Plant Stress
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Plant Stress
abiotic stress in particular and environmental stress as a whole
Curated by R K Upadhyay
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Peptide signal alerts plants to drought

Peptide signal alerts plants to drought | Plant Stress | Scoop.it
It is thought that plants sense water availability in the soil as a way of anticipating drought. The identification of a peptide expressed when water is scarce offers a chance to unravel the underlying molecular mechanism.
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The plant perceptron connects environment to development

The plant perceptron connects environment to development | Plant Stress | Scoop.it
Plants cope with the environment in a variety of ways, and ecological analyses attempt to capture this through life-history strategies or trait-based categorization. These approaches are limited because they treat the trade-off mechanisms that underlie plant responses as a black box. Approaches that involve the molecular or physiological analysis of plant responses to the environment have elucidated intricate connections between developmental and environmental signals, but in only a few well-studied model species. By considering diversity in the plant response to the environment as the adaptation of an information-processing network, new directions can be found for the study of life-history strategies, trade-offs and evolution in plants.

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Oxidative Stress: A Master Regulator of Plant Trade-Offs?

Oxidative Stress: A Master Regulator of Plant Trade-Offs? | Plant Stress | Scoop.it

Trade-offs between growth, reproduction, and defence have been documented. Oxidative stress is one of the physiological mechanisms that underlie trade-offs at the cellular and organ levels. The diversity of plant life forms and the complexity of scaling
up limit our knowledge of oxidative stress as a universal mediator of life-history trade-offs at the organism level. Joint efforts by plant physiologists and ecologists will undoubtedly provide novel insights into this topic in the near future.


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How drought and salinity affect arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and strigolactone biosynthesis?

How drought and salinity affect arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and strigolactone biosynthesis? | Plant Stress | Scoop.it
Main conclusion

This paper reviews the importance of AM symbiosis in alleviating plant stress under unfavourable environmental conditions, making emphasis on the role of strigolactones. A better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate this beneficial association will increase its potential use as an innovative and sustainable strategy in modern agriculture.

Plants are very dynamic systems with a great capacity for adaptation to a constantly changing environment. This phenotypic plasticity is particularly advantageous in areas damaged or subjected to intensive agriculture. Nowadays, global crop production systems are intensifying the impact on natural resources, such as water availability. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find more sustainable alternatives. One of the plant strategies to improve phenotypic plasticity is to establish mutualistic beneficial associations with soil microorganisms, such as the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The establishment of AM symbiosis requires a complex network of interconnected signalling pathways, in which phytohormones play a key role. Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones acting as modulators of the coordinated development under nutrient shortage. SLs also act as host detection signals for AM fungi, favouring symbiosis establishment. In this review, current knowledge on the effect of water-related stresses, such as drought and salinity, in AM symbiosis and in SL production is discussed. Likewise, how the symbiosis helps the host plant to alleviate stress symptoms is also reviewed. Finally, we highlight how interactions between hormonal signalling pathways modulate all these responses, especially in the cross-talk between SLs and abscisic acid (ABA). Understanding the intricate mechanisms that regulate the establishment of AM symbiosis and the plant responses under unfavourable conditions will contribute to implement the use of AM fungi as bioprotective agents against these stresses.
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Membrane transporters mediating root signalling and adaptive responses to oxygen deprivation and soil flooding -

Membrane transporters mediating root signalling and adaptive responses to oxygen deprivation and soil flooding - | Plant Stress | Scoop.it

This review provides a comprehensive assessment of a previously unexplored topic: elucidating the role that plasma- and organelle-based membrane transporters play in plant-adaptive responses to flooding. We show that energy availability and metabolic shifts under hypoxia and anoxia are critical in regulating membrane-transport activity. We illustrate the high tissue and time dependence of this regulation, reveal the molecular identity of transporters involved and discuss the modes of their regulation. We show that both reduced oxygen availability and accumulation of transition metals in flooded roots result in a reduction in the cytosolic K+ pool, ultimately determining the cell's fate and transition to programmed cell death (PCD). This process can be strongly affected by hypoxia-induced changes in the amino acid pool profile and, specifically, ϒ-amino butyric acid (GABA) accumulation. It is suggested that GABA plays an important regulatory role, allowing plants to proceed with H2O2 signalling to activate a cascade of genes that mediate plant adaptation to flooding while at the same time, preventing the cell from entering a ‘suicide program’. We conclude that progress in crop breeding for flooding tolerance can only be achieved by pyramiding the numerous physiological traits that confer efficient energy maintenance, cytosolic ion homeostasis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) control and detoxification.

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Phototropism Growing towards an Understanding of Plant Movement

Phototropism Growing towards an Understanding of Plant Movement | Plant Stress | Scoop.it

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Why seedlings always grow towards the light

Why seedlings always grow towards the light | Plant Stress | Scoop.it
Scientists have discovered how cells in the stems of seedlings use blue light to grow towards the light. During earlier research the discovery was made that the cells in the seedling stems responded to blue light used in the microscope.
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María Serrano's curator insight, June 24, 2014 12:29 PM
Explicación del crecimiento de las plántulas hacia la luz
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Staying Alive in the High and Dry: How Plants in Arid Lands Gain Nutrients to Survive

Staying Alive in the High and Dry: How Plants in Arid Lands Gain Nutrients to Survive | Plant Stress | Scoop.it

The vast sagebrush landscapes of the western United States are one of the largest ecosystems in North Ameri...

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Science: Nonlegumes Respond to Rhizobial Nod Factors by Suppressing the Innate Immune Response

Science: Nonlegumes Respond to Rhizobial Nod Factors by Suppressing the Innate Immune Response | Plant Stress | Scoop.it

Several nonleguminous plants, including Arabidopsis, tomato, and corn, were able to respond to the same Nod factors that initiate the microbial symbiosis in soybean.This figure shows that the addition of Nod Factor (NF) supresses the immune response triggered by the flg22 peptide. The authors also show that, "Plants defective in the LYK3 protein failed to suppress flg22-triggered ROS production upon Nod factor addition, whereas ectopic overexpression of LYK3 enhanced Nod factor–induced suppression of ROS production".


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The Brassinosteroid Signaling Pathway - New Key Players and Interconnections with Other Signaling Networks Crucial for Plant Development and Stress Tolerance

The Brassinosteroid Signaling Pathway - New Key Players and Interconnections with Other Signaling Networks Crucial for Plant Development and Stress Tolerance | Plant Stress | Scoop.it

Recent studies clearly indicated that some of the components of BR signaling pathway act as multifunctional proteins involved in other signaling networks regulating diverse physiological processes, such as photomorphogenesis, cell death control, stomatal development, flowering, plant immunity to pathogens and metabolic responses to stress conditions, including salinity. Regulation of some of these processes is mediated through a crosstalk between BR signalosome and the signaling cascades of other hormones, including auxin, abscisic acid, ethylene and salicylic acid. Unravelling the complicated mechanisms of BR signaling and its interconnections with other molecular networks may be of great importance for future practical applications in agriculture.


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Simultaneous application of heat, drought and virus to Arabidopsis thaliana plants reveals significant shifts in signaling networks

Simultaneous application of heat, drought and virus to Arabidopsis thaliana plants reveals significant shifts in signaling networks | Plant Stress | Scoop.it

Considering global climate changes, incidences of combined drought and heat stress are likely to increase in the future and will considerably influence plant-pathogen interactions. Until now, little is known about plants exposed to simultaneously occurring abiotic and biotic stresses. To shed some light on molecular plant responses to multiple stress factors, a versatile multi-factorial test system, allowing simultaneous application of heat, drought and virus stress, was developed. Comparative analysis of single, double and triple stress responses by transcriptome and metabolome analysis revealed that gene expression under multi-factorial stress is not predictable from single stress treatments. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analysis identified heat as the major stress factor clearly separating heat-stressed from non-heat stressed plants. We identified 11 genes differentially regulated in all stress combinations as well as 23 genes specifically-regulated under triple stress. Furthermore, we showed that virus treated plants displayed enhanced expression of defense genes, which was abolished in plants additionally subjected to heat and drought stress. Triple stress also reduced expression of genes involved in the R-mediated disease response and increased the cytoplasmic protein response which was not seen under single stress conditions. These observations suggested that abiotic stress factors significantly altered TuMV-specific signaling networks which lead to a deactivation of defense responses and a higher susceptibility of plants. Collectively, our transcriptome and metabolome data provide a powerful resource to study plant responses during multi-factorial stress and allows identifying metabolic processes and functional networks involved in tripartite interactions of plants with their environment.

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Plant Immune Responses Against Viruses: How Does a Virus Cause Disease?

Plant Immune Responses Against Viruses: How Does a Virus Cause Disease? | Plant Stress | Scoop.it

New review article in Plant Cell.

"Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding RNA silencing and how viruses counter this apparently ubiquitous antiviral defense. In addition, plants also induce hypersensitive and systemic acquired resistance responses, which together limit the virus to infected cells and impart resistance to the noninfected tissues."


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Andres Zurita's curator insight, May 29, 2013 8:28 AM

Open Access pdf

María Serrano's curator insight, June 24, 2014 12:30 PM
Respuesta inmune de las plantas frente a los virus.
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New insight into photosynthesis: Carotenoids can capture blue/green light and pass energy on to chlorophylls

New insight into photosynthesis: Carotenoids can capture blue/green light and pass energy on to chlorophylls | Plant Stress | Scoop.it
Pigments found in plants and purple bacteria employed to provide protection from sun damage do more than just that. Researchers have found that they also help to harvest light energy during photosynthesis.
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Strigolactones Biosynthesis and Their Role in Abiotic Stress Resilience in Plants

Strigolactones Biosynthesis and Their Role in Abiotic Stress Resilience in Plants | Plant Stress | Scoop.it
Strigolactones (SLs) being new class of plant hormones, play regulatory roles against abiotic stresses in plants. There are multiple hormonal response pathways which are adapted by the plants to overcome these stressful environmental constraints to reduce the negative impact on overall crop plant productivity. Genetic modulation of the SLs could also be applied as a potential approach in this regard. However, endogenous plant hormones play central roles in adaptation to changing environmental conditions, by mediating growth, development, nutrient allocation, and source/sink transitions. In addition, the hormonal interactions can fine-tune the plant response and determine plant architecture in response to environmental stimuli such as nutrient deprivation and canopy shade. Considerable advancements and new insights into SLs biosynthesis, signalling and transport has been unleashed since the initial discovery. In this review we present basic overview of SL biosynthesis and perception with a detailed discussion on our present understanding of SLs and their critical role to tolerate environmental constraints. The SLs and ABA interplay during the abiotic stresses is particularly highlighted.

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Fine-tuning plant growth in the face of drought

Fine-tuning plant growth in the face of drought | Plant Stress | Scoop.it

Fine-tuning plant growth in the face of drought

Kathleen L Farquharson

Plant Cell 2017 tpc.17.00038; Advance Publication January 18, 2017; doi:10.1105/tpc.17.00038 OPEN


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Growing Out of Stress: The Role of Cell- and Organ-scale Growth Control in Plant Water-stress Responses

Growing Out of Stress: The Role of Cell- and Organ-scale Growth Control in Plant Water-stress Responses | Plant Stress | Scoop.it

A new review article in The Plant Cell by

Wei Feng, Heike Lindner, Neil E Robbins, and Jose R. Dinneny


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doozyfunny's comment, September 1, 2016 12:05 AM
Its tremendous
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Transposable Elements Contribute to Activation of Maize Genes in Response to Abiotic Stress

Transposable Elements Contribute to Activation of Maize Genes in Response to Abiotic Stress | Plant Stress | Scoop.it

"Our analysis suggests that a small number of maize transposable element families may contribute to the response of nearby genes to abiotic stress by providing stress-responsive enhancer-like functions. The specific insertions of transposable elements are" often polymorphic within a species. Our data demonstrate that allelic variation for insertions of the transposable elements associated with stress-responsive expression can contribute to variation in the regulation of nearby genes. Thus novel insertions of transposable elements provide a potential mechanism for genes to acquire cis-regulatory influences that could contribute to heritable variation for stress response."


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What is Stress? Dose-Response Effects in Commonly Used In Vitro Stress Assays

What is Stress? Dose-Response Effects in Commonly Used In Vitro Stress Assays | Plant Stress | Scoop.it

"We found that the commonly used stress-inducing agents mannitol, sorbitol, NaCl and H2O2 impact shoot growth in a highly specific and dose-dependent way. Therefore, shoot growth is a sensitive, relevant and easily measured phenotype to assess stress tolerance over a wide range of stress levels."


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Mary Williams's curator insight, April 12, 2014 4:32 AM

Often students use Arabidopsis seedlings in the teaching lab to learn about plant physiology. This paper shows that shoot growth is sensitive parameter to quantify even mild stress.

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How do plants remember winter cold?

How do plants remember winter cold? | Plant Stress | Scoop.it
How do plants remember winter cold? Prof Martin Howard explains how he uses mathematical and experimental methods to answer this question.

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Engineering plants to tolerate abiotic stresses

Engineering plants to tolerate abiotic stresses | Plant Stress | Scoop.it

This excellent short overview is in press in a newish journal (beginning in 2012) "Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology" that covers topics of interest to plant scientists. This review is well written and a good resource for students interested in abiotic stress responses.


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Halotropism Is a Response of Plant Roots to Avoid a Saline Environment

Halotropism Is a Response of Plant Roots to Avoid a Saline Environment | Plant Stress | Scoop.it

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How will crops fare under climate change? Depends on how you ask

How will crops fare under climate change? Depends on how you ask | Plant Stress | Scoop.it
The damage scientists expect climate change to do to crop yields can differ greatly depending on which type of model was used to make those projections, according to new research.

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Andres Zurita's curator insight, August 20, 2013 11:00 AM

The report in the journal Global Change Biology is one of the first to compare the agricultural projections generated by empirical models -- which rely largely on field observations -- to those by mechanistic models, which draw on an understanding of how crop growth and development are affected by the environment. Building on similar studies from ecology, the researchers found yet more evidence that empirical models may show greater losses as a result of climate change, while mechanistic models may be overly optimistic.

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Activation of dimeric ABA receptors elicits guard cell closure, ABA-regulated gene expression, and drought tolerance

Activation of dimeric ABA receptors elicits guard cell closure, ABA-regulated gene expression, and drought tolerance | Plant Stress | Scoop.it

Nice work - a new ABA agonist identified, quinabactin, that preferentially interacts with a subsest of ABA receptors and confers drought-stress tolerance.


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How do plants grow toward the light? Scientists explain mechanism behind phototropism

How do plants grow toward the light? Scientists explain mechanism behind phototropism | Plant Stress | Scoop.it
Plants have developed a number of strategies to capture the maximum amount of sunlight through their leaves. As we know from looking at plants on a windowsill, they grow toward the sunlight to be able to generate energy by photosynthesis.
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María Serrano's curator insight, June 24, 2014 12:30 PM
Explicación científica del fototropismo
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Antagonistic, overlapping and distinct responses to biotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa) and interactions with abiotic stress

Antagonistic, overlapping and distinct responses to biotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa) and interactions with abiotic stress | Plant Stress | Scoop.it

The analyses presented here provides a global view of the responses to multiple stresses, further validates known resistance-associated genes, and highlights new potential target genes, some lineage specific to rice, that play important roles in response to stress, providing a roadmap to develop varieties of rice that are more resistant to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses, as encountered in nature.

 

 


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