Poverty Assignment by_Gautam
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..:: Child Poverty in Asia ::..

..:: Child Poverty in Asia ::.. | Poverty Assignment by_Gautam | Scoop.it

In 1998 Asia (including South Asia, East Asia, and the Pacific region)accounted for about two-thirds of the world’s 1.2 billion poorest people.
These people all lived on less than $1 per day. South Asia—that is, the Indian subcontinent, which includes India, Nepal, and Bangladesh—had about 522 million people living in extreme poverty in 1996. India had the greatest number of poor of any country in the world—more than 300 million people, more than one-third of its population. The caste system associated with Hinduism, the dominant religion in India, helps perpetuate some of this poverty. This system keeps many families poor from generation to generation by assigning certain groups of people to low status.

Approximately 267 million people in East and Southeast Asia lived on less than $1 per day in 1998. China has very large numbers of poor due to the great size of its rural population. Such Southeast Asian countries as Vietnam, the Philippines, and Indonesia also rank among the world’s poorest.

Several wars have contributed to poverty in South and East Asia. World War II (1939-1945) and the wars in Korea (1950-1953) and Vietnam (1959-1975) damaged land, crops, and forests; prevented many people from making a living; and killed and dislocated millions. In the late 20th century, governments and industries around these regions sponsored massive deforestation, mining, and damming projects that damaged or hindered access to forests, fields, and water resources. Such projects also forced many people to abandon their homes and fields, making them more susceptible to poverty.

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Nearly half of Asian kids live in poverty

Nearly half of Asia’s 1.27 billion children live in poverty — deprived of food, safe drinking water, health or shelter, a development agency said in a report.

While 600 million children under the age of 18 lack access to one of these basic human needs, more than 350 million are deprived of two or more of these needs, saidGrowing up in Asia, a report from the child humanitarian organization Plan.

Plan said half of Asia’s families are not benefiting from economic growth and globalization. It blamed the pressure of rapid population growth on scarce resources; lack of access to education, healthcare, clean water and sanitation; caste discrimination; and weak governance and corruption.

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Poverty keeping children out of school

Widespread poverty and ignorance are forcing more than half the number of children of Danuwar community at Bhimtar village in Sindhupalchok out of schools. They can instead be found wasting their time fishing.

Although there is a lower secondary school at Bhimtar, more than half the number of children in the village are without any education, Krishna Prasad Shrestha, headmaster of Bhimeshwor Lower Secondary School, said. 

“Only fifty percent of all children in this village have been admitted to the school. The enrolled students too attend the school according to their will.” Shrestha said. 

Most of the children in Bhimtar were busy fishing and playing other games rather than studying, the guardians of the students said. “Children who earn by selling fish do not like to go to school,” local guardians said. 

There are around 248 school age boys and 193 girls in the village. Among them, only 46 boys and 15 girls have been admitted in the school. Even among them, many students quit schooling early.

Gautam Indrajit's insight:

Poverty in asia is getting worser as more people are having families even when they are in no state to look after themselves. This especially is happening in countries such as India. The people of the world has to stop this now before it gets worse.

Joel Lim's curator insight, January 20, 2014 11:10 AM

Before reading this article,i know that poverty has affected many people and countries.But after reading this article,In 1998 Asia (including South Asia, East Asia, and the Pacific region)accounted for about two-thirds of the world’s 1.2 billion poorest people.There are so much more people living in poverty than i had expected and all of them lived on less than $1 a day!Furthermore,poverty is keeping children out of school.How can this be?if the children do not have the basic education,how are they going to change their life of being in poverty?it will just be a cycle and poverty will never be reduced.Nearly half of Asia’s 1.27 billion children live in poverty — deprived of food, safe drinking water, health or shelter, a development agency said in a report.Everyone should at least have the basic need of food,water and shelter but nearly half of Asia's 1.27 billion children are deprived of that,if they do not have these basic needs,how are they going to be survive in this world?I hope that someone will do something to reduce poverty as if this continues,it won't look good

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CNN.com - Poverty and poor health are intertwined, experts say - Sep 4, 2006

New research indicates that it's not just the poor who are getting poorer. An analysis of poverty rates and health published in the September issue of The American Journal of Preventive Medicine found that people living in extreme poverty tend to have more chronic illnesses, more frequent and severe disease complications and make greater demands on the health care system.

"When we talk about poverty, there is the tendency to feel it affects a small percentage of the population and the rest of us are doing better," said Steven Woolf, a professor at Virginia Commonwealth University and author of the study. But in this situation, he said, "we're all doing a little bit worse."

A Census Bureau report released Tuesday said that U.S. salaries across the board increased minimally, about $500 a year between 2004 and 2005. It's also the first year that the poverty rate has not worsened since before President Bush took office.

The modest salary increase is not enough to counter what Woolf's study calls a "sinkhole effect" on income, a disparity shifting middle- and upper-class families closer to the poverty level.

Fewer people can claim "poverty doesn't affect me" as more individuals face layoffs and cutbacks, and are unable to afford health insurance, Woolf said. According to the National Coalition on Health Care, the average family pays about $2,700 a year for health insurance, not including out-of-pocket expenses for co-payments and prescription drugs. That number is expected to rise to $3,200 by the end of 2006.

As financially strapped families struggle to cover basic needs such as food, shelter and the increasing cost of energy, health insurance often takes a back seat on the list of priorities. A National Health Survey conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found more than 40 million people of all ages went without insurance at some point in 2005.

More than half remained uninsured specifically because they simply couldn't afford it, the CDC said. Research consistently highlights the negative link between reduced income and worsening health -- as salaries drop, individuals tend to be more stressed, and generally lead less-healthy lifestyles.

"These people are going to develop diseases at a higher rate and the health care system is going to feel the brunt of it," Woolf said.

Poverty's impact is felt most by the nation's children. Children under the age of 5 are more likely to live in extreme poverty. Uninsured children are at greater risk of experiencing health problems such as obesity, heart disease and asthma that continue to affect them later in adulthood. The prevalence of these illnesses does not bode well for future generations, Woolf said.

"If we amplify the scale by the results of poverty left to run loose, the economic consequence to everybody, to all Americans and all taxpayers, will be substantial," Woolf said. The prevailing thought is that the problem needs to be addressed, and quickly, he said.

Gautam Indrajit's insight:

Health problems affects people form all walks of life. It is one of the few problems nobody can avoid. No matter how rich or how poor you are, you will still have health problems. However there seems to be a negative link between poverty and health issues.

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One Billion Affected

One Billion Affected | Poverty Assignment by_Gautam | Scoop.it

Without water, life would not exist. It is a prerequisite for all human and economic development.

Yet today, 780 million people – about one in seven – lack access to clean water. More than twice that many, 2.5 billion people, don’t have access to a toilet.

There has been significant public attention paid to the issue of water scarcity lately, and for good reason. Although water is a renewable resource, it is also a finite one. Only 2.53 percent of earth’s water is fresh, and some two-thirds of that is locked up in glaciers and permanent snow cover. But despite the very real danger of future global water shortages, for the vast majority of the nearly one billion people without safe drinking water, today’s water crisis is not an issue of scarcity, but of access.

A Common Struggle

In most developed nations, we take access to safe water for granted. But this wasn’t always the case. A little more than 100 years ago, New York, London and Paris were centers of infectious disease. Child death rates were as high then as they are now in much of Sub-Saharan Africa. It was sweeping reforms in water and sanitation that enabled human progress to leap forward. It should come as no surprise that in 2007, a poll by the British Medical Journal found that clean water and sanitation comprised the most important medical advancement since 1840.

The health and economic impacts of today’s global water crisis are staggering.

More than 3.4 million people die each year from water, sanitation, and hygiene-related causes. Nearly all deaths, 99 percent, occur in the developing world.172.5 billion people lack access to improved sanitation; 1.1 billion still practice open defecation.14Lack of access to clean water and sanitation kills children at a rate equivalent of a jumbo jet crashing every four hours.1443 million school days are lost each year due to water-related illness.11Women and children bear the primary responsibility for water collection in the majority of households. This is time not spent working at an income-generating job, caring for family members, or attending school.14The Good News

We know how to bring people clean water and improved sanitation. We’re not waiting for a magic cure. And the solutions are simple and cost-effective. On average, every US dollar invested in water and sanitation provides an economic return of eight US dollars. For only $25, Water.org can bring someone access to clean water for life.

Gautam Indrajit's insight:

This is quite sad. In our daily life we have plenty of access to water. We always on the tap knowing water is going to come out, however so many people all over the world lack the most simple of resources- clean water.

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..:: Causes of Child Poverty: Lack of Educational Attainment ::..

Education is the key to career success and economic self-sufficiency. Yet nearly one in eight persons (12.4%) over age 25 in Connecticut do not have a high school diploma. More than one-third of these persons (4.4% of the general population over 25) have less than a 9th grade education. About two-thirds (65.4%) of Connecticut persons over age 25 do not have a bachelor’s degree.

Among Connecticut’s 16 to 19 year-olds in 2003, 8% were dropouts; they were not enrolled in school and had not graduated from high school.

High school dropouts ages 16-19 in Connecticut are twice as likely to be African Americans (10.8%) than non-Hispanic whites (4.5%) (2000 Census); they are nearly five times more likely to be Latino (21.2%). African American teens ages 16-19 (12.6%) are three times more likely not to be in school or working than non-Hispanic white teens (4.1%); Latino teens (17.5%) are four times more likely.

Low Educational Achievement Leads to Low Earnings Growth

Higher education is one of the most effective ways that parents can raise their families’ incomes. Conversely, low education levels of parents increase the likelihood of low family income. The national poverty rate among families headed by a person with less than a high school education is 24%, for those with some college education it is 7% and for those with at least a bachelor’s degree it is 2%.

If parents have low education levels, full-time employment does not protect their families from poverty. Nationally, nearly three-quarters (73%) of children whose parents do not have a high school degree live in low-income families, compared with only 15% of children whose parents have at least some college education.

Children who drop out of school or complete school unable to read above elementary levels will encounter limited job choices as adults. Due to their low literacy skills, they may not be able to fill out a job application or find work that provides a decent wage.

Low Literacy Impedes Educational Advancement, Work Success

Illiteracy or low literacy is a passport to poverty. Today’s economy and society require literacy skills at Level 3 or higher, measured on a five-point scale. Approximately 300,000 greater Hartford adults, or roughly 41% of the adult population are functioning below Level 3. Below this level, people have difficulty filling out a job application or reading the newspaper, street signs, ATM screens, or the dosage on a medicine bottle. As a result, these adults do not have some of the most fundamental economic, social and personal abilities.

Nationally, 43% of people with the lowest literacy skills live in poverty, 17% receive food stamps, and 70% have no job or part-time job.

The personal impact of low literacy skills is seen at many levels. School children fall behind their classmates; youth drop out of school; adults lack the skills to succeed in today’s economy and are often unemployed or underemployed; parents cannot help their children develop pre-literacy skills, read them a story or help them with their homework. Illiteracy impacts every facet of a person’s life including the ability to read dosage or precautions on medicine bottles, vote properly, apply for jobs or just read a newspaper.

Functional illiteracy—the lack of basic skills such as reading, writing and computation—is a problem that affects the home and work life of families in Connecticut. Over 340,000 adults cannot read well enough to understand medicine labels, fill out a job application, or read to their children. Illiteracy is inter-generational. Children of functionally illiterate adults are twice as likely as their peers to become functionally illiterate as their peers of literate parents

Gautam Indrajit's insight:

Education leading to poverty is one of the most basic things one would expect.

Once you are a school dropout, your whole life you will be leading a life of poverty and because of you your children might face the same outcome. Thus we should ensure all kids receive a education of at least up to college.

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Just 1 World - State of the World

Just 1 World - State of the World | Poverty Assignment by_Gautam | Scoop.it

The dictionary defines food as 'what one takes into the body to maintain life and growth'. It goes without saying then that everyone has to eat to live.

According to the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) there is enough food in the world today for every man, woman and child to lead healthy and productive lives. Even though the world's population has grown 6-fold in the past 200 hundred years, food production has grown even faster thanks mainly to modern machinery, hybrid seeds and better fertilisers.

In the rich countries of the North, where individually we spend on average £9 (US$14) per day on food, the supply and variety has never been better. Visit any supermarket and you will find shelves stacked with affordable produce from countries all over the world. Going out for a meal, too, in our towns and cities also affords us a choice of restaurants which serve dishes and drinks from every continent. As a result, on average, most people in the North exceed the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) recommended daily minimum intake of 2,350 calories by some distance.

Yet, on the other side of the globe, in the South, life could not be more different. Here most people are subsistence farmers often eking out a perilous existence using methods of farming that have barely changed through the centuries. Bad harvests are a continual hazard in this part of the world where some 54 nations do not produce enough food to feed their people. And the problem for these countries is that although there may be plentiful supplies of food in the world for everyone's need, these supplies, for the most part, lie in the wrong grain store in the wrong country on the wrong continent. But there is also the problem of affordability.

It is not surprising to learn, therefore, that the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) calculated that in 2011, 925 million people were going hungry every day - including 1 in 3 of people living in sub-Saharan Africa. There is more though for nutritionists reckon that the same amount again suffer from a hidden hunger - a lack of sufficient micronutrients which are vitamins and minerals that support physical and mental health. As a result 24,000 people die every day from malnutrition and hunger-related diseases - many of them children under 5. That means that the lack of food/malnutrition kills more children in the world today than any infectious diseases, war or natural disasters yet it remains a 'silent emergency' arousing little public concern until the next famine is thrust onto our TV screens.

In contrast, in the North, a combination of over-abundance, changed eating habits and less-active lifestyles has led to a situation where a large proportion of the population is overweight or obese*. For example, in 2012, in the UK, it is estimated that 62% of the population is either obese (23%) or overweight (39%). This 'extravagant' lifestyle in turn leads to an estimated 30,000 premature deaths annually at a cost to the National Health Service (NHS) of £500m (US$780m). And this 'epidemic' also has the knock-on effect of 18m days being lost every year in the work place through sickness leading to a loss of output totalling £1.75bn (US$2.7bn). And to cap it all the UK spends £75m (US$117m) every year on slimming.

All of this adds up to the staggering fact that with so many people in the North taking less exercise and eating large quantities of food which do not contain enough vitamins and minerals for a proper balanced diet the world has now reached the situation where the amount of overweight people matches the number of those who are malnourished at around 1bn.

[Here we should perhaps mention one more stark statistic. 15% of all food bought in the UK ends up in the rubbish bin at a cost of £480 (US$750) a year for every household. That is shameful and says much about the throwaway lifestyles we now seem to lead. Perhaps the main reason for this is our mis-interpreting of supermarket labelling. Display until is only for supermarket information; best before means what it says that the food is best consumed by the date indicated but can still be used after that;use by is the date that should be heeded and the food thrown away after this expiry date]

At the Millennium Summit in 2000, the United Nations (UN) drew up a list of Millennium Development Goals to be achieved by the year 2015. The very first target set was to halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. Sadly, even with the great progress made by China in recent years this very first millennium goal is now almost certain to be missed - by a mile!

So what needs to happen for UN rhetoric to become a reality and for all countries to be able to feed their own people?

To start with, surplus food supplies from the North urgently need to made available to countries where they are desperately needed. Politics should not be played with hunger and starving people need immediate help. But this should not be seen as a permanent solution as shipping food will not improve the prospects of the world's desperately poor, three quarters of whom live in rural areas in developing countries.

At the same time governments in developing countries need to allocate more than 4% of their national budgets to agriculture. In Africa food output continues to fall yet Africa's farmers, who are mainly women, could grow approximately three times more food if they had access to essential inputs: fertilisers, irrigation, improved seeds.

At present almost 80% of Africa's population is engaged in farming - mostly subsistence. But despite this huge presence on the land, food security continues to remain elusive due to degraded soils and tiny plot sizes. As a result it is not surprising that many farmers are barely able to produce enough food for their own families never mind having any left over to sell. With more government support these farmers could access better fertilisers and be able to seek advice and help in buying seeds with higher yields which are more disease resistant.

Farmers also suffer from not owning their own land which makes it impossible for them to put up security in order to borrow money to help bring about improvements. As such, one of the first tasks for governments and state authorities in the South should be to work to vest every farmer in the title to his/her own land. In this way the home/farm could be used as security to borrow money for better seeds, fertilisers, tools and machinery which would lead to a big increase in crop production.

Furthermore farmers could also be encouraged to amalgamate their small plots into co-operatives. This would allow machinery to be bought making life easier for those working the land. These two new elements should further boost production and the resulting harvest and any profits could be shared according to the size of land contributed and the hours of work put in. Having certificates of ownership in a co-operative would also allow other farmers to join in and allow those wanting out the means to do so. Coming together like this would also help those families where the bread winner was no longer there or incapable of work. It would also allow children to get back to school instead of having to work in the fields in order to help their families maintain food production.

Gautam Indrajit's insight:

Food is like a routine to us in our daily lives. Not many of us experience the difficulty of lack of food. If we don't feel like eating we just throw away the food. However after reading this article I realised every one of us should change the way we look at food and realise that having food on our plate everyday is a benefit.

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