Positive Psychology Research
3.4K views | +0 today
Follow
Positive Psychology Research
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

Expanding minds: Growth mindsets of self-regulation and the influences on effort and perseverance.

Expanding minds: Growth mindsets of self-regulation and the influences on effort and perseverance. | Positive Psychology Research | Scoop.it

Given that countless studies have documented the wide-ranging benefits of self-regulation, determining if and how self-regulation can be improved is an important scientific and societal priority. Existing theories suggest that the deterioration of self-regulation is partially shaped by perceptions of effort. Therefore, one promising way to sustain self-regulation may be to cultivate a growth mindset, which has been shown to affect behavior in part by altering effort attributions. Although growth mindsets—the belief that a given trait can be improved through practice—have been studied extensively, particularly in the domain of intelligence, little research has examined the effects of promoting a growth mindset specifically about self-regulation. Here five studies test how promoting a growth mindset of self-regulation impacts actual self-regulation in daily life and the laboratory. In Study 1, relative to an active control that received relationship training, an intensive self-regulation training program emphasizing a growth mindset led participants to persevere longer on impossible anagrams, which was partially mediated by altering attributions of mental fatigue. Relatively, the self-regulation training also led participants to notice more opportunities for self-control in daily life and more successfully resist everyday temptations. The subsequent four studies isolated and abbreviated the growth mindset manipulation, demonstrated improved persistence and decreased effort avoidance, and attempted to further examine the critical mediators. Collectively, results indicate that a growth mindset of self-regulation can change attributions and allocation of effort in meaningful ways that may affect the willingness to attempt challenging tasks and the perseverance required to complete them.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Good ...

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

Underestimating the power of gratitude – recipients of thank-you letters are more touched than we expect.

Underestimating the power of gratitude – recipients of thank-you letters are more touched than we expect. | Positive Psychology Research | Scoop.it
The asymmetry between the perspective of the expresser of gratitude and the recipient means that we often refrain from a "powerful act of civility" that would benefit both parties. By Christian Jarrett
Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Great ...

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

Nuanced aesthetic emotions: emotion differentiation is related to knowledge of the arts and curiosity.

The ability to distinguish between emotions is considered indicative of well-being, but does emotion differentiation (ED) in an aesthetic context also reflect deeper and more knowledgeable aesthetic experiences? Here we examine whether positive and negative ED in response to artistic stimuli reflects higher fluency in an aesthetic domain. Particularly, we test whether knowledge of the arts and curiosity are associated with more fine-grained positive and negative aesthetic experiences. A sample of 214 people rated their positive and negative feelings in response to various artworks including positive and negative themes. Positive ED was associated with the embracing sub-trait of curiosity that reflects engagement and enjoyment of novelty and complexity, but was unrelated to artistic knowledge and perceived comprehension. Negative ED was associated with higher curiosity and particularly more knowledge of the arts. This relationship was mediated by appraised comprehension suggesting that deeper engagement with art, by those with more art knowledge, is associated with more fine-grained emotional experiences. This finding extends ED beyond well-being research and suggests that more nuanced emotional experiences are more likely for those with expertise in the arts and motivation for exploration.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Mm ...

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

Is grit relevant to well‐being and strengths? Evidence across the globe for separating perseverance of effort and consistency of interests.

OBJECTIVE: Researchers conceptualize grit as the combination of two facets: perseverance of effort and consistency of interests toward long-term goals. We tested the reliability of grit facet scores across the globe and examined how differently each grit facet related to well-being and personality strengths. METHOD: An international sample of 7,617 participants from six of the seven continents (excluding Antarctica) completed an online survey. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analyses and omega reliability coefficients indicated that the 12 items from the original Grit Scale were multidimensional and reliably measured perseverance of effort and consistency of interests. Concurrent validity analyses showed that perseverance of effort was moderately to strongly related to subjective well-being, beliefs about well-being, and personality strengths, whereas consistency of interests had weak or negative correlations with these outcomes. The stronger relations with perseverance of effort were replicated across seven regions of the world. The presence of overall grit was supported in individualistic countries, but not collectivistic countries (i.e., those in Latin America and Asia). CONCLUSIONS: We discuss the multidimensionality of grit, including a conceptual understanding of overall grit and how it may differ across cultures. We suggest well-being and strengths researchers study grit facets separately due to their differential validity.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Good ...

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

The declining marginal utility of social time for subjective well-being

The declining marginal utility of social time for subjective well-being | Positive Psychology Research | Scoop.it

Are people who spend more time with others always happier than those who spend less time in social activities? Across four studies with more than 250,000 participants, we show that social time has declining marginal utility for subjective well-being. In Study 1 (N = 243,075), we use the Gallup World Poll with people from 166 countries, and in Study 2 (N = 10,387) the American Time Use Survey (ATUS), to show that social time has declining returns for well-being. In Study 3a (N = 168) and Study 3b (N = 174), we employ the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) to provide initial evidence for both intra-domain (principle of diminishing satisfaction) and inter-domain mechanisms (principle of satisfaction limits). We discuss implications for theory, research methodology, and practice.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

It's about balance ...

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

No evidence of a curvilinear relation between conscientiousness and relationship, work, and health outcomes.

Across 2 studies and 4 samples (Ns = 8,332, 2,136, 4,963, and 753, respectively), we tested whether the relation between conscientiousness and variables associated with important aspects of individuals' lives were curvilinear such that being high on conscientiousness was manifestly negative. Across multiple outcomes including measures of health, well-being, relationship satisfaction, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship, we found no evidence for a systematic curvilinear relation between conscientiousness and these outcomes. Furthermore, heeding the call to use more sophisticated psychometric modeling of the conscientiousness spectrum, we used different types of scale construction and scoring methods (i.e., dominance and ideal point) and again found no evidence of curvilinear relationships between conscientiousness and the aforementioned variables. We discuss the potential reasons for the inconsistency with past research.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Important ...

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

Preferences for Well-Being and Life Satisfaction

Preferences for Well-Being and Life Satisfaction | Positive Psychology Research | Scoop.it

We test whether preferences over different well-being domains significantly correlate with life satisfaction. A sample of respondents is asked to simulate a policymaker decision consisting in allocating hypothetical financial resources among 11 well-being domains. We find that the willingness to invest more in the economic well-being domain is negatively correlated with life satisfaction. We argument that this evidence, while not excluding other rationales, is consistent with the utility misprediction hypothesis suggesting that individuals make systematic errors in estimating the well-being implied from their choices. Subsample estimates document that the less educated are more affected by the problem.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Mm ...

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

The Anatomy of Friendship

The Anatomy of Friendship | Positive Psychology Research | Scoop.it

Friendship is the single most important factor influencing our health, well-being, and happiness. Creating and maintaining friendships is, however, extremely costly, in terms of both the time that has to be invested and the cognitive mechanisms that underpin them. Nonetheless, personal social networks exhibit many constancies, notably in their size and their hierarchical structuring. Understanding the processes that give rise to these patterns and their evolutionary origins requires a multidisciplinary approach that combines social and neuropsychology as well as evolutionary biology.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

From positive psychology to psychopathology: the continuum of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

From positive psychology to psychopathology: the continuum of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder | Positive Psychology Research | Scoop.it

Background: Integration of positive psychology into clinical research and treatment has been slow. This integration can be facilitated by the conceptualisation of mental disorders as the high, symptomatic extreme of continuous normal variation. This assumes that there is also a low, positive extreme, which is, however, unchartered territory. This study aims to examine how well current measures capture the low extreme of mental disorder continua, using attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as an example. Methods: The ability of three validated scales to capture ADHD as a continuous trait was examined using Item Response Theory in a sample of 9,882 adolescents from the UK population-representative Twins Early Development Study. These scales were: the Strengths and Weakness of ADHD Symptoms and Normal behaviour scale (SWAN), Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ – hyperactivity subscale), and Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (Conners). Results: Only the SWAN reliably differentiated interindividual differences between participants lying at any level of the continuous ADHD latent trait, including the extreme low, positive end (z-scores from −3 to +3). The SDQ showed low reliability across the ADHD latent trait. In contrast, the Conners performed best at differentiating individuals scoring at or above the mean to the high symptomatic range (z-scores from 0 to +3). The SWAN was the only measure to provide indicators of ‘positive mental health’, endorsed in the presence of particularly good attentive abilities. Conclusions: Scales such as the SWAN that reliably capture ADHD as a continuous trait, including the positive end, are important for not missing meaningful variation in population-based studies. Indicators of positive mental health may be helpful in clinical practice, as positive attributes have been shown to directly influence as well as buffer negative effects of psychiatric symptoms.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

Can psychological interventions increase optimism? A meta-analysis

Greater optimism is related to better mental and physical health. A number of studies have investigated interventions intended to increase optimism. The aim of this meta-analysis was to consolidate effect sizes found in randomized controlled intervention studies of optimism training and to identify factors that may influence the effect of interventions. Twenty-nine studies, with a total of 3319 participants, met criteria for inclusion in the analysis. A significant meta-analytic effect size, g = .41, indicated that, across studies, interventions increased optimism. Moderator analyses showed that studies had significantly higher effect sizes if they used the Best Possible Self intervention, provided the intervention in person, used an active control, used separate positive and negative expectancy measures rather than a version of the LOT-R, had a final assessment within one day of the end of the intervention, and used completer analyses rather than intention-to-treat analyses. The results indicate that psychological interventions can increase optimism and that various factors may influence effect size.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Helpful ...

more...
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

Materialism lowers well‐being: The mediating role of the need for autonomy – correlational and experimental evidence

Materialism lowers well‐being: The mediating role of the need for autonomy – correlational and experimental evidence | Positive Psychology Research | Scoop.it

(Available in free full text) While there is evidence from the self-determination perspective for the mediation of basic needs satisfaction in the materialism–well-being link, no research to date has attempted to examine the relative contribution of the three needs to the mediating effect. Given that the predictive value of psychological needs on well-being depends upon the match between the need and life domains, in two studies we investigate the differential mediating role of all three needs in the negative relationship between materialism and well-being. In study 1, 231 adult participants self-reported their materialistic attitudes, basic needs satisfaction and well-being. In study 2 (N = 82 undergraduates), we experimentally activated materialistic thoughts and examined their effects on need satisfaction and state well-being as compared to a neutral control condition. Study 1 furnished cross-sectional evidence that materialism diminishes well-being through lower satisfaction of the psychological need for autonomy only. Study 2 showed that experimental activation of materialism via short-term exposure to pictorial consumer-cues leads to lower satisfaction of the need for autonomy, which in turn produces higher negative affect among participants. The findings point towards the importance of considering the specific role of the psychological need for autonomy in the materialism–well-being link.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Mm ... helpful

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

Understanding the good life: eudaimonic living involves well‐doing, not well‐being

Understanding the good life: eudaimonic living involves well‐doing, not well‐being | Positive Psychology Research | Scoop.it

(Available in free full text) This article critiques the increasingly popular concept of “eudaimonic well‐being” (EWB), arguing that the term contains a category error that has misled and confused the field. Returning to the Aristotelian roots of eudaimonia, I propose the “Eudaimonic activity model” (EAM), which reserves the term eudaimonia to refer to specified characteristics of people’s conative activity, not to a positive psychological state or emotional condition. The EAM asks researchers to test purportedly eudaimonic activities as causes of subjective well‐being (SWB), a practice which would help counteract researcher value biases and foster competition between different theories of eudaimonic living. SWB works as a criterion because it is relatively content free and is already known to discriminate well between eudaimonic‐type activities (which typically produce SWB) and mere hedonic‐type activities (which typically do not). The EAM treats psychosocial experience constructs, such as psychological needs (Deci and Ryan, 2000) and psychological well‐being (Ryff & Keyes, 1995), as mediators that can perhaps explain the positive effects of eudaimonic activities upon SWB.

Click here to edit the content

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Good stuff from Kennon Sheldon ...

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

Development of a 12-Item Abbreviated Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS-12)

Development of a 12-Item Abbreviated Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS-12) | Positive Psychology Research | Scoop.it

Wisdom has been reported to be associated with better mental health and quality of life among older adults. Over the past decades, there has been considerable growth in empirical research on wisdom, including the development of standardized measures. The 39-item Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS) is a useful assessment tool, given its rigorous development and good psychometric properties. However, the measure’s length can prohibit use. In this article, we used a sample of 1,546 community-dwelling adults aged 21 to 100 years (M = 66 years) from the Successful AGing Evaluation (SAGE) study to develop an abbreviated 12-item version of the 3D-WS: the 3D-WS-12. Balancing concerns for measurement precision, internal structure, and content validity, factor analytic methods and expert judgment were used to identify a subset of 12-items for the 3D-WS-12. Results suggest that the 3D-WS-12 can provide efficient and valid assessments of Wisdom within the context of epidemiological surveys.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Good ...

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

A self‐determination theory approach to health and well‐being in the workplace: Results from the sixth European working conditions survey in Spain.

Abstract Research to date has underlined the importance of positive organizational psychology to improve health and psychological well-being (PWB) in the workplace. The purpose of the present research is to test a model linking satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, as identified by self-determination theory (SDT), and various individual work-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction, PWB, and health problems in Spanish employees. Nationally representative data from the sixth European Survey on Working Conditions is Spain were used. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine the mediational role of job satisfaction in the relationships between psychological need satisfaction in the workplace and its consequences for PWB and health problems in Spanish employees. The results indicated that the fulfillment of basic psychological needs in the workplace is related to higher job satisfaction and that higher job satisfaction is associated with higher PWB and fewer health problems. Higher perceived competence and relatedness in the workplace were also related to greater PWB and fewer health problems. These results suggest that SDT is a valid approach that may guide interventions in the workplace to promote job satisfaction, PWB, and physical health in employees.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Helpful ...

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

Successfully Striving for Happiness: Socially Engaged Pursuits Predict Increases in Life Satisfaction.

Happiness is considered a highly desirable attribute, but whether or not individuals can actively steer their lives toward greater well-being is an open empirical question. In this study, respondents from a representative German sample reported, in text format, ideas for how they could improve their life satisfaction. We investigated which of these ideas predicted changes in life satisfaction 1 year later. Active pursuits per se—as opposed to statements about external circumstances or fortune—were not associated with changes in life satisfaction (n = 1,178). However, in line with our preregistered hypothesis, among individuals who described active pursuits (n = 582), those who described social ideas (e.g., spending more time with friends and family) ended up being more satisfied, and this effect was partly mediated by increased socializing. Our results demonstrate that not all pursuits of happiness are equally successful and corroborate the great importance of social relationships for human well-being.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Yup ...

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

Sexuality leads to boosts in mood and meaning in life with no evidence for the reverse direction: A daily diary investigation.

Sex is rarely discussed in theories of well-being and rarely empirically examined using methods other than cross-sectional surveys. In the present study, a daily diary approach was used (for 21 days with 152 adults) to explore the relationship between the presence and quality of sexual episodes and well-being (positive affect, negative affect, meaning in life). Time-lagged analyses demonstrated that sexual activity on 1 day was related to greater well-being the next. As for the quality of episodes, higher reported sexual pleasure and intimacy predicted greater positive affect and lower negative affect the following day. When the reverse direction was tested, well-being did not predict next-day sexual activity, pleasure, or intimacy. These results suggest a unidirectional relationship in which the presence and quality of sexual activity lead to gains in well-being the following day. Contextual moderators (gender, relationship status, relationship closeness, and relationship length) allowed for tests of conditions altering the link between sexuality and well-being. Relationship closeness was the most robust moderator in predicting greater levels of meaning in life and positive affect following sexual episodes. These data provide evidence to support the continual consideration of sex in empirical work and theoretical models of elements that comprise healthy relationships and a good life.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Good ...

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

Everyday creative activity as a path to flourishing.

Recent experience sampling and diary studies have shown that spending time on creative goals during a day is associated with higher activated positive affect (PA) on that day. Based on models of creativity as a tool for promoting well-being, the present study examined cross-day relationships between creative activity, affect, and flourishing. A large sample of young adults (n = 658) took part in a 13-day daily diary study. Each day, they reported how much time they spent on creative activities, daily positive and negative affect, and daily flourishing. Lagged multilevel models revealed that people felt higher activated PA and flourishing following days when they reported more creative activity than usual. The other direction - PA predicting next-day creative activity - was not supported, suggesting that the cross-day effect was specific to creative activity predicting well-being. Overall, these findings support the emerging emphasis on everyday creativity as a means of cultivating positive psychological functioning.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Good ...

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

Happiest People Revisited

Happiest People Revisited | Positive Psychology Research | Scoop.it

In a past Psychological Science article, Diener and Seligman (2002) explored the characteristics of extremely happy individuals and found that strong social relationships characterized the entire group. The study was popular, perhaps because the authors focused on the very happiest people, not merely on correlations across the entire spectrum of subjective well-being. In the current study, we replicated and extended the earlier paper here by examining, in a world sample, the differences between the happiest individuals and unhappy and averagely happy people. We largely replicated earlier findings; basic need fulfillment and social resources were two ingredients for high subjective well-being. Replicating and extending the earlier findings, we found that, compared with the averagely happy people, the happiest people were more likely to come from societies high in subjective well-being and social capital. To achieve very high happiness, it is helpful not only to have desirable personal circumstances, but also to live in a prosperous happy society with strong social support. As in the original study, although a few characteristics seemed virtually necessary for subjective well-being (SWB), no characteristic guaranteed it. We also uncovered variables separating the groups that might be outcomes of SWB, for example, helping others, exercising, and not smoking.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Good ...

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

Antecedents and consequences of parental psychological control and autonomy support: The role of psychological basic needs

Research suggests that psychologically controlling and autonomy-supportive parenting can be described within the Self-Determination Theory’s (SDT) framework. Two studies were conducted to examine (a) the role of parental need frustration as a predictor of parental psychological control, (b) the role of parental need satisfaction as a predictor of parental autonomy support, and (c) the role of parents’ psychological control and autonomy support in the intergenerational transmission of satisfaction and frustration of the psychological basic needs. Study 1 provided evidence, in a sample of 203 Italian coupled parents, that needs frustration and needs satisfaction represent distinct antecedents of psychological control and autonomy support. Study 2, showed that in 135 families, the intergenerational association between parents’ and adolescents’ need frustration was partially mediated by psychological control and autonomy support. Results clearly showed that parents who experienced high level of psychological needs frustration are more likely to use psychological control and in turn to promote a feeling of need frustration in their adolescents; differently, parents who experienced high levels of psychological needs satisfaction tend to exert more autonomy support in their relationship with their children and in turn adolescents tend to perceive higher level of needs satisfaction. These findings are discussed in light of SDT and underline the importance of needs in the parenting context and have implications for interventions.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Down the generations ...

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

What’s Special About Happiness as a Social Indicator?

What’s Special About Happiness as a Social Indicator? | Positive Psychology Research | Scoop.it

(Available in free full text) Measures of subjective well-being, and especially life evaluations, or judgments about how happy people are with their lives as a whole, enrich and empower social indicators research.  They do this by requiring other social indicators as explanatory variables and providing a coherent encompassing framework within which the relative importance of other social indicators can be established.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Good ...

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

“It was the best worst day of my life”: Narrative Content, Structure, and Process in Wisdom-Fostering Life Event Memories

“It was the best worst day of my life”: Narrative Content, Structure, and Process in Wisdom-Fostering Life Event Memories | Positive Psychology Research | Scoop.it

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine laypeople's subjective understanding of their own wisdom development. To do this, autobiographical memories of wisdom-fostering life events were examined for (a) life-event characteristics, and (b) self-reflective processes believed to support growth in wisdom through life experience. Methods: Midlife adults (N = 482) provided a written autobiographical memory of a wisdom-fostering life event. Memories were content analyzed by expert coders for life-event characteristics (i.e., fundamentality, emotional valence, cultural normativity, and specific event types) and self-reflective processes (i.e., narrative coherence, meaning-making, and personal growth). Participants also completed self-report and performance measures of wisdom. Results: Wisdom-fostering life events tended to be fundamental to life, culturally non-normative, and emotionally negative. Participants frequently reported developing wisdom from relationship events (e.g., interpersonal conflict, divorce) and life-threatening/mortality events (e.g., death, serious illness). Wisdom was positively associated with reconstructive (i.e., narrative coherence) and analytical (i.e., meaning-making, personal growth) components of self-reflection. Self-reflective processes varied as a function of life-event characteristics. Discussion: This study emphasizes the role of both persons and environments in the development of wisdom, and highlights the importance of self-reflection as a mechanism through which wisdom is constructed from life experience.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Good ...

more...
Makenna Ray's curator insight, March 16, 11:36 AM

Main Points:

  1. Study of peoples own wisdom
  2. Using methods such as memories and writing about yourself helps one see their wisdom
  3. An important factor in life is learning from mistakes which leads to developing wisdom.
  4. The importance of self-reflection

Biased:

  • This article is not biased because a psychologist conducted the experiment on random individuals 

Inform:

  • Give facts and details on how self -reflection and developing wisdom from problems or traumatizing events. 

Inference: 

  • the author is a doctor and has a PhD
  • The author cites her outside context

I believe that self-reflection is a helpful tool in solving issues and problems that happened in life. 

 

Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

Changes over time in mental well-being, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity in a community-based lifestyle intervention: a before and after study

Changes over time in mental well-being, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity in a community-based lifestyle intervention: a before and after study | Positive Psychology Research | Scoop.it

There is a theoretical basis for believing that healthy lifestyle interventions can improve mental well-being and evidence to show that mental well-being is protective of future health. This study contributes to the evidence base by examining changes in mental well-being associated with the One Body One Life (OBOL) healthy lifestyle programme in a community setting in the West Midlands. Quantitative, before and after the evaluation. We conducted a before and after study of the lifestyle intervention ‘OBOL’, a multi component intervention that includes exercise and healthy eating education. Mental well-being was measured with the Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. Physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption were self-reported. Measures were collected before and after the 12-week intervention and three months post completion. Non-parametric tests were used to assess differences between groups, and linear mixed models were used to assess change over time. Four hundred and eighty-one (81% of attendees) adult participants completed a valid Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale before starting OBOL; of whom, 63.8% completed the Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale immediately post intervention and 25.2% at three months. Mental well-being levels increased significantly (P < 0.001) over the course of the intervention and were sustained at the three-month follow-up (baseline median Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale score = 48 [interquartile range 41–55], completion = 53 [interquartile range 46–57], 3-month follow-up = 52 [interquartile range 46–56]). Change in mental well-being was clinically significant after accounting for age and gender. Changes in both fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity appeared to explain some but not all of the variation in mental well-being. We found significant improvements in mental well-being among participants directly after the intervention which were sustained at the three-month follow-up. These findings contribute to a growing body of knowledge on the contribution of lifestyle interventions to promoting and sustaining mental well-being.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Very interesting ,,,

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

Noticing nature: Individual and social benefits of a two-week intervention

We examined the effects of a two-week nature-based well-being intervention. Undergraduates (N = 395) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: nature, human-built or a business-as-usual control. Participants paid attention to how nature (or human-built objects, depending on assignment) in their everyday surroundings made them feel, photographed the objects/scenes that evoked emotion in them and provided a description of emotions evoked. Post-intervention levels of net positive affect, elevating experiences, a general sense of connectedness (to other people, to nature and to life as a whole) and prosocial orientation were significantly higher in the nature group compared to the human-built and control groups. Trait levels of nature connectedness and engagement with beauty did not moderate nature?s beneficial impact on well-being. Qualitative findings revealed significant differences in the emotional themes evoked by nature vs. human-built objects/scenes. This research provides important empirical support for nature involvement as an effective positive psychology intervention.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Good ...

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

Meaningfulness as Satisfaction of Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness, and Beneficence: Comparing the Four Satisfactions and Positive Affect as Predictors of Meaning in Life

Meaningfulness as Satisfaction of Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness, and Beneficence: Comparing the Four Satisfactions and Positive Affect as Predictors of Meaning in Life | Positive Psychology Research | Scoop.it

(Available in free full text) Positive affect (PA) has consistently been shown to predict meaning in life (MIL). In one of the first investigations to examine multiple predictors of MIL simultaneously, we tested in three studies the hypothesis that satisfactions associated with being benevolent and fulfilling psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are more central predictors of MIL, and could explain the correlation between PA and MIL. Study 1, a cross-sectional survey, regressed the four suggested factors and PA simultaneously on MIL, showing that all four emerged as independent predictors, whereas PA and MIL were no longer connected. Study 2 looked at recollections of meaningful situations, showing that all four satisfactions and PA emerged as independent predictors of situational meaning. Study 3 used a diary method to show that daily fluctuations in autonomy, competence, relatedness, beneficence, and PA all simultaneously and independently predicted daily sense of meaning. However, a brief longitudinal study showed that whereas combined satisfaction of autonomy, competence, relatedness, and beneficence at T1 predicted general sense of MIL at T2, PA did not. Together, these studies show that the four satisfactions consistently emerge as independent predictors of both general and short-term meaning, in some situations even accounting for the relation between PA and general MIL.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Great ...

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr James Hawkins
Scoop.it!

Once a Utilitarian, Consistently a Utilitarian? Examining Principledness in Moral Judgment via the Robustness of Individual Differences

Once a Utilitarian, Consistently a Utilitarian? Examining Principledness in Moral Judgment via the Robustness of Individual Differences | Positive Psychology Research | Scoop.it

Although individual differences in the application of moral principles, such as utilitarianism, have been documented, so too have powerful context effects-effects that raise doubts about the durability of people's moral principles. In this article, we examine the robustness of individual differences in moral judgment by examining them across time and across different decision contexts. In Study 1, consistency in utilitarian judgment of 122 adult participants was examined over two different survey sessions. In Studies 2A and 2B, large samples (Ns = 130 and 327, respectively) of adult participants made a series of 32 moral judgments across eight different contexts that are known to affect utilitarian endorsement. Contrary to some contemporary theorizing, our results reveal a strong degree of consistency in moral judgment. Across time and experimental manipulations of context, individuals maintained their relative standing on utilitarianism, and aggregated moral decisions reached levels of near-perfect consistency. Results support the view that on at least one dimension (utilitarianism), people's moral judgments are robustly consistent, with context effects tailoring the application of principles to the particulars of any given moral judgment.

Dr James Hawkins's insight:

Mm ...

more...
No comment yet.