Aspect 2
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Aspect 2
Automated Finger Identification System
Curated by eric quinter
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eric quinter's comment, April 3, 2014 1:24 PM
Aspect 3:
eric quinter's comment, April 3, 2014 1:29 PM
9. (Processing Time for DNA Analyses) While a good many policymakers are interested in the amount of the backlog of casework and offender/arrestee samples, another important thing is the time it will take for labs to get done with new requests for DNA ANALYSIS (turnaround time). Researchers who studied the size of casework backlog in 2007 in publicly funded, DNA laboratories found that 14 of 145 (9.7%) responded to a survey reported that they didnt have a backlog, which means that they finished all the requests in 30 day periods.
eric quinter's comment, April 3, 2014 1:35 PM
10. "However, three-quarters (111) of those labs reported completing DNA analysis requests within 119 days or less. Of the remaining labs, 24 reported that turnaround time was more than 180 days (six months) and another 20 had turnaround times of 270 days or more." The researchers found that turnaround time for non-violent crimes was more than turnaround times for violent crimes. They also found that the turnaround time for analysis of the offender and arrestee samples were shorter then forensic casework. 30% of labs who responded reported having turnaround times of 30 days or less for offender and arrestee samples. Half of all labs who responded reported processing samples within 90 days of receipt. One-quarter of labs reported more than 270 turnaround days for the samples.
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eric quinter's comment, April 3, 2014 7:52 AM
5. (3.) Sensitivity: Some blood or a swab will be enough for a forensic analysis. "The current method involving the polymerase chain reaction can now yield success with even smaller samples ranging from saliva, to semen stains representing less than 10 percent of the area found on the end of a pencil or pin." (4.) Stability: The DNA molecule is a double helix being made of three chemical components to make a phosphate-sugar backbone held together by the organic bases (guanine, cytosine, thymine, and adenine). These three simple things assemble into an amazingly stable molecule able to endure environmental threats both natural and manmade.
eric quinter's comment, April 3, 2014 7:57 AM
6. (3. continued) The molecular integrity of DNA is the best forensic characteristic for a forensic scientist to link old cases with the newly found evidence or be able to know victims of a disaster (airplane crash or explosion). Over the past decade the changed from traditional DNA typing to PCR identification ways has made another series of better technologies and even made new "scientific fields such as molecular anthropology."
eric quinter's comment, April 3, 2014 8:08 AM
7. (The Process of Forensic DNA Typing) Forensic DNA analysis has been reliable to the characteristics of any process, its never been static but makes up a evolution of advanced technology. "Since the late 1980's to mid 1990's, the use of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis universally replaced the application of biochemical identification techniques such as isoenzyme electrophoresis.
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IAFIS

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eric quinter's comment, March 12, 2014 8:09 AM
3. IAFIS is the biggest fingerprint database, not just in the U.S, but everywhere. It has fingerprints and criminal histories for 70 million people+, and more than 34 million civil prints. Along with that it includes fingerprints from the 73,000 suspected or known terrorists by the U.S or law enforcement who works with the U.S. The average time it takes for an electric criminal fingerprint is about 27 minutes, while the civil submissions take within an hour and 12 minutes. IAFIS has processed more than 61 million submissions during 2010.
eric quinter's comment, March 12, 2014 8:15 AM
4. "IAFIS was launched on July 28, 1999." Prior to 1999, the processing of the fingerprint submissions was done by hand, taking weeks or months to do a single submission. "The FBI has been the national repository for fingerprints and related criminal history data since 1924, when more than 800.000 fingerprint records from the National Bureau of Criminal Identification and Leavenworth Penitentiary were consolidated with Bureau files." The first use of computers to get and find fingerprint files was in October of 1980.
eric quinter's comment, March 13, 2014 7:59 AM
5. IAFIS, was an effective system, but the threats "(criminals and terrorists) have evolved over the past decade." They need a faster and better identification ability. The NGI, or Next Generation Identification Program, is this better system. This will better in helping solve investigations, preventing crime, and getting rid of criminals and terrorists. NGI is way more effective then IAFIS and will provide automated fingerprint and latent search abilities, electronic image storage, and an exchange of fingerprints to 18,000 or more law enforcement agencies and other authorized criminal justice partners 24/7. Along with this NGI will offer better and faster fingerprint transactions. NGI Increment 4 will be here in the summer of 2014, it will completely replace IAFIS.
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979ca259ac7bddc47ee3fa931964bdd579262955.06000161_97689659450.pdf

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eric quinter's comment, April 3, 2014 8:09 AM
Aspect 3:
eric quinter's comment, April 3, 2014 8:16 AM
8. Saliva is considered a fine piece of evidence for full DNA profiles. A murder occurred in a small village near Venice, among other evidence, three persimmons were collected from a garden, near the scene. The fruits were bitten, by the murderer or other suspects, just before they entered the victim's house. "Due to consistency of the persimmon and the DNA degradation caused by bacteria and fungi easily proliferated in the sugar content of the fruit, we sampled a small amount of saliva left by the suspect, with three swabs. We processed through DNA extraction, quantification, amplication and typing by multiplexing STRs analyses, using commercially available kits." A STR profile close to being complete was obtained from most of the swabs. This profile then got compared to several people and allowed us to identify that person. The person was questioned, were it led to him admitting himself as one of the people who committed the crime and led to the capture of the rest of the criminals.
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eric quinter's comment, March 13, 2014 8:18 AM
8. The size of the file and how much it increased, the resources to classify those increased. Eventually, classification extensions were added to reduce some of the file that was used to search against each card. The manual system was used for searching and matching fingerprints was almost to the point of not being able to be handle the workload.
eric quinter's comment, March 13, 2014 1:37 PM
9. Although punch card sorters could minimize the amount of fingerprint cards needed to be examined based on pattern classification and other things, its still needed for people examiners to argue about each fingerprint card on the candidate list. A new paradigm was needed to stop the largely growing amount of human resources needed to process the search requests. A new technological approach was needed to get each fingerprint image from a tenprint card, process each of the images to get a smaller-sized template of characteristic information, and search a database to automatically get a highly smaller list of possible candidate matches.
eric quinter's comment, March 14, 2014 7:45 AM
By 1963, Special Agent Carl Voelker of the FBI's Identification Division found out that the manual searching of the criminal file would not last for too much longer. To get rid of the problem, he got the help of engineers Raymond Moore and Joe Wegstein of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. After telling them his problem, he asked them for help in automating the FBI's fingerprint identification process.