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Targeting of plant pattern recognition receptor...

Targeting of plant pattern recognition receptor... | PLANTs | Scoop.it
Highlights • Type-III effectors (T3Es) suppress plant immunity using multiple strategies. • PRR-triggered immunity is redundantly targeted by multiple T3Es from a single bacterial strain.
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Rescooped by Yunsik Kim from Host-Microbe Interactions. Plant Biology.
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The bacterial type III-secreted protein AvrRps4 is a bipartite effector

The bacterial type III-secreted protein AvrRps4 is a bipartite effector | PLANTs | Scoop.it
Author summary An important component of the plant immune system relies on the detection of pathogen-derived effectors by immune receptors called resistance proteins. Bacterial pathogens inject effectors into the host cell via a dedicated secretion system to suppress defenses and to manipulate the physiology of the host cell to the pathogen's advantage. Usually, a single resistance protein recognizes a single effector, but an increasing number of exceptions and elaborations on this one-to-one relationship are known. The plant Arabidopsis uses a pair of resistance proteins, RRS1 and RPS4, to detect the effector AvrRps4. After injection into the cell, AvrRps4 is cleaved into two protein parts, and it had been assumed that only the C-terminal part needs to be present to trigger RPS4/RRS1. We show here that both AvrRps4 parts are required for triggering resistance in Arabidopsis, and that the N-terminal part, which previously had been assumed to only function in effector secretion into the host cell, in fact on its own has some functions of an effector. This conclusion is supported by the observation that the N-terminal part of AvrRps4 is sufficient to trigger resistance in lettuce. The fusion of the two AvrRps4 parts may have arisen to counteract plant defenses.

Via Tatsuya Nobori
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Rescooped by Yunsik Kim from Plant pathogens and pests
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Transcriptome landscape of a bacterial pathogen under plant immunity

Transcriptome landscape of a bacterial pathogen under plant immunity | PLANTs | Scoop.it
Plant pathogens can cause serious diseases that impact global agriculture. The plant innate immunity, when fully activated, can halt pathogen growth in plants. Despite extensive studies into the molecular and genetic bases of plant immunity against pathogens, the influence of plant immunity in global pathogen metabolism to restrict pathogen growth is poorly understood. Here, we developed RNA sequencing pipelines for analyzing bacterial transcriptomes in planta and determined high-resolution transcriptome patterns of the foliar bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis thaliana with a total of 27 combinations of plant immunity mutants and bacterial strains. Bacterial transcriptomes were analyzed at 6 h post infection to capture early effects of plant immunity on bacterial processes and to avoid secondary effects caused by different bacterial population densities in planta. We identified specific “immune-responsive” bacterial genes and processes, including those that are activated in susceptible plants and suppressed by plant immune activation. Expression patterns of immune-responsive bacterial genes at the early time point were tightly linked to later bacterial growth levels in different host genotypes. Moreover, we found that a bacterial iron acquisition pathway is commonly suppressed by multiple plant immune-signaling pathways. Overexpression of a P. syringae sigma factor gene involved in iron regulation and other processes partially countered bacterial growth restriction during the plant immune response triggered by AvrRpt2. Collectively, this study defines the effects of plant immunity on the transcriptome of a bacterial pathogen and sheds light on the enigmatic mechanisms of bacterial growth inhibition during the plant immune response.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Yunsik Kim from The Plant Microbiome
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Microbial interactions within the plant holobiont | Microbiome |

Microbial interactions within the plant holobiont | Microbiome | | PLANTs | Scoop.it
Since the colonization of land by ancestral plant lineages 450 million years ago, plants and their associated microbes have been interacting with each other, forming an assemblage of species that is often referred to as a “holobiont.” Selective pressure acting on holobiont components has likely shaped plant-associated microbial communities and selected for host-adapted microorganisms that impact plant fitness. However, the high microbial densities detected on plant tissues, together with the fast generation time of microbes and their more ancient origin compared to their host, suggest that microbe-microbe interactions are also important selective forces sculpting complex microbial assemblages in the phyllosphere, rhizosphere, and plant endosphere compartments. Reductionist approaches conducted under laboratory conditions have been critical to decipher the strategies used by specific microbes to cooperate and compete within or outside plant tissues. Nonetheless, our understanding of these microbial interactions in shaping more complex plant-associated microbial communities, along with their relevance for host health in a more natural context, remains sparse. Using examples obtained from reductionist and community-level approaches, we discuss the fundamental role of microbe-microbe interactions (prokaryotes and micro-eukaryotes) for microbial community structure and plant health. We provide a conceptual framework illustrating that interactions among microbiota members are critical for the establishment and the maintenance of host-microbial homeostasis.

Via Stéphane Hacquard
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Microbial effectors and the role of water and sugar in the infection battle ground

Microbial effectors and the role of water and sugar in the infection battle ground | PLANTs | Scoop.it
Phytopathogenic microbes multiply in the apoplast — a plant's intercellular spaces — of infected plants, and hence their success relies on the conditions in this habitat. Despite being extracellular parasites, most microbes translocate effectors into host cells that promote disease by acting inside cells. Initial studies suggested that effectors act predominantly as suppressors of plant immunity. These pioneering studies were trend-setting, causing a strong bias in the functional investigation of effectors. Yet, recent studies on bacterial model pathogens have identified effectors that promote disease by causing either increased sugar or water levels in the apoplast. These studies are likely to initiate a new era of effector research that will clarify the disease-promoting rather than defense-suppressing function of effectors, a molecular rather than genetic distinction.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Yunsik Kim from Plant hormones and signaling peptides
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Frontiers | 14-3-3 Proteins in Plant Hormone Signaling: Doing Several Things at Once | Plant Science

Frontiers | 14-3-3 Proteins in Plant Hormone Signaling: Doing Several Things at Once | Plant Science | PLANTs | Scoop.it
In this review we highlight the advances achieved in the investigation of the role of 14-3-3 proteins in hormone signaling, biosynthesis, and transport. 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved molecules that target a number of protein clients through their ability to recognize well-defined phosphorylated motifs. As a result, they regulate several cellular processes, ranging from metabolism to transport, growth, development, and stress response. High-throughput proteomic data and two-hybrid screen demonstrate that 14-3-3 proteins physically interact with many protein clients involved in the biosynthesis or signaling pathways of the main plant hormones, while increasing functional evidence indicates that 14-3-3-target interactions play pivotal regulatory roles. These advances provide a framework of our understanding of plant hormone action, suggesting that 14-3-3 proteins act as hubs of a cellular web encompassing different signaling pathways, transducing and integrating diverse hormone signals in the regulation of physiological processes.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Yunsik Kim from Plant-Microbe Interactions: Pathogenesis & Symbiosis
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Sniffing bacterial volatile compounds for healthier plants

Sniffing bacterial volatile compounds for healthier plants | PLANTs | Scoop.it
Bacterial volatile compounds (BVCs) are not waste or by-products of primary metabolism but rather have critical roles in the biology and ecological competence of bacteria. BVCs are exploited as a source of nutrients and information in plant–bacteria interactions. They target key points in plant physiology, activating downstream metabolic pathways by a domino effect. BVCs are an ancient signal and are involved in plant–bacteria communication, which was shaped during evolutionary history and established before the development of higher plants. This type of communication is not exclusive to mutualistic interactions, because pathogens also use volatiles to alter plant physiology. Here, fragmented information is drawn together to provide a clearer view of how BVCs affect such interactions.

Via Philip Carella
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Rescooped by Yunsik Kim from Plant-Microbe Interactions: Pathogenesis & Symbiosis
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N-hydroxy-pipecolic acid is a mobile signal that induces systemic disease resistance in Arabidopsis

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a global response in plants induced at the site of infection that leads to long-lasting and broad-spectrum disease resistance at distal, uninfected tissues. Despite the importance of this priming mechanism, the identity of the mobile defense signal that moves systemically throughout plants to initiate SAR has remained elusive. In this paper, we describe a new metabolite, N-hydroxy-pipecolic acid (N-OH-Pip), and provide evidence that this molecule is a mobile signal that plays a central role in initiating SAR signal transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that FLAVIN-DEPENDENT MONOOXYGENASE 1 (FMO1), a key regulator of SAR-associated defense priming, can synthesize N-OH-Pip from pipecolic acid in planta, and exogenously applied N-OH-PIP moves systemically in Arabidopsis and can rescue the SAR-deficiency of fmo1 mutants. We also demonstrate that N-OH-Pip treatment causes systemic changes in the expression of pathogenesis-related genes and metabolic pathways throughout the plant, and enhances resistance to a bacterial pathogen. This work provides new insight into the chemical nature of a mobile signal for SAR and also suggests that the N-OH-Pip pathway is a promising target for metabolic engineering to enhance disease resistance.

Via Philip Carella
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Rescooped by Yunsik Kim from Plant immunity and legume symbiosis
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Advances and current challenges in calcium signaling - Kudla - 2018 - New Phytologist -

Advances and current challenges in calcium signaling - Kudla - 2018 - New Phytologist - | PLANTs | Scoop.it
Temporally and spatially defined changes in Ca2+ concentration in distinct compartments of cells represent a universal information code in plants. Recently, it has become evident that Ca2+ signals not only govern intracellular regulation but also appear to contribute to long distance or even organismic signal propagation and physiological response regulation. Ca2+ signals are shaped by an intimate interplay of channels and transporters, and during past years important contributing individual components have been identified and characterized. Ca2+ signals are translated by an elaborate toolkit of Ca2+‐binding proteins, many of which function as Ca2+ sensors, into defined downstream responses. Intriguing progress has been achieved in identifying specific modules that interconnect Ca2+ decoding proteins and protein kinases with downstream target effectors, and in characterizing molecular details of these processes. In this review, we reflect on recent major advances in our understanding of Ca2+ signaling and cover emerging concepts and existing open questions that should be informative also for scientists that are currently entering this field of ever‐increasing breath and impact.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Yunsik Kim from Plant-Microbe Interactions: Pathogenesis & Symbiosis
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CRISPR/Cas9‐mediated resistance to cauliflower mosaic virus - Liu - 2018 - Plant Direct - Wiley Online Library

Viral diseases are a leading cause of worldwide yield losses in crop production. Breeding of resistance genes (R gene) into elite crop cultivars has been the standard and most cost‐effective practice. However, R gene‐mediated resistance is limited by the available R genes within genetic resources and in many cases, by strain specificity. Therefore, it is important to generate new and broad‐spectrum antiviral strategies. The CRISPR‐Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat, CRISPR‐associated) editing system has been employed to confer resistance to human viruses and several plant single‐stranded DNA geminiviruses, pointing out the possible application of the CRISPR‐Cas9 system for virus control. Here, we demonstrate that strong viral resistance to cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), a pararetrovirus with a double‐stranded DNA genome, can be achieved through Cas9‐mediated multiplex targeting of the viral coat protein sequence. We further show that small interfering RNAs (siRNA) are produced and mostly map to the 3′ end of single‐guide RNAs (sgRNA), although very low levels of siRNAs map to the spacer region as well. However, these siRNAs are not responsible for the inhibited CaMV infection because there is no resistance if Cas9 is not present. We have also observed edited viruses in systematically infected leaves in some transgenic plants, with short deletions or insertions consistent with Cas9‐induced DNA breaks at the sgRNA target sites in coat protein coding sequence. These edited coat proteins, in most cases, led to earlier translation stop and thus, nonfunctional coat proteins. We also recovered wild‐type CP sequence in these infected transgenic plants, suggesting these edited viral genomes were packaged by wild‐type coat proteins. Our data demonstrate that the CRISPR‐Cas9 system can be used for virus control against plant pararetroviruses with further modifications.

Via Philip Carella
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Rescooped by Yunsik Kim from NBT - New breeding techniques
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AgroPages.com-CRISPR & Novel Breeding Techniques (NBTs) related in agriculture-Agricultural news-Agropages.com

AgroPages.com-CRISPR & Novel Breeding Techniques (NBTs) related in agriculture-Agricultural news-Agropages.com | PLANTs | Scoop.it
CRISPR & Novel Breeding Techniques (NBTs) related in agriculture,As with all breeding methods they are being used to improve traits of importance to the breeding obj

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Using New Breeding Techniques to turn tobacco plants into biofactories

Using New Breeding Techniques to turn tobacco plants into biofactories | PLANTs | Scoop.it
Researchers from Spain and eight other countries hope to create varieties of tobacco plants that contain substances of high value using New Breeding Techniques (NBTs).

Via NBT
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Crop Modification Techniques

Crop Modification Techniques | PLANTs | Scoop.it
To help educate people about the many methods that are used to generate new traits in plants, Biology Fortified has created an infographic on six different crop modification techniques, with examples of crops generated with each method. Six Crop Modification … Read More

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Rescooped by Yunsik Kim from Plant-Microbe Interactions: Pathogenesis & Symbiosis
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Frontiers | Hsp90 interacts with Tm-2(2) and is essential for Tm-2(2)-mediated resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus | Plant Science

The tomato gene Tm-2(2) encodes a coiled coil-nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat type resistance protein, which confers effective immune response against tobamoviruses by detecting the presence of viral movement proteins (MPs). Here we report that the N.benthamiana Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) specifically interacts with Tm-2(2). Silencing of Hsp90 compromised Tm-2(2)-mediated resistance against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and reduced the steady-state levels of Tm-2(2) protein. In addition, we found that Hsp90 associates with SGT1 in yeast and in plant cells. These results suggest that Hsp90-SGT1 complex takes part in Tm-2(2)-mediated TMV resistance by functioning as chaperone to regulate Tm-2(2) stability.

Via Philip Carella
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The coming of age of EvoMPMI: evolutionary molecular plant–microbe interactions across multiple timescales

The coming of age of EvoMPMI: evolutionary molecular plant–microbe interactions across multiple timescales | PLANTs | Scoop.it
Plant–microbe interactions are great model systems to study co-evolutionary dynamics across multiple timescales. However, mechanistic research on plant–microbe interactions has often been conducted with little consideration of evolutionary concepts and methods. Conversely, evolutionary research has rarely integrated the range of mechanisms and models from the molecular plant–microbe interactions field. In recent years, the incipient field of evolutionary molecular plant–microbe interactions (EvoMPMI) has emerged to bridge this gap. Here, we report on some of the recent advances in EvoMPMI. In particular, we highlight new systems to study microbe interactions with early diverging land plants, and new findings from studies of adaptive evolution in pathogens and plants. By linking mechanistic and evolutionary research, EvoMPMI promises to expand our understanding of plant–microbe interactions.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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RNA-seq for comparative transcript profiling of Phytophthora capsici during its interaction with Arabidopsis thaliana -

RNA-seq for comparative transcript profiling of Phytophthora capsici during its interaction with Arabidopsis thaliana - | PLANTs | Scoop.it
Phytophthora capsici, a highly dynamic and destructive oomycete pathogen, causes devastating diseases on a wide range of plants worldwide. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity is still largely unclear. In this study, three different mRNA pool libraries were constructed from its developmental stage, early or late infection stage of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and then were investigated by the RNA-Seq approach. The results demonstrated that 1456 novel transcripts that had not linked to any annotated gene were identified, and 296 genes were found to undergo alternative splicing. Comparative analysis of three different libraries further showed that distinct transcriptional changes of pathogenicity genes were found. A large number of genes containing cell wall degrading enzymes, major facilitator superfamily genes and cytochrome P450 genes were highly induced during infection. In addition, several types of well-known effectors including RxLR, CRN, Elicitin and NLP proteins also showed high transcript abundances during infection. The transcriptional levels of six effector genes during the infection process were further validated by qRT-PCR. Collectively, this study provides a basic understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of P. capsici during the interaction with plants.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Yunsik Kim from Plant immunity and legume symbiosis
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Frontiers | Modify the Histone to Win the Battle: Chromatin Dynamics in Plant–Pathogen Interactions | Plant Science

Frontiers | Modify the Histone to Win the Battle: Chromatin Dynamics in Plant–Pathogen Interactions | Plant Science | PLANTs | Scoop.it
Relying on an immune system comes with a high energetic cost for plants. Defense responses in these organisms are therefore highly regulated and fine-tuned, permitting them to respond pertinently to the attack of a microbial pathogen. In recent years, the importance of the physical modification of chromatin, a highly organized structure composed of genomic DNA and its interacting proteins, has become evident in the research field of plant–pathogen interactions. Several processes, including DNA methylation, changes in histone density and variants, and various histone modifications, have been described as regulators of various developmental and defense responses. Herein, we review the state of the art in the epigenomic aspects of plant immunity, focusing on chromatin modifications, chromatin modifiers, and their physiological consequences. In addition, we explore the exciting field of understanding how plant pathogens have adapted to manipulate the plant epigenomic regulation in order to weaken their immune system and thrive in their host, as well as how histone modifications in eukaryotic pathogens are involved in the regulation of their virulence.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Frontiers | Ethylene and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) in Plant–Bacterial Interactions | Plant Science

Frontiers | Ethylene and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) in Plant–Bacterial Interactions | Plant Science | PLANTs | Scoop.it
Ethylene and its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) actively participate in plant developmental, defense and symbiotic programs. In this sense, ethylene and ACC play a central role in the regulation of bacterial colonization (rhizospheric, endophytic, and phyllospheric) by the modulation of plant immune responses and symbiotic programs, as well as by modulating several developmental processes, such as root elongation. Plant-associated bacterial communities impact plant growth and development, both negatively (pathogens) and positively (plant-growth promoting and symbiotic bacteria). Some members of the plant-associated bacterial community possess the ability to modulate plant ACC and ethylene levels and, subsequently, modify plant defense responses, symbiotic programs and overall plant development. In this work, we review and discuss the role of ethylene and ACC in several aspects of plant-bacterial interactions. Understanding the impact of ethylene and ACC in both the plant host and its associated bacterial community is key to the development of new strategies aimed at increased plant growth and protection.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Yunsik Kim from Plant-Microbe Interactions: Pathogenesis & Symbiosis
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Science: A single fungal MAP kinase controls plant cell-to-cell invasion by the rice blast fungus (2018)

Science: A single fungal MAP kinase controls plant cell-to-cell invasion by the rice blast fungus (2018) | PLANTs | Scoop.it

Blast disease destroys up to 30% of the rice crop annually and threatens global food security. The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae invades plant tissue with hyphae that proliferate and grow from cell to cell, often through pit fields, where plasmodesmata cluster. We showed that chemical genetic inhibition of a single fungal mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, Pmk1, prevents M. oryzae from infecting adjacent plant cells, leaving the fungus trapped within a single plant cell. Pmk1 regulates expression of secreted fungal effector proteins implicated in suppression of host immune defenses, preventing reactive oxygen species generation and excessive callose deposition at plasmodesmata. Furthermore, Pmk1 controls the hyphal constriction required for fungal growth from one rice cell to the neighboring cell, enabling host tissue colonization and blast disease.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL, Philip Carella
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Flavin Monooxygenase-Generated N-Hydroxypipecolic Acid Is a Critical Element of Plant Systemic Immunity - ScienceDirect

Flavin Monooxygenase-Generated N-Hydroxypipecolic Acid Is a Critical Element of Plant Systemic Immunity - ScienceDirect | PLANTs | Scoop.it
Following a previous microbial inoculation, plants can induce broad-spectrum immunity to pathogen infection, a phenomenon known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). SAR establishment in Arabidopsis thaliana is regulated by the Lys catabolite pipecolic acid (Pip) and flavin-dependent-monooxygenase1 (FMO1). Here, we show that elevated Pip is sufficient to induce an FMO1-dependent transcriptional reprogramming of leaves that is reminiscent of SAR. In planta and in vitro analyses demonstrate that FMO1 functions as a pipecolate N-hydroxylase, catalyzing the biochemical conversion of Pip to N-hydroxypipecolic acid (NHP). NHP systemically accumulates in plants after microbial attack. When exogenously applied, it overrides the defect of NHP-deficient fmo1 in acquired resistance and acts as a potent inducer of plant immunity to bacterial and oomycete infection. Our work has identified a pathogen-inducible L-Lys catabolic pathway in plants that generates the N-hydroxylated amino acid NHP as a critical regulator of systemic acquired resistance to pathogen infection.

Via Philip Carella
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Philip Carella's curator insight, March 27, 6:23 AM

Sounds similar to something else that I've read this week :/

Rescooped by Yunsik Kim from Plants and Microbes
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Current Opinion Plant Biology: Extracellular vesicles as key mediators of plant–microbe interactions (2018)

Current Opinion Plant Biology: Extracellular vesicles as key mediators of plant–microbe interactions (2018) | PLANTs | Scoop.it
• Plants produce extracellular vesicles (EVs) in response to infection.• Recent advances in EV purification are now revealing the contents of plant EVs.• Plant EVs are enriched in stress-response proteins and signaling lipids.• EVs contain transporters for antimicrobial compounds such as glucosinolates.• Indirect evidence suggests that EVs may mediate inter-kingdom RNA interference.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid compartments capable of trafficking proteins, lipids, RNA and metabolites between cells. Plant cells have been shown to secrete EVs during immune responses, but virtually nothing is known about their formation, contents or ultimate function. Recently developed methods for isolating plant EVs have revealed that these EVs are enriched in stress response proteins and signaling lipids, and appear to display antifungal activity. Comparison to work on animal EVs, and the observation that host-derived small interfering RNAs and microRNAs can silence fungal genes, suggests that plant EVs may also mediate trans-kingdom RNA interference. Many fundamental questions remain, however, regarding how plant EVs are produced, how they move, and if and how they are taken up by target cells.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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YODA MAP3K kinase regulates plant immune responses conferring broad‐spectrum disease resistance - Sopeña‐Torres - 2018 - New Phytologist -

YODA MAP3K kinase regulates plant immune responses conferring broad‐spectrum disease resistance - Sopeña‐Torres - 2018 - New Phytologist - | PLANTs | Scoop.it
Mitogen‐activated protein kinases (MAPKs) cascades play essential roles in plants by transducing developmental cues and environmental signals into cellular responses. Among the latter are microbe‐associated molecular patterns perceived by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which trigger immunity.
We found that YODA (YDA) – a MAPK kinase kinase regulating several Arabidopsis developmental processes, like stomatal patterning – also modulates immune responses. Resistance to pathogens is compromised in yda alleles, whereas plants expressing the constitutively active YDA (CA‐YDA) protein show broad‐spectrum resistance to fungi, bacteria, and oomycetes with different colonization modes. YDA functions in the same pathway as ERECTA (ER) Receptor‐Like Kinase, regulating both immunity and stomatal patterning.
ER‐YDA‐mediated immune responses act in parallel to canonical disease resistance pathways regulated by phytohormones and PRRs. CA‐YDA plants exhibit altered cell‐wall integrity and constitutively express defense‐associated genes, including some encoding putative small secreted peptides and PRRs whose impairment resulted in enhanced susceptibility phenotypes. CA‐YDA plants show strong reprogramming of their phosphoproteome, which contains protein targets distinct from described MAPKs substrates.
Our results suggest that, in addition to stomata development, the ER‐YDA pathway regulates an immune surveillance system conferring broad‐spectrum disease resistance that is distinct from the canonical pathways mediated by described PRRs and defense hormones.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in plant pathogenic fungi

Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in plant pathogenic fungi | PLANTs | Scoop.it
Like in other eukaryotic organisms, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades play important roles in response to host and environmental signals in fungal pathogens. In general, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is activated by phosphorylation at the well-conserved threonine-x-tyrosine (TXY) motif by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK), which is in turn activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEKK). The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has five MAPK pathways that regulate mating, invasive growth, cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and ascospore formation. Except for ascosporogenesis-specific MAPK sporulation-specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (Smk1), other yeast MAPKs are conserved in plant-pathogenic ascomycetes to regulate different infection and developmental processes, which is the focus of this review. In phytopathogenic basidiomycetes, MAPKs have only been well characterized in Ustilago maydis.

Via Philip Carella
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New Breeding Technologies Successful To Grow Salt Resistant Crops

New Breeding Technologies Successful To Grow Salt Resistant Crops | PLANTs | Scoop.it
:Prof Mark Tester, a world renowned authority on Food security on Thursday said new technologies of breeding crops would be helpful to convert any crop become salt resistant to control scarcity of food globally.

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Defense Priming: An Adaptive Part of Induced Resistance | Annual Review of Plant Biology

Defense Priming: An Adaptive Part of Induced Resistance | Annual Review of Plant Biology | PLANTs | Scoop.it
Priming is an adaptive strategy that improves the defensive capacity of plants. This phenomenon is marked by an enhanced activation of induced defense mechanisms. Stimuli from pathogens, beneficial microbes, or arthropods, as well as chemicals and abiotic cues, can trigger the establishment of priming by acting as warning signals. Upon stimulus perception, changes may occur in the plant at the physiological, transcriptional, metabolic, and epigenetic levels. This phase is called the priming phase. Upon subsequent challenge, the plant effectively mounts a faster and/or stronger defense response that defines the postchallenge primed state and results in increased resistance and/or stress tolerance. Priming can be durable and maintained throughout the plant's life cycle and can even be transmitted to subsequent generations, therefore representing a type of plant immunological memory.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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