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Rescooped by Ke Yu from Plants and Microbes
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PLOS Pathogens: The Secreted Peptide PIP1 Amplifies Immunity through Receptor-Like Kinase 7 (2014)

PLOS Pathogens: The Secreted Peptide PIP1 Amplifies Immunity through Receptor-Like Kinase 7 (2014) | PMI lab | Scoop.it

In plants, innate immune responses are initiated by plasma membrane-located pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) upon recognition of elicitors, including exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Arabidopsis thaliana produces more than 1000 secreted peptide candidates, but it has yet to be established whether any of these act as elicitors. Here we identified an A. thaliana gene family encoding precursors of PAMP-induced secreted peptides (prePIPs) through an in-silicoapproach. The expression of some members of the family, including prePIP1 and prePIP2, is induced by a variety of pathogens and elicitors. Subcellular localization and proteolytic processing analyses demonstrated that the prePIP1 product is secreted into extracellular spaces where it is cleaved at the C-terminus. Overexpression of prePIP1 and prePIP2, or exogenous application of PIP1 and PIP2 synthetic peptides corresponding to the C-terminal conserved regions in prePIP1 and prePIP2, enhanced immune responses and pathogen resistance in A. thaliana. Genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that the receptor-like kinase 7 (RLK7) functions as a receptor of PIP1. Once perceived by RLK7, PIP1 initiates overlapping and distinct immune signaling responses together with the DAMP PEP1. PIP1 and PEP1 cooperate in amplifying the immune responses triggered by the PAMP flagellin. Collectively, these studies provide significant insights into immune modulation by Arabidopsis endogenous secreted peptides.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Image-based high-throughput field phenotyping of crop roots

Image-based high-throughput field phenotyping of crop roots | PMI lab | Scoop.it

Current plant phenotyping technologies to characterize agriculturally relevant traits have been primarily developed for use in laboratory and/or greenhouse conditions. In the case of root architectural traits, this limits phenotyping efforts, largely, to young plants grown in specialized containers and growth media. Hence, novel approaches are required to characterize mature root systems of older plants grown under actual soil conditions in the field. Imaging methods able to address the challenges associated with characterizing mature root systems are rare due, in part, to the greater complexity of mature root systems, including the larger size, overlap and diversity of root components. Our imaging solution combines a field imaging protocol and algorithmic approach to analyze mature root systems grown in the field. Via two case studies, we demonstrate how image analysis can be utilized to estimate localized root traits that reliably capture heritable architectural diversity as well as environmentally induced architectural variation of both monocot and dicot plants. In the first study we show that our algorithms and traits (including 13 novel traits inaccessible to manual estimation) can differentiate nine maize genotypes 8 weeks after planting. The second study focuses on a diversity panel of 188 cowpea genotypes to identify which traits are sufficient to differentiate genotypes even when comparing plants whose harvesting date differs up to 14 days. Overall, we find that automatically derived traits can increase both the speed and reproducibility of the trait-estimation pipeline under field conditions.

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J Exp Bot: Expression patterns of FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 map to bacterial entry sites in plant shoots and roots (2014)

J Exp Bot: Expression patterns of FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 map to bacterial entry sites in plant shoots and roots (2014) | PMI lab | Scoop.it

Pathogens can colonize all plant organs and tissues. To prevent this, each cell must be capable of autonomously triggering defence. Therefore, it is generally assumed that primary sensors of the immune system are constitutively present. One major primary sensor against bacterial infection is the FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) pattern recognition receptor (PRR). To gain insights into its expression pattern, the FLS2 promoter activity in β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter lines was monitored. The data show that pFLS2::GUS activity is highest in cells and tissues vulnerable to bacterial entry and colonization, such as stomata, hydathodes, and lateral roots. GUS activity is also high in the vasculature and, by monitoring Ca2+responses in the vasculature, it was found that this tissue contributes to flg22-induced Ca2+ burst. The FLS2 promoter is also regulated in a tissue- and cell type-specific manner and is responsive to hormones, damage, and biotic stresses. This results in stimulus-dependent expansion of the FLS2 expression domain. In summary, a tissue- and cell type-specific map of FLS2 expression has been created correlating with prominent entry sites and target tissues of plant bacterial pathogens.


Via The Sainsbury Lab, Suayib Üstün
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The Sainsbury Lab's curator insight, September 11, 2014 4:09 AM

Pathogens can colonize all plant organs and tissues. To prevent this, each cell must be capable of autonomously triggering defence. Therefore, it is generally assumed that primary sensors of the immune system are constitutively present. One major primary sensor against bacterial infection is the FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) pattern recognition receptor (PRR). To gain insights into its expression pattern, the FLS2 promoter activity in β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter lines was monitored. The data show that pFLS2::GUS activity is highest in cells and tissues vulnerable to bacterial entry and colonization, such as stomata, hydathodes, and lateral roots. GUS activity is also high in the vasculature and, by monitoring Ca2+responses in the vasculature, it was found that this tissue contributes to flg22-induced Ca2+ burst. The FLS2 promoter is also regulated in a tissue- and cell type-specific manner and is responsive to hormones, damage, and biotic stresses. This results in stimulus-dependent expansion of the FLS2 expression domain. In summary, a tissue- and cell type-specific map of FLS2 expression has been created correlating with prominent entry sites and target tissues of plant bacterial pathogens.

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PLOS Pathogens: The Ins and Outs of Rust Haustoria (2014)

PLOS Pathogens: The Ins and Outs of Rust Haustoria (2014) | PMI lab | Scoop.it

Rust diseases caused by fungi of the order Pucciniales afflict a wide range of plants, including cereals, legumes, ornamentals, and fruit trees, and pose a serious threat to cropping systems and global food security. The obligate parasitic lifestyle of these fungi and their complex life cycles, often involving alternate hosts for the sexual and asexual stages, also make this group of pathogens of great biological interest. One of the most remarkable adaptations of rust fungi is the specialized infection structure that underpins the sustained biotrophic association with hosts; the haustorium (Figure 1A and C). This organ forms after penetration of the wall of a live host cell, expanding on the inner side of the cell wall while invaginating the surrounding host plasma membrane (Figure 1C). Through haustoria, the pathogen derives nutrients from the host and secretes virulence proteins called effectors, which are believed to be the key players that manipulate the physiological and immune responses of host cells [1]–[4]. Analogous terminal feeding structures have independently evolved in other organisms such as the haustorium in powdery mildews (ascomycetes) and downy mildews (oomycetes, not true fungi), and the arbuscules in arbuscular mycorrhizae, suggesting that such architecture represents a successful adaptation of these organisms to interact with their respective host plants [5], [6].


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Genome-wide identification of microRNA and siRNA responsive to endophytic beneficial diazotrophic bacteria in maize

“BackgroundSmall RNA (sRNA) has been described as a regulator of gene expression. In order to understand the role of maize sRNA (Zea mays - hybrid UENF 506-8) during association with endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, we analyzed the sRNA regulated by its association with two diazotrophic bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense.ResultsDeep sequencing analysis was done with RNA extracted from plants inoculated with H. seropedicae, allowing the identification of miRNA and siRNA. A total of 25 conserved miRNA families and 15 novel miRNAs were identified. A dynamic regulation in response to inoculation was also observed. A hypothetical model involving copper-miRNA is proposed, emphasizing the fact that the up-regulation of miR397, miR398, miR408 and miR528, which is followed by inhibition of their targets, can facilitate association with diazotrophic bacteria. Similar expression patterns were observed in samples inoculated with A. brasilense. Moreover, novel miRNA and siRNA were classified in the Transposable Elements (TE) database, and an enrichment of siRNA aligned with TE was observed in the inoculated samples. In addition, an increase in 24-nt siRNA mapping to genes was observed, which was correlated with an increase in methylation of the coding regions and a subsequent reduction in transcription.ConclusionOur results show that maize has RNA-based silencing mechanisms that can trigger specific responses when plants interact with beneficial endophytic diazotrophic bacteria. Our findings suggest important roles for sRNA regulation in maize, and probably in other plants, during association with diazotrophic bacteria, emphasizing the up-regulation of Cu-miRNA.”
Via Jean-Michel Ané
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The Arabidopsis LecRK-VI.2 associates with the pattern-recognition receptor FLS2 and primes Nicotiana benthamiana pattern-triggered immunity - Huang - 2014 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library

The Arabidopsis LecRK-VI.2 associates with the pattern-recognition receptor FLS2 and primes Nicotiana benthamiana pattern-triggered immunity - Huang - 2014 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library | PMI lab | Scoop.it

Pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is broad spectrum and manipulation of PTI is believed to represent an attractive way to engineer plants with broad-spectrum disease resistance. PTI is activated upon perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). We have recently demonstrated that the L-type lectin receptor kinase-VI.2 (LecRK-VI.2) positively regulates Arabidopsis thaliana PTI. Here we show through in vitro pull-down, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation analyses that LecRK-VI.2 associates with the PRR FLS2. We also demonstrated that LecRK-VI.2 from the cruciferous plant Arabidopsis remains functional after interfamily transfer to the Solanaceous plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Wild tobacco plants ectopically expressing LecRK-VI.2 were indeed more resistant to virulent hemi-biotrophic and necrotrophic bacteria, but not to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea suggesting that, as with Arabidopsis, the LecRK-VI.2 protective effect in N. benthamiana is bacteria specific. Ectopic expression of LecRK-VI.2 in N. benthamiana primed PTI-mediated reactive oxygen species production, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, callose deposition and gene expression upon treatment with the MAMP flagellin. Our findings identified LecRK-VI.2 as a member of the FLS2 receptor complex and suggest that heterologous expression of components of PRR complexes can be used as tools to engineer plant disease resistance to bacteria.


Via Suayib Üstün
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AtMYB93 is a novel negative regulator of lateral root development in Arabidopsis

AtMYB93 is a novel negative regulator of lateral root development in Arabidopsis | PMI lab | Scoop.it

Plant root system plasticity is critical for survival in changing environmental conditions. One important aspect of root architecture is lateral root development, a complex process regulated by hormone, environmental and protein signalling pathways.Here we show, using molecular genetic approaches, that the MYB transcription factor AtMYB93 is a novel negative regulator of lateral root development in Arabidopsis.We identify AtMYB93 as an interaction partner of the lateral-root-promoting ARABIDILLO proteins. Atmyb93 mutants have faster lateral root developmental progression and enhanced lateral root densities, while AtMYB93-overexpressing lines display the opposite phenotype. AtMYB93 is expressed strongly, specifically and transiently in the endodermal cells overlying early lateral root primordia and is additionally induced by auxin in the basal meristem of the primary root. Furthermore, Atmyb93 mutant lateral root development is insensitive to auxin, indicating that AtMYB93 is required for normal auxin responses during lateral root development.We propose that AtMYB93 is part of a novel auxin-induced negative feedback loop stimulated in a select few endodermal cells early during lateral root development, ensuring that lateral roots only develop when absolutely required. Putative AtMYB93 homologues are detected throughout flowering plants and represent promising targets for manipulating root systems in diverse crop species.

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New Phytologist: Multiple recognition of RXLR effectors is associated with nonhost resistance of pepper against Phytophthora infestans (2014)

New Phytologist: Multiple recognition of RXLR effectors is associated with nonhost resistance of pepper against Phytophthora infestans (2014) | PMI lab | Scoop.it
Nonhost resistance (NHR) is a plant immune response to resist most pathogens. The molecular basis of NHR is poorly understood, but recognition of pathogen effectors by immune receptors, a response known as effector-triggered immunity, has been proposed as a component of NHR.We performed transient expression of 54 Phytophthora infestansRXLR effectors in pepper (Capsicum annuum) accessions. We used optimized heterologous expression methods and analyzed the inheritance of effector-induced cell death in an F2 population derived from a cross between two pepper accessions.Pepper showed a localized cell death response upon inoculation with P. infestans, suggesting that recognition of effectors may contribute to NHR in this system. Pepper accessions recognized as many as 36 effectors. Among the effectors, PexRD8 and Avrblb2 induced cell death in a broad range of pepper accessions. Segregation of effector-induced cell death in an F2 population derived from a cross between two pepper accessions fit 15 : 1, 9 : 7 or 3 : 1 ratios, depending on the effector.Our genetic data suggest that a single or two independent/complementary dominant genes are involved in the recognition of RXLR effectors. Multiple loci recognizing a series of effectors may underpin NHR of pepper to P. infestans and confer resistance durability.
Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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EDS1 mediates pathogen resistance and virulence function of a bacterial effector in soybean

EDS1 mediates pathogen resistance and virulence function of a bacterial effector in soybean | PMI lab | Scoop.it

Enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) and phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4) are well known regulators of both basal and resistance (R) protein-mediated plant defense. We identified two EDS1- (GmEDS1a/b) and one PAD4-like (GmPAD4) protein that are required for resistance signaling in soybean. Consistent with their significant structural conservation to Arabidopsis counterparts, constitutive expression of GmEDS1 or GmPAD4 complemented the pathogen resistance defects of Arabidopsis eds1 and pad4 mutants, respectively. Interestingly however, the GmEDS1 and GmPAD4 did not complement pathogen-inducible salicylic acid accumulation in the eds1/pad4 mutants. Furthermore, the GmEDS1a/b proteins were unable to complement the turnip crinkle virus coat protein-mediated activation of the Arabidopsis R protein HRT, even though both interacted with HRT. Silencing GmEDS1a/b or GmPAD4 reduced basal and pathogen-inducible SA accumulation and enhanced soybean susceptibility to virulent pathogens. The GmEDS1a/b and GmPAD4 genes were also required for Rpg2-mediated resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. Notably the GmEDS1a/b proteins interacted with the cognate bacterial effector AvrA1 and were required for its virulence function in rpg2 plants. Together, these results show that despite significant structural similarities, conserved defense signaling components from diverse plants can differ in their functionalities. In addition, we demonstrate a role for GmEDS1 in regulating the virulence function of a bacterial effector.


Via Suayib Üstün
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Staying in touch: mechanical signals in plant–microbe interactions

Staying in touch: mechanical signals in plant–microbe interactions | PMI lab | Scoop.it

Mechanical stimulations play a significant role in the day to day existence of plants. Plants exhibit varied responses depending on the nature and intensity of these stimuli. In this review, we present recent literature on the responses of plants to mechanical stimuli, focusing primarily on those exerted during plant–microbe interactions. We discuss how microbes are able to apply mechanical stimuli on plants and how some plant responses to pathogenic and symbiotic microbes present striking similarities with responses to mechanical stimuli applied, for instance, using micro-needles. We hypothesize that appropriate responses of plants to pathogenic and symbiotic microbes may require a tight integration of both chemical and mechanical stimulations exerted by these microbes.

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From local to global: CDPKs in systemic defense signaling upon microbial and herbivore attack

From local to global: CDPKs in systemic defense signaling upon microbial and herbivore attack | PMI lab | Scoop.it

Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are multifunctional proteins in which a calmodulin-like calcium-sensor and a protein kinase effector domain are combined in one molecule. Not surprisingly, CDPKs were primarily recognized as signaling mediators, which perceive rapid intracellular changes of Ca2+ ion concentration, for example triggered by environmental stress cues, and relay them into specific phosphorylation events to induce further downstream stress responses. In the context of both, plant exposure to biotrophic pathogens-derived signals as well as plant attack by herbivores and wounding, CDPKs were shown to undergo rapid biochemical activation within seconds to minutes after stimulation and to induce local defence-responses including respective changes in gene expression patterns. In addition, CDPK function was correlated with the control of either salicylic acid-mediated or jasmonic acid-mediated phytohormone signaling pathways, mediating long term resistance to either biotrophic bacterial pathogens or herbivores also in distal parts of a plant. It has long been unclear how an individual enzyme can affect both rapid local as well as long-term distal immune responses. Here, we discuss recently raised topics from the field of CDPK research, in particular with a view on the identification of in vivo phosphorylation targets, which provide first mechanistic insights into the dual role of these enzymes: On the one hand as component of a self-activating circuit responsible for rapid plasma-membrane anchored cell-to-cell signal propagation from local to distal plant sites. On the other hand as nuclear-located regulators of transcription factor activity. Finally, we will highlight the dual function of calcium sensors in plasma-membrane/calcium-mediated signal propagation and in phytohormone signaling-dependent systemic resistance in immune responses to both, bacterial pathogens and herbivores.


Via Suayib Üstün
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Perception of the plant immune signal salicylic acid

Perception of the plant immune signal salicylic acid | PMI lab | Scoop.it

Salicylic acid (SA) plays a central role in plant innate immunity. The diverse functions of this simple phenolic compound suggest that plants may have multiple SA receptors. Several SA-binding proteins have been identified using biochemical approaches. However, genetic evidence supporting that they are the bona fide SA receptors has not been forthcoming. Mutant screens revealed that NPR1 is a master regulator of SA-mediated responses. Although NPR1 cannot bind SA in a conventional ligand-binding assay, its homologs NPR3 and NPR4 bind SA and function as SA receptors. During pathogen challenge, the SA gradient generated at the infection site is sensed by NPR3 and NPR4, which serve as the adaptors for the Cullin 3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase to regulate NPR1 degradation. Consequently, NPR1 is degraded at the infection site to remove its inhibition on effector-triggered cell death and defense, whereas NPR1 accumulates in neighboring cells to promote cell survival and SA-mediated resistance.

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Natural rice rhizospheric microbes suppress rice blast infections

Natural rice rhizospheric microbes suppress rice blast infections | PMI lab | Scoop.it

Background

The natural interactions between plant roots and their rhizospheric microbiome are vital to plant fitness, modulating both growth promotion and disease suppression. In rice (Oryza sativa), a globally important food crop, as much as 30% of yields are lost due to blast disease caused by fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Capitalizing on the abilities of naturally occurring rice soil bacteria to reduce M. oryzae infections could provide a sustainable solution to reduce the amount of crops lost to blast disease.

Results

Naturally occurring root-associated rhizospheric bacteria were isolated from California field grown rice plants (M-104), eleven of which were taxonomically identified by16S rRNA gene sequencing and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. Bacterial isolates were tested for biocontrol activity against the devastating foliar rice fungal pathogen, M. oryzae pathovar 70-15. In vitro, a Pseudomonas isolate, EA105, displayed antibiosis through reducing appressoria formation by nearly 90% as well as directly inhibiting fungal growth by 76%. Although hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a volatile commonly produced by biocontrol pseudomonads, the activity of EA105 seems to be independent of its HCN production. During in planta experiments, EA105 reduced the number of blast lesions formed by 33% and Pantoea agglomerans isolate, EA106 by 46%. Our data also show both EA105 and EA106 trigger jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) dependent induced systemic resistance (ISR) response in rice.

Conclusions

Out of 11 bacteria isolated from rice soil, pseudomonad EA105 most effectively inhibited the growth and appressoria formation of M. oryzae through a mechanism that is independent of cyanide production. In addition to direct antagonism, EA105 also appears to trigger ISR in rice plants through a mechanism that is dependent on JA and ET signaling, ultimately resulting in fewer blast lesions. The application of native bacteria as biocontrol agents in combination with current disease protection strategies could aid in global food security.

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Arabidopsis triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme2 (AtTTM2) is a negative regulator of the salicylic acid-mediated feedback amplification loop for defense responses

Arabidopsis triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme2 (AtTTM2) is a negative regulator of the salicylic acid-mediated feedback amplification loop for defense responses | PMI lab | Scoop.it

The triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme (TTM) superfamily represents a group of enzymes that are characterized by their ability to hydrolyze a range of tripolyphosphate substrates. Arabidopsis, encodes three TTM genes, AtTTM1, 2 and 3. Although AtTTM3 has previously been reported to have polytriphosphatase activity, recombinantly expressed AtTTM2 unexpectedly exhibited pyrophosphatase activity. AtTTM2 knockout (KO) mutant plants exhibit an enhanced hypersensitive response, elevated pathogen resistance against both virulent and avirulent pathogens, and elevated accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) upon infection. In addition, stronger systemic acquired resistance (SAR) compared to wild type plants was observed. These enhanced defense responses are dependent on SA, PAD4, and NPR1. Despite their enhanced pathogen resistance, ttm2 plants did not display constitutively active defense responses, suggesting that AtTTM2 is not a conventional negative regulator, but a negative regulator of the amplification of defense responses. The transcriptional suppression of AtTTM2 by pathogen infection or treatment with SA or the SAR activator, BTH, further supports this notion. Such transcriptional regulation is conserved among TTM2 orthologues in the crop plants, soybean and canola, suggesting that TTM2 is involved in immunity in a wide variety of plant species. This indicates the possible usage of TTM2 KO mutants for agricultural application to generate pathogen resistant crop plants.

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MPMI: The genome of the saprophytic fungus Verticillium tricorpus reveals a complex effector repertoire resembling that of its pathogenic relatives (2014)

MPMI: The genome of the saprophytic fungus Verticillium tricorpus reveals a complex effector repertoire resembling that of its pathogenic relatives (2014) | PMI lab | Scoop.it

Vascular wilts caused by Verticillium spp. are destructive plant diseases, affecting hundreds of hosts. Only few Verticillium spp. are causal agents of vascular wilt diseases, of which V. dahliae is the most notorious pathogen, and several V. dahliae genomes are available. In contrast, V. tricorpus is mainly known as saprophyte and causal agent of opportunistic infections. Based on a hybrid approach that combines second and third generation sequencing, a near-gapless V. tricorpus genome assembly was obtained. With comparative genomics, we aimed to identify genomic features in V. dahliae that confer the ability to cause vascular wilt disease. Unexpectedly, both species encode similar effector repertoires and share a genomic structure with genes encoding secreted proteins clustered in genomic islands. Intriguingly, V. tricorpus contains significantly less repetitive elements and an extended spectrum of secreted carbohydrate-active enzymes when compared with V. dahliae. In conclusion, we highlight the technical advances of a hybrid sequencing and assembly approach and reveal that the saprophyte V. tricorpus shares many hallmark features with V. dahliae.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Cell Host Microbes: Convergent Targeting of a Common Host Protein-Network by Pathogen Effectors from Three Kingdoms of Life (2014)

Cell Host Microbes: Convergent Targeting of a Common Host Protein-Network by Pathogen Effectors from Three Kingdoms of Life (2014) | PMI lab | Scoop.it

While conceptual principles governing plant immunity are becoming clear, its systems-level organization and the evolutionary dynamic of the host-pathogen interface are still obscure. We generated a systematic protein-protein interaction network of virulence effectors from the ascomycete pathogen Golovinomyces orontii and Arabidopsis thaliana host proteins. We combined this data set with corresponding data for the eubacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. The resulting network identifies host proteins onto which intraspecies and interspecies pathogen effectors converge. Phenotyping of 124 Arabidopsis effector-interactor mutants revealed a correlation between intraspecies and interspecies convergence and several altered immune response phenotypes. Several effectors and the most heavily targeted host protein colocalized in subnuclear foci. Products of adaptively selected Arabidopsis genes are enriched for interactions with effector targets. Our data suggest the existence of a molecular host-pathogen interface that is conserved across Arabidopsis accessions, while evolutionary adaptation occurs in the immediate network neighborhood of effector targets.

 

Ralf Weßling, Petra Epple, Stefan Altmann,Yijian He, Li Yang, Stefan R. Henz, Nathan McDonald, Kristin Wiley, Kai Christian Bader, Christine Glaßer, M. Shahid Mukhtar, Sabine Haigis, Lila Ghamsari, Amber E. Stephens, Joseph R. Ecker, Marc Vidal, Jonathan D.G. Jones,Klaus F.X. Mayer, Emiel Ver Loren van Themaat, Detlef Weigel, Paul Schulze-Lefert, Jeffery L. Dangl, Ralph Panstruga, and Pascal Braun


Via Nicolas Denancé
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CP's curator insight, September 12, 2014 4:04 AM

add your insight...

Suayib Üstün's comment, September 12, 2014 4:45 AM
HopBF1 is HopZ4!
Suayib Üstün's curator insight, September 12, 2014 5:14 AM

HopBF1 is HopZ4...

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Challenges and opportunities for quantifying roots and rhizosphere interactions through imaging and image analysis

Challenges and opportunities for quantifying roots and rhizosphere interactions through imaging and image analysis | PMI lab | Scoop.it
The morphology of roots and root systems influences the efficiency by which plants acquire nutrients and water, anchor themselves and provide stability to the surrounding soil. Plant genotype and the biotic and abiotic environment significantly influence root morphology, growth and ultimately crop yield. The challenge for researchers interested in phenotyping root systems is, therefore, not just to measure roots and link their phenotype to the plant genotype, but also to understand how the growth of roots is influenced by their environment. This review discusses progress in quantifying root system parameters (e.g. in terms of size, shape and dynamics) using imaging and image analysis technologies and also discusses their potential for providing a better understanding of root:soil interactions. Significant progress has been made in image acquisition techniques, however trade-offs exist between sample throughput, sample size, image resolution and information gained. All of these factors impact on downstream image analysis processes. While there have been significant advances in computation power, limitations still exist in statistical processes involved in image analysis. Utilizing and combining different imaging systems, integrating measurements and image analysis where possible, and amalgamating data will allow researchers to gain a better understanding of root:soil interactions.
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Plant & Cell Physiol: Ectopic Expression of RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8.1 Confers Resistance to Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens in Arabidopsis (2014)

Plant & Cell Physiol: Ectopic Expression of RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8.1 Confers Resistance to Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens in Arabidopsis (2014) | PMI lab | Scoop.it

Broad-spectrum disease resistance is a highly valuable trait in plant breeding and attracts special attention in research. The Arabidopsis gene locus RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW 8 (RPW8) contains two adjacent homologous genes, RPW8.1 and RPW8.2, and confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew. Remarkably, the RPW8.2 protein is specifically localized to the extrahaustorial membrane (EHM) encasing the feeding structure of powdery mildew whereby RPW8.2 activates haustorium-targeted defenses. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-tagged RPW8.1 from the native promoter leads to unique cell death lesions and enhances resistance to virulent fungal and oomycete pathogens that cause powdery mildew and downy mildew diseases, respectively. In powdery mildew infected plants, RPW8.1-YFP accumulates at higher levels in the mesophyll cells underneath the infected epidermal cells where RPW8.2-YFP is mainly expressed. This cell-type-preferential protein accumulation pattern largely correlates with that of H2O2 accumulation, suggesting that RPW8.1 may spatially collaborate with RPW8.2 in activation of resistance to powdery mildew. Interestingly, when ectopically expressed from theRPW8.2 promoter, RPW8.1-YFP is also targeted to the EHM of powdery mildew and the transgenic plants display resistance to both powdery mildew and downy mildew. Using YFP as a reporter, we further reveal that the RPW8.1 promoter is constitutively active but induced to higher levels in cells at the infection site, whereas the RPW8.2 promoter is activated specifically in cells at the infection site. Taken together, our results suggest that RPW8.1 (and its promoter) is functionally distinct fromRPW8.2 and may have a higher potential in engineering broad-spectrum resistance in plants.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Lipochitooligosaccharide recognition: an ancient story

Lipochitooligosaccharide recognition: an ancient story | PMI lab | Scoop.it

Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, found in crustacean shells, insect exoskeletons and fungal cell walls. The action of chitin and chitin derivatives on plants has become a very interesting story of late. Chitin is a β1-4-linked polymer of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc). In this unmodified form, chitooligosaccharides (degree of polymerization (dp) = 6–8)) are strong inducers of plant innate immunity. By contrast, when these chitooligosaccharides are acylated (so-called lipochitooligosaccharides, LCOs) and further modified, they can act as Nod factors, the key signaling molecules that play an important role in the initiation of the legume–rhizobium symbiosis. In a similar form, these molecules can also act as Myc factors, the key signaling molecules involved in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. It has been proposed that Nod factor perception might have evolved from the more ancient AM symbiosis. Increasing evidence now suggests that LCO perception might have evolved from plant innate immunity signaling. In this review, we will discuss the evolutionary origin of symbiotic LCO recognition.


Via Francis Martin, Guogen Yang
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Mol Ecol: Plant host and soil origin influence fungal and bacterial assemblages in the roots of woody plants

Mol Ecol: Plant host and soil origin influence fungal and bacterial assemblages in the roots of woody plants | PMI lab | Scoop.it

Microbial communities in plant roots provide critical links between above and belowground processes in terrestrial ecosystems. Variation in root communities has been attributed to plant host effects and microbial host preferences, as well as to factors pertaining to soil conditions, microbial biogeography and the presence of viable microbial propagules. To address hypotheses regarding the influence of plant host and soil biogeography on root fungal and bacterial communities we designed a trap-plant bioassay experiment. Replicate Populus, Quercus, and Pinus plants were grown in three soils originating from alternate field sites. Fungal and bacterial community profiles in the root of each replicate were assessed through multiplex 454 amplicon sequencing of 4 loci (i.e. 16S, SSU, ITS, LSU rDNA). Soil origin had a larger effect on fungal community composition than did host species, but the opposite was true for bacterial communities. Populus hosted the highest diversity of rhizospheric fungi and bacteria. Root communities on Quercus and Pinus were more similar to each other than to Populus. Overall, fungal root symbionts appear to be more constrained by dispersal and biogeography than by host availability.

  


Via Stéphane Hacquard, Francis Martin
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Molecular Cellular Proteomics: Profiling the secretome and extracellular proteome of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans (2014)

Molecular Cellular Proteomics: Profiling the secretome and extracellular proteome of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans (2014) | PMI lab | Scoop.it

Oomycetes are filamentous organisms that cause notorious diseases, several of which have a high economic impact. Well known is Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight. Previously, in silico analyses of the genome and transcriptome of P. infestans resulted in the annotation of a large number of genes encoding proteins with an N-terminal signal peptide. This set is collectively referred to as the secretome and comprises proteins involved in, for example, cell wall growth and modification, proteolytic processes and the promotion of successful invasion of plant cells. So far, proteomic profiling in oomycetes was primarily focussed on subcellular, intracellular or cell wall fractions; the extracellular proteome has not been studied systematically. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of the in vivo secretome and extracellular proteome of P. infestans. We have used mass spectrometry to analyse P. infestans proteins present in seven different growth media with mycelial cultures and this resulted in the consistent identification of over two hundred proteins. Gene ontology classification pinpointed proteins involved in cell wall modifications, pathogenesis, defense responses and proteolytic processes. Moreover, we found members of the RXLR and CRN effector families as well as several proteins lacking an obvious signal peptide. The latter were confirmed to be bona fide extracellular proteins and this suggests that, similar to other organisms, oomycetes exploit non-conventional secretion mechanisms to transfer certain proteins to the extracellular environment.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Filamentous pathogen effector functions: of pathogens, hosts and microbiomes

Filamentous pathogen effector functions: of pathogens, hosts and microbiomes | PMI lab | Scoop.it

Microorganisms play essential roles in almost every environment on earth. For instance, microbes decompose organic material, or establish symbiotic relationships that range from pathogenic to mutualistic. Symbiotic relationships have been particularly well studied for microbial plant pathogens and have emphasized the role of effectors; secreted molecules that support host colonization. Most effectors characterized thus far play roles in deregulation of host immunity. Arguably, however, pathogens not only deal with immune responses during host colonization, but also encounter other microbes including competitors, (myco)parasites and even potential co-operators. Thus, part of the effector catalog may target microbiome co-inhabitants rather than host physiology.

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Transcriptional control of plant defence responses

Transcriptional control of plant defence responses | PMI lab | Scoop.it

Mounting of efficient plant defence responses depends on the ability to trigger a rapid defence reaction after recognition of the invading microbe. Activation of plant resistance is achieved by modulation of the activity of multiple transcriptional regulators, both DNA-binding transcription factors and their regulatory proteins, that are able to reprogram transcription in the plant cell towards the activation of defence signalling. Here we provide an overview of recent developments on the transcriptional control of plant defence responses and discuss defence-related hormone signalling, the role of WRKY transcription factors during the regulation of plant responses to pathogens, nuclear functions of plant immune receptor proteins, as well as varied ways by which microbial effectors subvert plant transcriptional reprogramming to promote disease.

 

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Immune receptor complexes at the plant cell surface

Immune receptor complexes at the plant cell surface | PMI lab | Scoop.it

Immunity to microbial infection is a common feature of metazoans and plants. Plants employ plasma membrane and cytoplasmic receptor systems for sensing microbe-derived or host-derived patterns and effectors and to trigger inducible immune defenses. Different biochemical types of plasma membrane immune receptors mediate recognition predominantly of peptide and carbohydrate patterns. Current research highlights the role of immune receptor complex formation in plant immunity. In particular, ligand binding by immune receptors generates molecular surfaces that enable either receptor homo-dimerization or co-receptor recruitment for subsequent signal transduction. New insight into negative regulatory principles of immune receptor function further suggests substantial dynamics in protein–protein interactions at the plasma membrane that we are only beginning to understand.

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BMC Plant Biology: Defining the full tomato NB-LRR resistance gene repertoire using genomic and cDNA RenSeq (2014)

BMC Plant Biology: Defining the full tomato NB-LRR resistance gene repertoire using genomic and cDNA RenSeq (2014) | PMI lab | Scoop.it

Background: The availability of draft crop plant genomes allows the prediction of the full complement of genes that encode NB-LRR resistance gene homologs, enabling a more targeted breeding for disease resistance. Recently, we developed the RenSeq method to reannotate the full NB-LRR gene complement in potato and to identify novel sequences that were not picked up by the automated gene prediction software. Here, we established RenSeq on the reference genome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Heinz 1706, using 260 previously identified NB-LRR genes in an updated Solanaceae RenSeq bait library.

 

Result: Using 250-bp MiSeq reads after RenSeq on genomic DNA of Heinz 1706, we identified 105 novel NB-LRR sequences. Reannotation included the splitting of gene models, combination of partial genes to a longer sequence and closing of assembly gaps. Within the draft S. pimpinellifolium LA1589 genome, RenSeq enabled the annotation of 355 NB-LRR genes. The majority of these are however fragmented, with 5[prime]- and 3[prime]-end located on the edges of separate contigs. Phylogenetic analyses show a high conservation of all NB-LRR classes between Heinz 1706, LA1589 and the potato clone DM, suggesting that all sub-families were already present in the last common ancestor. A phylogenetic comparison to the Arabidopsis thaliana NB-LRR complement verifies the high conservation of the more ancient CCRPW8-type NB-LRRs. Use of RenSeq on cDNA from uninfected and late blight-infected tomato leaves allows the avoidance of sequence analysis of non-expressed paralogues.

 

Conclusion: RenSeq is a promising method to facilitate analysis of plant resistance gene complements. The reannotated tomato NB-LRR complements, phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal locations provided in this paper will provide breeders and scientists with a useful tool to identify novel disease resistance traits. cDNA RenSeq enables for the first time next-gen sequencing approaches targeted to this very low-expressed gene family without the need for normalization.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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