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Indian rape accused says police tortured him: lawyer

Indian rape accused says police tortured him: lawyer | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it
NEW DELHI (Reuters) - One of five men charged with the gang rape and murder of an Indian student said police tortured him in custody and he and at least three of his co-defendants say they are innocent,...
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Amanda Crawford's comment, January 17, 2013 11:22 PM
This story all started with the rape and beating of an innocent woman. These men are now going on trial for the rape and beating they're accused of. Are police going to be tried for the rape and assaults they committed against the accused? Whether the accused are guilty or innocent of the crimes should that make it OK for the police to commit the same crimes against them?
Police Problems and Policy
Examining the possibilities of abuse of power without the constraint of New Public Administration.
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Developing Smarter, Safer, More Successful Law Enforcement Officers

Developing Smarter, Safer, More Successful Law Enforcement Officers | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it
When we operationalize mindfulness for policing, we find that we, very simply, are training in awareness practices, enhancing our ability to cultivate keen situational awareness through attention training. Working with three types of attention (active, passive and meta), we explore the discipline of bringing our attention to a specific place (breath, sound, sensation, etc.) and repeatedly redirect this attention back to this place upon frequent distractions that commonly emerge. It’s this simple, and this complex.

The other training component of mindfulness for police officers is in the area of compassion. Working with the thoughts in our own head, our default negativity, requires some self-compassion. Re-training our inner critic to serve as an inner coach is our goal here. Working with compassion is necessary to build new habits of thinking. Additionally, integrating compassion skills training along with awareness allows us to improve not only our humanity, but also our emotional and cognitive agility.

What we know about compassion in the context of warrior ethos is that compassion is fierce, it is kind, and it has boundaries. The phenomenon of burnout, or compassion fatigue (really empathy fatigue, but that’s another article), is a real problem for police officers at all levels of our organizations. Compassion is a skill. This skill erodes over time when we don’t train in ways that sustains it. We can train mindfulness practices that will sustain our capacity for self-compassion and compassion for others.
Rob Duke's insight:

Not sure exactly how it works, but it looks interesting.  Better than just the old ethos of kicking ass and taking names.

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Black Lives Matter Activist Who Threw Cremated Ashes At LAPD Chief Helped Launch Anti-Cop Coalition 6 Days Earlier

Black Lives Matter Activist Who Threw Cremated Ashes At LAPD Chief Helped Launch Anti-Cop Coalition 6 Days Earlier | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it
A woman who claimed to throw cremated remains at Los Angeles’ top cop last week is a self-described Black Lives Matter activist who had helped launch a new anti-cop coalition “to respond radically” to police violence just six days before.

Sheila Hines-Brim, 55, was protesting the death of her niece, Wakiesha Wilson, who died in LAPD custody more than two years ago.
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Man wrongly imprisoned for 20 years can sue San Francisco police over false evidence claims

Man wrongly imprisoned for 20 years can sue San Francisco police over false evidence claims | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it
A San Francisco man who spent 20 years in prison for murder before his conviction was overturned can sue police for allegedly manipulating a key witness and falsifying evidence, a federal appeals court has ruled.

A jury convicted Maurice Caldwell of second-degree murder for the fatal shooting of a man named Judy Acosta after an argument over drugs at the Alemany housing projects in June 1990. The chief prosecution witness, Mary Cobbs, identified Caldwell as the shooter.

Caldwell was serving a sentence of 27 years to life when a Superior Court judge released him from prison in 2011 after finding that his trial lawyer had represented him incompetently and damaged his chances for an acquittal.
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U.S. Supreme Court Limits Police Rental-Car Searches - Bloomberg

U.S. Supreme Court Limits Police Rental-Car Searches - Bloomberg | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that rental-car drivers may have the right to prevent police from searching the vehicle, even if they aren’t authorized to drive it.
Rob Duke's insight:

This creates new rules as to who has "standing" to object to a search.

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Out of line? Fort Bend ISD teacher jumps on car hood to stop mom from skipping carpool lane

Out of line? Fort Bend ISD teacher jumps on car hood to stop mom from skipping carpool lane | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it
STAFFORD, Texas — A Fort Bend ISD parent isn't happy after a staff member jumped onto the hood of her SUV after she tried to skip the carpool lane Tuesday morning at her child's elementary school.
Rob Duke's insight:

Spinning the news...good teacher enforcing the rules and the story is the authority figure is being unreasonable.

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California justice calls for new rules on eyewitness identification in court

California justice calls for new rules on eyewitness identification in court | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it

A California Supreme Court justice, dissenting Monday in a death penalty decision, called for new rules to curb inaccurate eyewitness identification, a leading cause of wrongful convictions.

The dissent came in a case in which the court decided 5 to 2 to uphold the death sentence of Ennis Reed, convicted of killing two people in Compton.

Justice Goodwin Liu wrote the dissent, calling on the courts to better police eyewitness testimony. Justice Leondra Kruger did not sign Liu's dissent but wrote separately, saying she was dissenting in Reed's case for some of the reasons Liu cited.

Reed was sentenced to death in 1999 for killing Amarilis Vasquez and Paul Moreland in separate incidents.

Evidence at Reed's death penalty trial showed he had dropped out of school after seventh grade, when he was performing at the level of a third- or fourth-grader, and had been convicted in 1992 of attempted murder for driving a car in which a passenger shot someone from the vehicle.

In the appeal of his death penalty case, Reed, who is African American, argued that the prosecutor discriminated against African Americans in picking the jury and that the evidence, largely testimony by eyewitnesses, did not support the convictions.

Reed also challenged the eyewitness testimony. In the case of one of the witnesses, Reed was the only bald person in a six-photo array and the only person to appear in both the photos and the in-person lineup.

Justice Mariano-Florentino Cuéllar, writing the majority ruling, rejected Reed's claims. Cuéllar cited a variety of reasons that justified the prosecutor's decision to exclude some African Americans while keeping others.

The court majority also said the eyewitness identification was buttressed by evidence that placed Reed near the scene of one of the killings and with an individual whose last name matched someone police chased that night into a home that contained the murder weapon.

Moreover, the majority said, an eyewitness in one of the killings identified Reed in two lineups and at the preliminary hearing.

Liu, joined by Kruger, said the conviction had to be overturned because the trial judge failed in his legal responsibility to examine the prosecutor's motives after Reed's lawyer objected to the removal of several African American prospective jurors.

"As a result of the trial court's error, we cannot be confident that Reed was convicted by a jury selected without regard to race," Liu wrote.

Liu went further, though, stressing that the law was not keeping pace with the science on eyewitness identification.

The eyewitnesses in Reed's case saw the assailant while they were under great stress, in poor lighting and at a distance, Liu said. They also were a different race from the perpetrator, and one of them did not identify Reed in a photo lineup until several months after the killing.

Citing an array of research, Liu said new jury instructions should be written to help jurors understand the problematic nature of eyewitness testimony and weigh its accuracy.

Law enforcement also can reduce the risk of inaccuracy, Liu wrote, by videotaping lineups and ensuring the operator of the lineup does not know which person is the suspect.

"But there is little that courts can do to induce law enforcement to adopt these practices unless courts themselves subject such evidence to greater scrutiny," Liu said in a portion of the dissent that Kruger did not join.

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Caught on camera: Fatal officer-involved shooting

Caught on camera: Fatal officer-involved shooting | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it
An officer-involved shooting that killed one man and landed his brother behind bars was caught on surveillance video.
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Georgia police officer resigns over treatment of woman during traffic stop

Georgia police officer resigns over treatment of woman during traffic stop | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it
A suburban Atlanta police officer resigned after his department said he used foul language and inappropriate tactics during the arrest of a 65-year-old grandmother during a traffic stop, recorded on a police dashboard camera.
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Steph McGillivray's comment, May 22, 12:40 AM
I wish the events leading up to the officer cursing and yanking her out of the car were included in the video so we could see the whole picture. It appears like another case of someone breaking the law (drifting out of her lane when turning), refusing to comply when they get caught (not signing the ticket), and then giving the police no option but to use force. Since, she was a driver for Lyft it would be interesting to hear what the passenger in the car had to say about the situation. Also, she “doesn’t want anybody fired but she may sue.” That’s interesting to me. If this woman feels strongly enough that her rights were violated why wouldn’t she want an officer that she believes acted unjustly to be fired? Unless this situation had an underlying motive, financial profit from suing? There is also the racial factor Lyft’s spokesperson brought up and believed what happened in this incident was about racial profiling. Or maybe Lyft doesn’t want bad publicity accepting the fact that they have bad drivers that illegally drift into other lanes and get tickets working for them. These are just thoughts I had. I obviously do not know the entire situation because I wasn’t there.
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University of Alaska Fairbanks Rankings for Online Programs

University of Alaska Fairbanks Rankings for Online Programs | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it
Online degree programs at the University of Alaska Fairbanks are included on many national rankings, including best online colleges lists and U.S. News & World Report.
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18-132244: Incident of Public Interest from 1100 Block of 43rd Ave. - Body Worn Camera 1 - YouTube

Rob Duke's insight:

Hmmm....be a completely uncooperative jerk, but the cop is the one at fault.

 

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/arts-and-entertainment/wp/2018/03/22/actor-anton-yelchin-was-crushed-to-death-by-his-suv-his-parents-just-settled-with-fiat-chrysler/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.a4a89c242f73

 

1. it's the law;

2. it's not good for the environment;

3. it's unsafe (see story above).

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Steph McGillivray's comment, May 21, 11:30 PM
This man kept repeating “I didn’t do nothing” … yet the officer stated in the beginning exactly what he did that was against the law (leaving the car running). This may not have been the case here but I wonder if people see how far they can push a police officer until the officer feels like they have no option but to use force. Then the person tries to act innocent to make the officer look completely abusive. This sets up the officer to fail. This officer was there trying to do his duty and it got twisted into the officer looking like he was abusing his power based off the man’s statements and the reactions I heard in the background from bystanders. The officer needed to use his power to get things done. MOST officers aren’t going to just throw you on the ground because you’re completely innocent. In our reading of Egon Bittner’s The Capacity to Use Force as the Core of the Police Role, he explains one limitation to police use of force is that they “may use force only in performance of their duties”. The officer in this video did not appear to me to be advancing his own interests or the private interests of others. Rather, this officer was carrying out his duty in trying to protect the public from a hazard.
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Norco Bank Robbery Documentary - Part 1 of 3 - YouTube

Rob Duke's insight:

Critiques of the police suggest that we have "militarized", but this early incident, the Norco Bank Robbery, show the roots of police arming and using tactics similar to the military go back to when we began to look for ways to survive these encounters.

Many changes came out of this incident, better weapons, better tactics, and better communications.

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Native American Students Detained: CSU Apologizes, Makes Changes

Native American Students Detained: CSU Apologizes, Makes Changes | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it
Native American Students Detained: CSU Apologizes - Across Colorado, CO - CSU President Tony Frank apologized for the detaining of two New Mexico students during a college tour. The campus is changing procedures.
Rob Duke's insight:

Hmmm...I wonder if the shirt "goth decapitation" had anything to do with the mom calling?

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DA candidate says cop killers shouldn't get death penalty

DA candidate says cop killers shouldn't get death penalty | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it
A police union president slammed a local district attorney candidate after comments at a recent forum.
Rob Duke's insight:

Part of the deal is that society treats cop killers harshly.  Change the deal and cops will feel even more strongly that it's their prerogative to "do what is necessary" to make it home each night.

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New details reveal how police ended deadly firefight with Texas school shooter

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"The heroes from that [Independent School District] engaged this individual in approximately four minutes and stayed engaged with him, keeping him contained and engaged," Trochesset said, "so the other heroes -- that continued to arrive -- could evacuate the teachers administrators in the students from this school."
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On the LAPD 'Civilian Oversight' Board, the Untrained Criticize Police Work

On the LAPD 'Civilian Oversight' Board, the Untrained Criticize Police Work | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it
Despite the commission’s ruling (their report is here), it is unlikely any of the officers will face discipline. Though the commission is the titular head of the LAPD, it is the chief who imposes discipline. Having already pronounced the shooting to be within policy, Chief Beck has no reason to reverse himself now. He will retire next month and is thus liberated from any political motives; he has promised to adjudicate the matter before leaving his post.

And the madness isn’t confined to Los Angeles. Up in Seattle, a police officer finds himself in the unusual position of having ended a potentially deadly confrontation without injury to the suspect or anyone else, yet he faces the prospect of discipline for “failure to de-escalate.” After a man stole an ice ax from an REI store in Seattle, officers spotted him carrying it down the street. What followed was captured on one officer’s body-worn camera, but I can summarize it here by saying that they followed the man for several blocks before he reached an area where he was isolated from pedestrians and motorists, affording the officers the chance to act. The officers were able to grab and disarm the man without injuring him or themselves and without exposing anyone else to danger. Despite the satisfactory outcome, a police sergeant (and what a leader he must be) initiated a complaint against one of the officers, which now rests with Seattle’s Office of Police Accountability. The political atmosphere in Seattle is no less bizarre than that in Los Angeles, so I fear the officer will receive the two-day suspension that has been proposed.

Civilian oversight of police departments is fine in principle, but only if the overseers are themselves principled. When they lack the merest qualifications to pass judgment on a police officer’s decisions and conduct, they should be willing to admit it and not substitute their fantasies for real-world actions made by people trained to take them. The Los Angeles police commissioners, or at least those who voted in the majority in the case discussed above, are better qualified to head the police department in the Emerald City of Oz: They have no heart, no courage, and no brain.
Rob Duke's insight:

The comments at the end of the op.ed. are more enlightening than is the article.  The author cites Graham v. Connor, but it's pretty clear that "normal" citizens don't think very highly of the objective reasonableness doctrine.

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Ninth Circuit to Decide on Warrantless Police Shooting Case

A three-judge panel at the Ninth Circuit said Monday that two homeless residents shot by police officers who entered their shack should have protections against warrantless searches and questioned …
Rob Duke's insight:

Bad facts make for bad case law.  This could be the poster child for that police proverb.  Police are searching for someone who ran from them in an unrelated felony case.  There's a ramshackle storage shed to the rear of this house and the cops pull open the door to see a person with a gun.

It ends up that the people in the main house gave a homeless couple permission to sleep in this ramshackle shed and the courts seem to be saying that this shed is a "home" with all the same protections as any other home.

Alaska already has enhanced protections for outbuildings and other property, so this may not be all that earth shattering for us.

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Gratitude owed to Philly police officers | Opinion

Cultivating positive relationships between police and the community is a top priority for the Philadelphia Police Department. For example, officers participate in a variety of youth-oriented activities, including programs offered at the 21 Police Athletic League centers across the city, the Police Explorer Cadet Program, and drug and gang resistance education for elementary and middle school students. Every district takes a unique approach to engage with its local community through activities like movie nights, block parties, and holiday events. We wholeheartedly support these efforts.


Moreover, it appears that these efforts are already paying off. Violent crime is down 9 percent this year as compared with last year, while homicides are down 5 percent. We also expect continued progress in the reforms instituted by our great police commissioner, Richard Ross, designed to eliminate pedestrian stops without reasonable suspicion. Philadelphia police have also embraced transparency, posting crime statistics on their official website and using social media to connect with the community.

While our collective support and appreciation for this hard-won progress is sincere, it is not blind. We have zero tolerance for any form of corruption or excessive force in the Philadelphia Police Department, and we will continue to insist on accountability for any such actions. The vast majority of officers, however, do not engage in such behavior. For example, under the leadership of Commissioner Ross, officer-involved shootings have decreased significantly.

In 2012, there were 59 officer-involved shootings in Philadelphia. In 2017, there were 14, marking a 76 percent decrease. This is a result of improved training, internal accountability, and an ever-present commitment to public safety. The Philadelphia Police Department has also made foot patrols a staple of its policing. This shows citizens that the police are responsive and available for developing meaningful relationships with residents — not just in an emergency, but in everyday life.

It is the determination, hard work, and bravery of the Philadelphia police that will continue to chip away at the violence that threatens our city. This is not an easy job, and we thank them for assuming this crucial responsibility. We owe them a debt of gratitude for their service during Police Week and every week.
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Sacramento homeowner: Officers conduct training in home without permission

Sacramento homeowner: Officers conduct training in home without permission | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it
LEGAL EXPERT EXPLAINS
One of the questions the homeowner had: Was what happened at his home legal?

Defense Attorney and legal expert Bill Portanova said yes.

“There’s nothing illegal about it… the officers did not break any laws here whatsoever. The entire incident lasts a few minutes. They never really cleared the scene,” Portanova said.

KCRA’s Brandi Cummings talked to Portanova about the incident and homeowners rights Monday.

Q: What did you think of the video?

Portanova: I think the training officer used it as a teaching moment to potentially save the life of either a homeowner or that officer in some future sweep.
Rob Duke's insight:

This is silliness of the nth degree.  Good cops are always training and talking about "what ifs?"  They use traffic stops and empty buildings.  They talk about tactics and case law.

 

Sac S.O. is a very professional Department, so my guess is that someone even left a card and this guy has conveniently not mentioned that fact.

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Steph McGillivray's comment, May 21, 4:59 PM
The title of this article intrigued me. After watching the news clip and reading the article I have several thoughts.
My initial thought was; what is the big deal? They are the police, not some random strangers traipsing through the house. I then put myself in the shoes of the homeowner, of course I would have been freaked out coming home and knowing someone had been in my home. After watching the security footage, I probably would have been so relieved knowing it was just the police that I would leave it at that. It would have been nice if the police had left some information for the homeowners to understand what just happened.

From the perspective of the police, I thought maybe they conducted the training right then and there because an officer made a mistake and like Portanova stated, it was probably an opportunity for an important teaching moment. If it was just going to take a few minutes and no one was there why not correct a mistake or use the opportunity to train a new officer. After all these are the people that keep us safe and the police want to go home safe at night as well. If this training was conducted to improve the next time they do a sweep of a home to protect themselves and homeowners, and it does not break any laws I don’t see the problem or why it got news coverage.
Rob Duke's comment, May 21, 6:24 PM
Hi Steph, I'm pretty much with you 100% on this one, but anything to do with the police and maybe suggesting the police made an error generates click throughs, which sells advertising. We'll cover some of that when we see that Muir asks whether the coercive power of the sword is really the most dangerous sort of power. The other two aspects of power to consider are: a. the power of persuasion (the power of the word); and, b. the power of reciprocity (the power of the purse).
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Violent crime is down in Chicago - Serve and predict

Violent crime is down in Chicago - Serve and predict | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it

RAHM EMANUEL is an expensive date for Ken Griffin. Encouraged by Chicago’s forceful mayor, after he complained about the overcrowded lakefront trail, the billionaire hedge-fund manager donated $12m for a separate bicycle path in 2016. He gave $3m for soccer fields in poor neighbourhoods in December. Mr Emanuel, a Democrat, even persuaded Mr Griffin, a Republican, to pony up $1m for his re-election campaign. And at a recent tête-à-tête, he persuaded Mr Griffin to part with $10m to bankroll the joint effort by the Chicago Police Department (CPD) and the University of Chicago’s Crime Lab, a research centre, to use data-analytics programs to predict and prevent violence in the crime-plagued city.

Mr Griffin’s latest gift to his hometown will mostly go to the CPD’s Strategic Decision Support Centres (SDSC), where civilian analysts and cops crunch data from gunshot detection-systems, surveillance cameras and computer programs with the aim of identifying the places where violence is likely to break out. Starting with six last year, the city has set up such centres in 13 of its 22 police districts. Some of Mr Griffin’s money will also finance mental-health care for officers; some will go towards evaluating complaints against them.

Policing software such as Predpol or HunchLab, their makers claim, is able to forecast where crime is likely to be committed. Certainly the numbers are intriguing. After 2016 turned out to be the deadliest year for two decades, with 762 murders and 3,550 shootings, the following year, which coincided with the establishment of the first SDSC, was less bloody, with 650 murders and 2,785 shootings. The decline in crime in police districts with the new data centres was steeper than in those without. This could just have been reversion to the mean. But the Chicago police department thinks that HunchLab, the particular program it bought, has something to do with it.

To see why this might be the case, consider Englewood. A hard-up, predominantly black neighbourhood on the South Side, Englewood saw a decline in murders of 44% in 2017 compared with 2016. Shootings fell by 43%. A byword for concentrated poverty, rampant crime, drugs, guns and gangs, Englewood seems to have taken everyone by surprise with its progress.

Laura West, an officer working at the district’s SDSC, which is staffed by two officers at all times, spends her days surrounded by screens. One shows a program called ShotSpotter, which uses the sound of gunfire to pinpoint shootings; another shows where surveillance cameras are (the city has more than 40,000); and a third displays HunchLab software. This blends data on crime statistics, population density and weather patterns with fixed points such as liquor stores and highway exit-ramps, to identify patterns of crime that may repeat themselves. (Predictive policing software also takes into account the phases of the moon and the schedules of sports games.) At-risk sites are marked with boxes colour-coded according to the type of crime. Patrol officers are encouraged to check them frequently.

The key to Englewood’s improvement has not been more aggressive policing, says Kenneth Johnson, the district commander. “We cannot arrest our way out of our problems,” he says. Instead, as he tells it, the change is the result of targeted interventions, combined with improved relations with the local community. The CPD’s relationship with black Chicagoans in particular has long been fraught. Its recent nadir was a white officer’s seemingly wanton firing of 16 bullets into Laquan McDonald, a black teenager, as he was walking away. The officer, Jason Van Dyke, who is about to be tried for first-degree murder, had been the subject of numerous complaints. Changing such a culture will take time. In Englewood, Mr Johnson tells his 350 officers to attend community meetings, to build relationships and to avoid behaving like an occupying force.

The risk with policing software is that it amplifies existing racial bias. “Technology is far from neutral,” says Kade Crockford of the American Civil Liberties Union. When police officers feed predictive policing algorithms with their data on past stops and arrests, they can reinforce the bias that police across the country stand accused of, says Ms Crockford. For example, whites and blacks consume and sell drugs at pretty much the same rates, but far more blacks are arrested for drugs than whites.

Used carefully, though, more data are better than fewer, says Andrew Papachristos of Northwestern University, and anyway HunchLab does not use arrest records. It is too early to say whether the new tools caused the decline in crime in Englewood and other districts, though the evidence suggests a correlation. This is good news for Mr Emanuel who is running for re-election next year and is already facing a crowded field of opponents. One of the contenders for the city’s top job is Garry McCarthy, whom Mr Emanuel sacked as boss of the CPD in the wake of the Laquan McDonald scandal. Mr McCarthy is likely to run mainly on crime—until now, one of Mr Emanuel’s biggest weak spots.

Rob Duke's insight:

The secret to modern policing is data, which means more non-sworn analysts;  and, the use of "Smart Power", which means employees providing non-"police" services (the things communities need--as reported by the community).  Community policing means helping communities solve problems, resolve disputes, and create the capacity to self-police.

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Cop seen choking former football player fired

Cop seen choking former football player fired | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it
A Georgia police officer who choked former NFL prospect Desmond Marrow during an arrest in 2017 has been fired, officials say.
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Regime change

EDMUND BURKE'S “Reflections on the Revolution in France” expressed a widespread horror at the violence of 1789 that the British monarchy adeptly used as propaganda. But it was also a contribution to a debate that was by then already a century old: what was the meaning of Britain's own revolution in 1688? Partly thanks to Burke's brilliance, the idea that 1688 was essentially British history bumbling on, as it had for centuries, took hold. Yet the dethroning of James II, and his replacement with an invading foreign king and his queen, was in fact a rare example of successful regime change in an early modern Europe. 1789 may have got more headlines, but 1688 endured.

James II came to the throne in a strong position. Under his brother, Charles II, the Stuart monarchy had ridden a conservative wave generated by the mid-century earthquake of Charles I's beheading. James's accession was greeted by fanfares, despite widespread unease about rule by a Catholic monarch. Converting this goodwill into exile outside Paris within five years required a particular kind of bone-headedness. But even kind observers reckoned James had what it took. “My brother will lose his kingdom by his bigotry and his soul for a lot of ugly trollops,” was one reported prediction from Charles II.

What James needed was a Karl Rove figure to give him a sense of what was going on in the news sheets, pamphlets and coffee houses that flourished in the second half of the 17th century. Instead, he met fears of a Catholic takeover with laws that broke the Anglican monopoly of worship, education and office holding. By 1688 there were Catholic chapels in every English town of any size (though hardly enough papists to fill them). Fear of a permanent royal army, another grievance that was not resolved in the 1640s, was met by James with a permanent royal army. On top of that, the king proved no fonder of parliaments than his brother had been.

This might have been endurable, had it been temporary. But the birth of a male heir on June 10th 1688 made James's settlement look permanent. Twenty days later, seven noblemen sent a letter to William of Orange inviting him to invade.

Both Tim Harris and Edward Vallance want to emphasise that 1688 really was both violent and revolutionary. They also stress the British part of the story: what looked to some like a bloodless conservative coup in England was much more traumatic for Scotland and Ireland. In Ireland, where Ulster's marching Orangemen are an annual reminder of how divisive 1688 was, the Irish House of Commons was still putting forward proposals to brand unregistered Catholic priests on the face 30 years after England's supposedly tolerant religious settlement.

If the authors' interpretation of events is similar, their books are sufficiently different that their publishers can relax. Mr Vallance's is entertaining, concise and well judged. Mr Harris's book is longer, crammed with original research and more concerned with the sorts of questions that trouble historians and academics. That does not make it any less readable. James's un-kinging of himself shows how slippery power could be even in an absolute monarchy, and the revolutionary settlement that followed inspired imitators in both France and America.

Rob Duke's insight:

Gordon Tullock argues that the Glorious Revolution set up Institutional conditions for the Industrial Revolution.  P.A.J. Waddington argues that the Industrial Revolution led to the revamping of security theory and practice and is the impetus for Sir Robert Peel's unique experiment in a weak, but respected police force.

My question for you is this: has the latest Industrial Revolution changed conditions so that it is again time to change the police?

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How to change emotions with a word - Language

How to change emotions with a word - Language | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it

DIPLOMATS the world over know that a well-chosen turn of phrase can make or break a negotiation. But the psychological effects of different grammatical structures have not been investigated as thoroughly as they might have been. A study just published in Psychological Science, by Michal Reifen-Tagar and Orly Idan, two researchers at the Interdisciplinary Centre Herzliya, in Israel, has thrown some light on the matter. Dr Reifen-Tagar and Dr Idan have confirmed that a good way to use language to reduce tension is to rely, whenever possible, on nouns rather than verbs.

Dr Idan, a psycholinguist, knew from previous work that the use of an adjective instead of a noun in a sentence (“Jewish” rather than “Jew”, for example) can shape both judgment and behaviour. Likewise, Dr Reifen-Tagar, a social psychologist, knew from her own earlier research that successful diplomacy often hinges on managing anger in negotiating parties. Putting their heads together, they suspected that employing nouns (“I am in favour of the removal of settlers”), rather than verbs (“I am in favour of removing settlers”), to convey support for policy positions would have a calming effect. The one is more like a statement of an abstract belief. The other is more like a prescription of a course of action and is thus, they hypothesised, more likely to arouse emotions.

To test this idea they recruited 129 Jewish-Israeli college students and presented them with statements about policies associated with the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Specifically, these statements concerned Israeli concessions on matters like the release of Palestinian prisoners, the borders of Israel, the return to Israel of Palestinian refugees and the division of Jerusalem.

Half of the statements were given in noun form (“I support the division of Jerusalem”). The other half were given in verb form (“I support dividing Jerusalem”). Participants responded to each on a six-point scale, where a value of one indicated “I totally disagree” and a value of six indicated “I totally agree.” All of the statements were in Hebrew, in which such sentence structures are natural and acceptable. After each statement was given, participants were asked to indicate, also on a six-point scale, the extent to which they would feel anger towards the state of Israel if the concession in question were actually granted.

As the researchers had hypothesised, presenting the statements in noun form reduced feelings of anger. Participants so treated had an average anger score of 3.21, in contrast to the 3.67 averaged by those presented with verb-form statements. This is a statistically significant difference. The noun forms of the statements also increased support for the concessions, with these scores averaging 2.02, in contrast to the average of 1.72 scored by participants presented with verb-form statements.

Given these results, Dr Reifen-Tagar and Dr Idan wondered whether the reduced anger induced by the noun form would translate into reduced support for hostile action toward Palestinians. They therefore ran the experiment again, having recruited 270 new participants, with additional statements like “I am in favour of demolishing/the demolition of homes belonging to family members of those involved in terrorist activities” and “of cutting off/the cutting off of supply of electricity to Gaza during wartime”.

The results were much the same as those in the earlier experiment. Participants given the noun-structure statements again showed notably more support for concessions. But they also showed much less enthusiasm for retaliatory policies, with an average score of 2.92 compared with the 3.91 averaged by those given verb-structure statements. In matters of conflict, as in so many other areas of life, it turns out that presentation is everything.

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Oversight Panel Says Cops Broke Policy By Shooting Man Actively Firing At Them

Oversight Panel Says Cops Broke Policy By Shooting Man Actively Firing At Them | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it
A woman woke up at about 9 am to find a man in the kitchen of her home in the 11300-block of Alethea Drive in Sunland, the Los Angeles Times reported.

The woman was able to escape through a bedroom window, and when she got out, she called police. She told officers there was a handgun, a rifle, a shotgun, and ammunition inside the home.

SWAT officers determined that 29-year-old Anthony Soderberg posed a more of a threat because he’d barricaded himself inside a home on a hill at the end of a cul-de-sac, and the elevated position gave him an advantage.

So the lieutenant contacted a captain and asked permission to dispatch a helicopter to assist them, the Los Angeles Times reported.

In the meantime, a crisis negotiation team arrived to negotiate with Soderberg, and they sent in a robot to facilitate communication with him.

Police heard two gunshots from within the residence, and Soderberg yelled obscenities and threatened, "I'll put a bullet in your head," according to the Los Angeles Times.

A negotiator asked Soderberg to put down the gun via the robot, and again, multiple gunshots could be heard. The gunman responded with profanity and said, "I'll kill all those SWAT officers that are out there."

According to the report released on Monday, an LAPD commander decided that using a helicopter with armed officers was the "safest means" to contain Soderberg if he began shooting.

So officers deployed teargas into the home after an hours-long standoff, and Soderberg went out into the yard with a gun in his hand, according to the Los Angeles Times.

Soderberg and engaged the officers in the helicopter in a gunfight. Multiple officers fired at Soderberg from the during the gunfight, and he was fatally shot.

The recently released report said that at least 40 rounds were fired during the standoff, and multiple rounds were fired from a distance of 500 feet or more.

In a report to the five-member police commission, Chief Beck said that Soderberg's actions "presented an imminent threat of death or serious bodily injury," and that the use of lethal force would be "objectively" reasonable, the Los Angeles Times reported.

But in a closed-door vote on Monday, the police commission voted three-to-one to find the officers had acted out of policy.


Police Commission President Steve Soboroff refused to comment on his panel’s decision and it remained unclear as to why the officers were found to have violated policy, the Los Angeles Times reported.

The police union told the Los Angeles Times it was "extremely disappointed with the commission's decision" and that the officers deserved to be thanked.

"This armed suspect fired his weapon at LAPD officers, he fired at an LAPD helicopter with officers on board, putting all of their lives, and anyone on the ground at risk if his shots struck the pilot or damaged the aircraft," the union said in a statement. "Our officers operated with full authorization from command staff to try and contain this incident and only used appropriate force to protect their own lives and the lives of civilians on the ground."
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Violent crime is down in Chicago - Serve and predict

Violent crime is down in Chicago - Serve and predict | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it

RAHM EMANUEL is an expensive date for Ken Griffin. Encouraged by Chicago’s forceful mayor, after he complained about the overcrowded lakefront trail, the billionaire hedge-fund manager donated $12m for a separate bicycle path in 2016. He gave $3m for soccer fields in poor neighbourhoods in December. Mr Emanuel, a Democrat, even persuaded Mr Griffin, a Republican, to pony up $1m for his re-election campaign. And at a recent tête-à-tête, he persuaded Mr Griffin to part with $10m to bankroll the joint effort by the Chicago Police Department (CPD) and the University of Chicago’s Crime Lab, a research centre, to use data-analytics programs to predict and prevent violence in the crime-plagued city.

Mr Griffin’s latest gift to his hometown will mostly go to the CPD’s Strategic Decision Support Centres (SDSC), where civilian analysts and cops crunch data from gunshot detection-systems, surveillance cameras and computer programs with the aim of identifying the places where violence is likely to break out. Starting with six last year, the city has set up such centres in 13 of its 22 police districts. Some of Mr Griffin’s money will also finance mental-health care for officers; some will go towards evaluating complaints against them.

Policing software such as Predpol or HunchLab, their makers claim, is able to forecast where crime is likely to be committed. Certainly the numbers are intriguing. After 2016 turned out to be the deadliest year for two decades, with 762 murders and 3,550 shootings, the following year, which coincided with the establishment of the first SDSC, was less bloody, with 650 murders and 2,785 shootings. The decline in crime in police districts with the new data centres was steeper than in those without. This could just have been reversion to the mean. But the Chicago police department thinks that HunchLab, the particular program it bought, has something to do with it.

To see why this might be the case, consider Englewood. A hard-up, predominantly black neighbourhood on the South Side, Englewood saw a decline in murders of 44% in 2017 compared with 2016. Shootings fell by 43%. A byword for concentrated poverty, rampant crime, drugs, guns and gangs, Englewood seems to have taken everyone by surprise with its progress.

Laura West, an officer working at the district’s SDSC, which is staffed by two officers at all times, spends her days surrounded by screens. One shows a program called ShotSpotter, which uses the sound of gunfire to pinpoint shootings; another shows where surveillance cameras are (the city has more than 40,000); and a third displays HunchLab software. This blends data on crime statistics, population density and weather patterns with fixed points such as liquor stores and highway exit-ramps, to identify patterns of crime that may repeat themselves. (Predictive policing software also takes into account the phases of the moon and the schedules of sports games.) At-risk sites are marked with boxes colour-coded according to the type of crime. Patrol officers are encouraged to check them frequently.

The key to Englewood’s improvement has not been more aggressive policing, says Kenneth Johnson, the district commander. “We cannot arrest our way out of our problems,” he says. Instead, as he tells it, the change is the result of targeted interventions, combined with improved relations with the local community. The CPD’s relationship with black Chicagoans in particular has long been fraught. Its recent nadir was a white officer’s seemingly wanton firing of 16 bullets into Laquan McDonald, a black teenager, as he was walking away. The officer, Jason Van Dyke, who is about to be tried for first-degree murder, had been the subject of numerous complaints. Changing such a culture will take time. In Englewood, Mr Johnson tells his 350 officers to attend community meetings, to build relationships and to avoid behaving like an occupying force.

The risk with policing software is that it amplifies existing racial bias. “Technology is far from neutral,” says Kade Crockford of the American Civil Liberties Union. When police officers feed predictive policing algorithms with their data on past stops and arrests, they can reinforce the bias that police across the country stand accused of, says Ms Crockford. For example, whites and blacks consume and sell drugs at pretty much the same rates, but far more blacks are arrested for drugs than whites.

Used carefully, though, more data are better than fewer, says Andrew Papachristos of Northwestern University, and anyway HunchLab does not use arrest records. It is too early to say whether the new tools caused the decline in crime in Englewood and other districts, though the evidence suggests a correlation. This is good news for Mr Emanuel who is running for re-election next year and is already facing a crowded field of opponents. One of the contenders for the city’s top job is Garry McCarthy, whom Mr Emanuel sacked as boss of the CPD in the wake of the Laquan McDonald scandal. Mr McCarthy is likely to run mainly on crime—until now, one of Mr Emanuel’s biggest weak spots.

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Developing Smarter, Safer, More Successful Law Enforcement Officers

Developing Smarter, Safer, More Successful Law Enforcement Officers | Police Problems and Policy | Scoop.it
Why this pervasive bias? Some, I believe, are motivated by their personal experience or politics. That I can actually respect. But I think a deeper, and more troubling, explanation is money. Views and clicks translate into money. Exploiting feelings captures the audience. It’s Us vs. Them, the righteous vs. the damned. Go team! Except that this isn’t a game …
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This is an interesting thesis and actually possible to test.  Looking at the business model and if the media company has a higher presences online with a click compensation business plan, then we ought to be able to code incentives to outcomes (anti vs pro police...).

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