felonies involve tax evasion, and in such cases, the IRS is interested indeed. If large amounts of money are involved, the IRS may solve all your problems for you. For obvious reasons the Drug Enforcement Agency may also be an appropriate agency to approach. The FBI is an important agency to contact, because although the FBI does not have jurisdiction over murder or assault, if informed, they do have an active interest in any other law enforcement agencies that do not follow through with an honest investigation and prosecution should a murder occur. Civil rights are involved at that point. No local crooked lawyer, judge, or corrupt police official wants to be within a country mile if that comes to light! It is in such cases that wealthy psychopaths discover just how firm the "friends" they count on to cover up for them really are! Even some of the drug cartel biggies will scuttle for cover if someone picks up the brick their thugs hide under. Exposure is bad for business. 
(4) Make sure that several of your friends have the information in the event something happens to you. That way, an appropriate investigation will follow if you are harmed. Don't tell other people who has the information, because then something bad could happen to them as well. Instruct friends to take such an incident to the newspapers and other media. 
If you are dealing with someone who has considerable money, you must realize that they probably won't try to harm you themselves, they will contract with someone to make the hit.  The malignant type is a coward and will not expose himself  or herself to personal danger if he or she can avoid it. 

Update: A thorough article.  You may also find more at http://sociopathworld.com/.

I, the creator of this site, am not a psychologist and have no special expertise in the subject.  I created the site as a public service, because no similar site existed in 2003.  I occasionally get sad calls and emails.  I urge you to consult either a clinical psychologist or the police depending on the problem you face, and wish you good luck. 


Via Velvet Martin
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Velvet Martin's curator insight, November 5, 2013 1:01 PM

It was brought to my attention that the definition correlates with some who are employed within prominent social humanities. Frankly, in my experience, yes, traits mentioned appear to be accurate. :(

Angela Nielsen's curator insight, December 9, 2014 3:27 PM

I found an interesting connection between this and the scholarly article, "Psychopathic traits in a large community sample" linking psychopathic traits and violence and alcohol use. 

 

Neumann, C. S., & Hare, R. D. (2008). Psychopathic traits in a large community sample: Links to violence, alcohol use, and intelligence. Journal Of Consulting And Clinical Psychology, 76(5), 893-899. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.76.5.893

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Are Wall Street Traders Psychopathic?... lacking empathy and remorse?

Are Wall Street Traders Psychopathic?... lacking empathy and remorse? | Project 5 | Scoop.it

'Psychopathic traits include being highly manipulative and callous, lacking empathy and remorse, having little concern about consequences, being willing to use deceit or threats to get what you want and caring little for others except in terms of what you can get from them. Although the stereotype of a psychopath is a serial killer, they are actually more likely to be con artists or shady businesspeople...

 

The thing about psychopathic values is that they’re contagious. We pick up the values of our leaders and often mirror their behavior. But determining what to do about it is a lot harder than making the diagnosis. '

 

By Maia Szalavitz

More about Maia Szalavitz
Maia Szalavitz & Edwin Rutsch: Dialogs on How to Build a Culture of Empathy
http://bit.ly/mDhQpl


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Substance abuse and ADHD | MomsCharlotte.com

Substance abuse and ADHD | MomsCharlotte.com | Project 5 | Scoop.it

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Profile of the Sociopath

Profile of the Sociopath

This website summarizes some of the common features of descriptions of the behavior of sociopaths.

Glibness and Superficial Charm Manipulative and Conning They never recognize the rights of others and see their self-serving behaviors as permissible. They appear to be charming, yet are covertly hostile and domineering, seeing their victim as merely an instrument to be used. They may dominate and humiliate their victims.Grandiose Sense of Self Feels entitled to certain things as "their right."Pathological Lying Has no problem lying coolly and easily and it is almost impossible for them to be truthful on a consistent basis. Can create, and get caught up in, a complex belief about their own powers and abilities. Extremely convincing and even able to pass lie detector tests.Lack of Remorse, Shame or Guilt A deep seated rage, which is split off and repressed, is at their core. Does not see others around them as people, but only as targets and opportunities. Instead of friends, they have victims and accomplices who end up as victims. The end always justifies the means and they let nothing stand in their way.Shallow Emotions When they show what seems to be warmth, joy, love and compassion it is more feigned than experienced and serves an ulterior motive. Outraged by insignificant matters, yet remaining unmoved and cold by what would upset a normal person. Since they are not genuine, neither are their promises.Incapacity for LoveNeed for Stimulation Living on the edge. Verbal outbursts and physical punishments are normal.  Promiscuity and gambling are common.Callousness/Lack of Empathy Unable to empathize with the pain of their victims, having only contempt for others' feelings of distress and readily taking advantage of them.Poor Behavioral Controls/Impulsive Nature Rage and abuse, alternating with small expressions of love and approval produce an addictive cycle for abuser and abused, as well as creating hopelessness in the victim. Believe they are all-powerful, all-knowing, entitled to every wish, no sense of personal boundaries, no concern for their impact on others.Early Behavior Problems/Juvenile Delinquency Usually has a history of behavioral and academic difficulties, yet "gets by" by conning others. Problems in making and keeping friends; aberrant behaviors such as cruelty to people or animals, stealing, etc.Irresponsibility/Unreliability Not concerned about wrecking others' lives and dreams. Oblivious or indifferent to the devastation they cause. Does not accept blame themselves, but blames others, even for acts they obviously committed.Promiscuous Sexual Behavior/Infidelity Promiscuity, child sexual abuse, rape and sexual acting out of all sorts.Lack of Realistic Life Plan/Parasitic Lifestyle Tends to move around a lot or makes all encompassing promises for the future, poor work ethic but exploits others effectively.Criminal or Entrepreneurial Versatility Changes their image as needed to avoid prosecution.  Changes life story readily.

Other Related Qualities:  

Contemptuous of those who seek to understand themDoes not perceive that anything is wrong with themAuthoritarianSecretiveParanoidOnly rarely in difficulty with the law, but seeks out situations where their tyrannical behavior will be tolerated, condoned, or admiredConventional appearanceGoal of enslavement of their victim(s)Exercises despotic control over every aspect of the victim's lifeHas an emotional need to justify their crimes and therefore needs their victim's affirmation (respect, gratitude and love)Ultimate goal is the creation of a willing victimIncapable of real human attachment to anotherUnable to feel remorse or guiltExtreme narcissism and grandioseMay state readily that their goal is to rule the world 

(The above traits are based on the psychopathy checklists of H. Cleckley and R. Hare.)

NOTE: In the 1830's this disorder was called "moral insanity." By 1900 it was changed to "psychopathic personality." More recently it has been termed "antisocial personality disorder" in the DSM-III and DSM-IV.  Some critics have complained that, in the attempt to rely only on 'objective' criteria, the DSM has broadened the concept to include too many individuals. The APD category includes people who commit illegal, immoral or self-serving acts for a variety of reasons and are not necessarily psychopaths.

DSM-IV Definition
Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a lack of regard for the moral or legal standards in the local culture. There is a marked inability to get along with others or abide by societal rules. Individuals with this disorder are sometimes called psychopaths or sociopaths.
Diagnostic Criteria (DSM-IV)
1. Since the age of fifteen there has been a disregard for and violation of the right's of others, those right's considered normal by the local culture, as indicated by at least three of the following:      A. Repeated acts that could lead to arrest.     B. Conning for pleasure or profit, repeated lying, or the use of aliases.     C. Failure to plan ahead or being impulsive.     D. Repeated assaults on others.     E. Reckless when it comes to their or others safety.     F. Poor work behavior or failure to honor financial obligations.     G. Rationalizing the pain they inflict on others.
2. At least eighteen years in age.
3. Evidence of a Conduct Disorder, with its onset before the age of fifteen.
4. Symptoms not due to another mental disorder.

Antisocial Personality Disorder Overview (Written by Derek Wood, RN, BSN, PhD Candidate)
Antisocial Personality Disorder results in what is commonly known as a Sociopath. The criteria for this disorder require an ongoing disregard for the rights of others, since the age of 15 years. Some examples of this disregard are reckless disregard for the safety of themselves or others, failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors, deceitfulness such as repeated lying or deceit for personal profit or pleasure, and lack of remorse for actions that hurt other people in any way. Additionally, they must have evidenced a Conduct Disorder before the age of 15 years, and must be at least 18 years old to receive this diagnosis.
People with this disorder appear to be charming at times, and make relationships, but to them, these are relationships in name only. They are ended whenever necessary or when it suits them, and the relationships are without depth or meaning, including marriages. They seem to have an innate ability to find the weakness in people, and are ready to use these weaknesses to their own ends through deceit, manipulation, or intimidation, and gain pleasure from doing so.
They appear to be incapable of any true emotions, from love to shame to guilt. They are quick to anger, but just as quick to let it go, without holding grudges. No matter what emotion they state they have, it has no bearing on their future actions or attitudes.
They rarely are able to have jobs that last for any length of time, as they become easily bored, instead needing constant change. They live for the moment, forgetting the past, and not planning the future, not thinking ahead what consequences their actions will have. They want immediate rewards and gratification. There currently is no form of psychotherapy that works with those with antisocial personality disorder, as those with this disorder have no desire to change themselves, which is a prerequisite. No medication is available either. The only treatment is the prevention of the disorder in the early stages, when a child first begins to show the symptoms of conduct disorder.

THE PSYCHOPATH NEXT DOOR (Source: http://chericola57.tripod.com/infinite.html)
Psychopath. We hear the word and images of Bernardo, Manson and Dahmer pop into our heads; no doubt Ted Bundy too. But they're the bottom of the barrel -- most of the two million psychopaths in North America aren't murderers. They're our friends, lovers and co-workers. They're outgoing and persuasive, dazzling you with charm and flattery. Often you aren't even aware they've taken you for a ride -- until it's too late. 
Psychopaths exhibit a Jekyll and Hyde personality. "They play a part so they can get what they want," says Dr. Sheila Willson, a Toronto psychologist who has helped victims of psychopaths. The guy who showers a woman with excessive attention is much more capable of getting her to lend him money, and to put up with him when he strays. The new employee who gains her co-workers' trust has more access to their chequebooks. And so on. Psychopaths have no conscience and their only goal is self-gratification. Many of us have been their victims -- at work, through friendships or relationships -- and not one of us can say, "a psychopath could never fool me." 
Think you can spot one? Think again. In general, psychopaths aren't the product of broken homes or the casualties of a materialistic society. Rather they come from all walks of life and there is little evidence that their upbringing affects them. Elements of a psychopath's personality first become evident at a very early age, due to biological or genetic factors. Explains Michael Seto, a psychologist at the Centre for Addiction and Mental health in Toronto, by the time that a person hits their late teens, the disorder is almost certainly permanent. Although many clinicians use the terms psychopath and sociopath interchangeably, writes psychopath expert Robert Hare on his book 'Without Conscience', a sociopath's criminal behavior is shaped by social forces and is the result of a dysfunctional environment. 
Psychopaths have only a shallow range of emotions and lack guilt, says Hare. They often see themselves as victims, and lack remorse or the ability to empathize with others. "Psychopaths play on the fact that most of us are trusting and forgiving people," adds Seto. The warning signs are always there; it's just difficult to see them because once we trust someone, the friendship becomes a blinder. 
Even lovers get taken for a ride by psychopaths. For a psychopath, a romantic relationship is just another opportunity to find a trusting partner who will buy into the lies. It's primarily why a psychopath rarely stays in a relationship for the long term, and often is involved with three or four partners at once, says Willson. To a psychopath, everything about a relationship is a game. Willson refers to the movie 'Sliding Doors' to illustrate her point. In the film, the main character comes home early after just having been fired from her job. Only moments ago, her boyfriend has let another woman out the front door. But in a matter of minutes he is the attentive and concerned boyfriend, taking her out to dinner and devoting the entire night to comforting her. All the while he's planning to leave the next day on a trip with the other woman. 
The boyfriend displays typical psychopathic characteristics because he falsely displays deep emotion toward the relationship, says Willson. In reality, he's less concerned with his girlfriend's depression than with making sure she's clueless about the other woman's existence. In the romance department, psychopaths have an ability to gain your affection quickly, disarming you with words, intriguing you with grandiose plans. If they cheat you'll forgive them, and one day when they've gone too far, they'll leave you with a broken heart (and an empty wallet). By then they'll have a new player for their game. 
The problem with their game is that we don't often play by their rules. Where we might occasionally tell a white lie, a psychopath's lying is compulsive. Most of us experience some degree of guilt about lying, preventing us from exhibiting such behavior on a regular basis. "Psychopaths don't discriminate who it is they lie to or cheat," says Seto. "There's no distinction between friend, family and sucker." 
No one wants to be the sucker, so how do we prevent ourselves from becoming close friends or getting into a relationship with a psychopath? It's really almost impossible, say Seto and Willson. Unfortunately, laments Seto, one way is to become more suspicious and less trusting of others. Our tendency is to forgive when we catch a loved one in a lie. "Psychopaths play on this fact," he says. "However, I'm certainly not advocating a world where if someone lies once or twice, you never speak to them again." What you can do is look at how often someone lies and how they react when caught. Psychopaths will lie over and over again, and where other people would sincerely apologize, a psychopath may apologize but won't stop. 
Psychopaths also tend to switch jobs as frequently as they switch partners, mainly because they don't have the qualities to maintain a job for the long haul. Their performance is generally erratic, with chronic absences, misuse of company resources and failed commitments. Often they aren't even qualified for the job and use fake credentials to get it. Seto talks of a patient who would get marketing jobs based on his image; he was a presentable and charming man who layered his conversations with educational and occupational references. But it became evident that the man hadn't a clue what he was talking about, and was unable to hold down a job. 
How do you make sure you don't get fooled when you're hiring someone to baby-sit your child or for any other job? Hire based on reputation and not image, says Willson. Check references thoroughly. Psychopaths tend to give vague and inconsistent replies. Of course the best way to solve this problem would be to cure psychopaths of their 'illness.' But there's no recipe for treating them, say psychiatrists. Today's traditional methods of psychotherapy (psychoanalysis, group and one-on-one therapy) and drug treatments have failed. Therapy is more likely to work when an individual admits there's a problem and wants to change. The common problem with psychopaths, says Sets, "Is they don't see a problem with their behavior." 
Psychopaths don't seek therapy willingly, says Seto. Rather, they're pushed into it by a desperate relative or by a court order. To a psychopath, a therapist is just one more person who must be conned, and the psychopath plays the part right until the therapist is convinced of his or her 'rehabilitation.' 
Even though we can't treat psychopaths effectively with therapy, it doesn't mean we can't protect ourselves, writes Hare. Willson agrees, citing the most important factor in keeping psychopaths at bay is to know your vulnerabilities. We need to "realize our own potential and maximize our strengths" so that our insecurities don't overcome us. Because, she says, a psychopath is a chameleon who becomes "an image of what you haven't done for yourself." Over time, she says, "their appearance of perfection will begin to crack," but by that time you will have been emotionally and perhaps financially scathed. There comes a time when you realize there's no point in searching for answers; the only thing is to move on.  
Taken in part from MW -- By Caroline Konrad -- September 1999  
THE MALIGNANT PERSONALITY: 
These people are mentally ill and  extremely dangerous! The following precautions will help to protect  you from the destructive acts of which they are capable. 
First, to recognize them, keep the following guidelines in mind. 
(1) They are habitual liars. They seem incapable of either knowing or telling the truth about anything. 
(2) They are egotistical to the point of narcissism. They  really believe they are set apart from the rest of humanity by some special grace. 
(3) They scapegoat; they are incapable of either having the insight or willingness to accept responsibility for anything they do. Whatever the problem, it is always someone else's fault. 
(4) They are remorselessly vindictive when thwarted or exposed. 
(5) Genuine religious, moral, or other values play no part in their lives. They have no empathy for others and are capable of violence. Under older psychological terminology, they fall into the category of psychopath or sociopath, but unlike the typical psychopath, their behavior is masked by a superficial social facade.
If you have come into conflict with such a person or persons, do the following immediately! 
(1) Notify your friends and relatives of what has happened. 
Do not be vague. Name names, and specify dates and circumstances. Identify witnesses if possible and provide supporting documentation if any is available. 
(2) Inform the police. The police will do nothing with this information except to keep it on file, since they are powerless to act until a crime has been committed. Unfortunately, that often is usually too late for the victim. Nevertheless, place the information in their hands. 
Obviously, if you are assaulted or threatened before witnesses, you can get a restraining order, but those are palliative at best. 
(3) Local law enforcement agencies are usually under pressure if wealthy or politically powerful individuals are involved, so include state and federal agencies as well and tell the locals that you have. In my own experience, one agency that can help in a pinch is the Criminal Investigation Division of the Internal Revenue Service or (in Canada) Victims Services at your local police unit. It is not easy to think of the IRS as a potential friend, but a Swedish study  showed that malignant types (the Swedes called them bullies) usually commit some felony or other by the age of twenty. If the family is wealthy, the fact may never come to light, but many felonies involve tax evasion, and in such cases, the IRS is interested indeed. If large amounts of money are involved, the IRS may solve all your problems for you. For obvious reasons the Drug Enforcement Agency may also be an appropriate agency to approach. The FBI is an important agency to contact, because although the FBI does not have jurisdiction over murder or assault, if informed, they do have an active interest in any other law enforcement agencies that do not follow through with an honest investigation and prosecution should a murder occur. Civil rights are involved at that point. No local crooked lawyer, judge, or corrupt police official wants to be within a country mile if that comes to light! It is in such cases that wealthy psychopaths discover just how firm the "friends" they count on to cover up for them really are! Even some of the drug cartel biggies will scuttle for cover if someone picks up the brick their thugs hide under. Exposure is bad for business. 
(4) Make sure that several of your friends have the information in the event something happens to you. That way, an appropriate investigation will follow if you are harmed. Don't tell other people who has the information, because then something bad could happen to them as well. Instruct friends to take such an incident to the newspapers and other media. 
If you are dealing with someone who has considerable money, you must realize that they probably won't try to harm you themselves, they will contract with someone to make the hit.  The malignant type is a coward and will not expose himself  or herself to personal danger if he or she can avoid it. 

Update: A thorough article.  You may also find more at http://sociopathworld.com/.

I, the creator of this site, am not a psychologist and have no special expertise in the subject.  I created the site as a public service, because no similar site existed in 2003.  I occasionally get sad calls and emails.  I urge you to consult either a clinical psychologist or the police depending on the problem you face, and wish you good luck. 


Via Velvet Martin
Angela Nielsen's insight:

I found an interesting connection between this and the scholarly article, "Psychopathic traits in a large community sample" linking psychopathic traits and violence and alcohol use. 

 

Neumann, C. S., & Hare, R. D. (2008). Psychopathic traits in a large community sample: Links to violence, alcohol use, and intelligence. Journal Of Consulting And Clinical Psychology, 76(5), 893-899. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.76.5.893

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Velvet Martin's curator insight, November 5, 2013 1:01 PM

It was brought to my attention that the definition correlates with some who are employed within prominent social humanities. Frankly, in my experience, yes, traits mentioned appear to be accurate. :(

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» Antisocial Personality Disorder Symptoms - Psych Central

» Antisocial Personality Disorder Symptoms - Psych Central | Project 5 | Scoop.it
Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of a disregard for other people's rights, often crossing the line and violating

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Sarah Smith's curator insight, March 21, 2014 4:13 PM

Although the terms sociopath and psychopath are thrown around in popular culture, it is no joking matter when it comes to actually dealing with a person who has antisocial personality disorder. This article written by psych central staff is a helpful guide to the symptoms that might be present in an individual who has APD. 

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Intelligent People Are More Likely to Use Drugs. Why?

Intelligent People Are More Likely to Use Drugs. Why? | Project 5 | Scoop.it
There's a correlation between high childhood IQ and adult drug use. What does it mean?
Angela Nielsen's insight:

So interesting. In my work with teenagers, the more intelligent children are also the ones who often exhibit antisocial behavior and have ended up with substance abuse problems. There seems to be something that becomes "bored" in the brain and requires extra stimulation. This is backed up in our textbook with data showing changes in brain chemistry when substances are added   to the mix. (Meyers,  2014)

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Alcohol, substance abuse doubles suicide risk in bipolar disorder

Alcohol, substance abuse doubles suicide risk in bipolar disorder | Project 5 | Scoop.it

This Patients with bipolar disorder and comorbid alcohol and substance use disorders are twice as likely to attempt suicide as those without such comorbidity, results of a systematic review and meta-analysis show.


Via American Institute Health Care Professionals
Angela Nielsen's insight:

This goes along with  our textbook's explanation of how alcohol and drugs slow neural processin. MRI scans in our book show brain shrinkage in persons with alcohol and drug use, and how that affects the brain of persons who are already exhibiting symptoms of  mental health issues. (Meyers, 2014)

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American Institute Health Care Professionals's curator insight, June 18, 2014 11:07 AM

This article looks at findings which really make sense!  It would only figure that if you have a mental issue, then drugs or alcohol can make it worse.  The case is also true with Bi-polar.

Studies show that the risk of suicide is doubled by bi-polar  patients who drink and abuse drugs

If you are interested in learning about substance abuse counseling training, then please review the program,.

#substanceabuse

Angela Nielsen's comment, December 9, 2014 3:21 PM
I appreciate the insight from the American Institute of Health Care Professionals and the connection between suicide and drug abuse in bipolar patients.
Angela Nielsen's comment, December 9, 2014 3:22 PM
the sources in this article seemed to be quality ones. This seemed similar to what our myths text stated about the way alcohol affects the brain.
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Correlation of Psychopathic Personality Traits in Everyday Life: Results From a Large Community Survey

Correlation of Psychopathic Personality Traits in Everyday Life: Results From a Large Community Survey | Project 5 | Scoop.it

Although the traits of psychopathic personality (psychopathy) have received extensive attention from researchers in forensic psychology, psychopathology, and personality psychology, the relations of these traits to aspects of everyday functioning are poorly understood.


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Edward E. Kramer's curator insight, September 22, 2014 12:53 PM

Based responses to the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised Short Form, psychopathic traits were linked to fearless dominance (positively associated with holding leadership and management positions, and high-risk occupations), political conservatism, and lack of belief in God.

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Psychopathic Traits Seen in Children’s Brains

Psychopathic Traits Seen in Children’s Brains | Project 5 | Scoop.it
Brain patterns could warn of vulnerability to psychopathy.

 

Children with severe behavioral problems have a suppressed response to others' pain, according to new brain-scan research.

 

Researchers examined brain scans of kids with conduct disorder, which is marked by aggression, cruelty to others and anti-social behavior. Some kids with conduct disorder also display what psychologists call "callous-unemotional traits," which means they lack guilt and empathy.

 

Stephanie Pappas, LiveScience Senior Writer


Via Edwin Rutsch
Angela Nielsen's insight:

This  article is in agreement with my personal theory that children exhibiting psychopathic traits early will often end up with adult substance abuse and potential violence problems. Our textbook shows data and research to back this theory up. (Meyers, 2014)

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Holly 's curator insight, February 21, 2014 8:09 PM

This is an interesting report on current neuroscience research into the brains of children with conduct disorder. Children with Conduct Disorder (CD) often display "callous-unemotional traits", which means that they do not feel guilt or empathy towards other individuals. It is reported that children with CD have a suppressed response to others' pain. The brain scans performed on children with Conduct disorder and those without show a reduction in the brain activity of kids with conduct disorder when they view images of pain. This type of brain pattern appears to show a vulnerability to developing a psychopathy later on. 

It is important to note that these kids are not destined to psychopathy, but just show a vulnerability. The goal of this type of research is to help determine why these kids are vulnerable in hopes of being able to treat them more effectively. 

 

 

 

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Brain Regions for Empathy Less Active in Youths with Psychopathic Traits

Brain Regions for Empathy Less Active in Youths with Psychopathic Traits | Project 5 | Scoop.it

Georgetown University - Laboratory on social and affective neuroscience

 

WITH CONDUCT problems and psychopathic traits such as callousness and remorselessness show less activity in the regions of the brain associated with empathy, according to a new study led by a Georgetown psychology professor.

 

Abigail Marsh, working with colleagues from the National Institutes of Health, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and three other academics, recently published her research in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.

 

 

Study: Empathic responsiveness in amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex in youths with psychopathic traits.

Marsh AA, Finger EC, Fowler KA, Adalio CJ, Jurkowitz IT, Schechter JC, Pine DS, Decety J, Blair RJ.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23488588


Via Edwin Rutsch
Angela Nielsen's insight:

This is a well researched article and shows the brain chemistry and data for teens with psychopathic tendencies. This backs up the chapter in our book discussing antisocial relations and the different influences that contribute to them (genetic, biochemical, and social)

(Meyers, 2014)

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How alcohol abuse damages brain at deeper level

How alcohol abuse damages brain at deeper level | Project 5 | Scoop.it
London: In what could pave the way for new pharmaceutical drugs and therapeutic options that reverse the alterations produced by alcohol, researchers have identified, for the first time, the damages caused by chronic excessive abuse of alcohol...

Via American Institute Health Care Professionals
Angela Nielsen's insight:

In our Myths book, it is suggested that antisocial behavior is exacerbated by alcohol usage. I have seen this in my work with adolescents and have seen the tendency for these kids to develop substance abuse issues in their later years. This was a simple article and wasn't tremendously researched, but the gist of the article goes along well with both of our books. 

(Lilienfeld, 2010)


The article, "Examining the effect of psychopathic traits on gray matter volume in a community substance abuse sample" was good additional information on this subject. 


Cope, L. M., Shane, M. S., Segall, J. M., Nyalakanti, P. K., Stevens, M. C., Pearlson, G. D., & ... Kiehl, K. A. (2012). Examining the effect of psychopathic traits on gray matter volume in a community substance abuse sample.Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 20491-100. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2012.10.004


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5 New Theories on the Cause of Depression

5 New Theories on the Cause of Depression | Project 5 | Scoop.it
I grew up thinking depression was as simple as one little transmitter getting lost somewhere on his way from one neuron to the other, much like I do when I venture farther than five miles from home.

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» Antisocial Personality Disorder Treatment - Psych Central

» Antisocial Personality Disorder Treatment - Psych Central | Project 5 | Scoop.it
Table of Contents Introduction Psychotherapy Hospitalization Medications Self-Help Introduction Antisocial personality disorder is often

Via Sarah Smith
Angela Nielsen's insight:

This reminds me of the scholarly article, "Heartless and cunning? Intelligence in adolescents with antisocial behavior". I have worked with adolescents throughout my life and have seen psychopathic traits in children that has manifested in various ways once these kids enter adulthood. I believe there is a connection between these traits and future alcohol or drug dependency and violence. 

Our textbook agrees that these traits are shown at a young age and can be proven by a difference in the brain. 

 

Allen, J. L., Briskman, J., Humayun, S., Dadds, M. R., & Scott, S. (2013). Heartless and cunning? Intelligence in adolescents with antisocial behavior and psychopathic traits. Psychiatry Research, 210(3), 1147-1153. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.08.033

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Sarah Smith's curator insight, March 21, 2014 4:16 PM

This article follows up the last one well by looking into the treatment options and ways to deal with antisocial personality disorder. It outlines the psychotherapy, hospitalizations, medication and even self help. 

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» Surprising Myths & Facts About Antisocial Personality Disorder - World of Psychology

» Surprising Myths & Facts About Antisocial Personality Disorder - World of Psychology | Project 5 | Scoop.it
Antisocial personality disorder is thought of as an uncommon and untreatable disorder, if it’s thought of at all. Not many researchers study the disorder b

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Sarah Smith's curator insight, March 21, 2014 4:41 PM

This article talks a bit about why antisocial personality disorder is so understudied and miss interpreted by the public. It continues to give myths and facts about the disorder to help debunk some false information that has been spread about the disorder.