The Irony of Empowerment in Change:  Kotter Theory vs. Practice | Programme, Project and Change Management |

As I thought about Push in the context of Kotter's model, I imagined the table you see above.  

In most "less than successful" change projects, the Tops drive steps 1, 2, and 3.  Step 4 is the Tops using HR or Communication to PUSH "their" change downhill.  


I found it ironic that what Kotter envisioned as empowerment is often the stage where resistance takes over.________________________

Because participation is normally restricted in steps 1, 2, and 3, the Middles & Bottoms lack ownership.  People support what they help create.  People do NOT support what they do NOT help create.  
I looked at Phillip's (McKinsey early 80s) change management model and thought about Kotter's 8 steps.  This is what it looks like to me:  

- See more at:

Via Deb Nystrom, REVELN