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Re-evaluating the role of bacteria in gerbera vase life

Re-evaluating the role of bacteria in gerbera vase life | postharvest central | Scoop.it
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Madison, WI | 2018 Top 100 Best Places to Live

Madison, WI | 2018 Top 100 Best Places to Live | postharvest central | Scoop.it
One of the nation’s top college towns is Madison, whose economic engine is largely fueled by the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The city’s main thoroughfare is State Street, which links the college campus to Capitol Square and is lined with popular cafes, shops and restaurants.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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A CRISPR–Cpf1 system for efficient genome editing and transcriptional repression in plants

A CRISPR–Cpf1 system for efficient genome editing and transcriptional repression in plants | postharvest central | Scoop.it

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)–Cpf1 has emerged as an effective genome editing tool in animals. Here we compare the activity of Cpf1 from Acidaminococcus sp. BV3L6 (As) and Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006 (Lb) in plants, using a dual RNA polymerase II promoter expression system. LbCpf1 generated biallelic mutations at nearly 100% efficiency at four independent sites in rice T0 transgenic plants. Moreover, we repurposed AsCpf1 and LbCpf1 for efficient transcriptional repression in Arabidopsis, and demonstrated a more than tenfold reduction in miR159b transcription. Our data suggest promising applications of CRISPR–Cpf1 for editing plant genomes and modulating the plant transcriptome.


Via Jorge Lozano-Juste, Eric Vincill
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Frontiers | Factors Affecting Quality and Health Promoting Compounds during Growth and Postharvest Life of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) | Plant Science

Frontiers | Factors Affecting Quality and Health Promoting Compounds during Growth and Postharvest Life of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) | Plant Science | postharvest central | Scoop.it
Sweet cherries are attractive fruits due to their taste, colour, nutritional value and beneficial health effects. Sweet cherry is a highly perishable fruit and all quality attributes and the level of health promoting compounds are affected by growth conditions, picking, packing, transport and storage. During production, the correct combination of scion x rootstock will produce fruits with higher firmness, weight, sugars, vitamins and phenolic compounds that boost the fruit antioxidant activity. Orchard management, such as applying drip irrigation and summer pruning, will increase fruit sugar levels and total phenolic content, while application of growth regulators can result in improved storability, increased red colouring, increased fruit size, and reduced cracking. Salicylic acid, oxalic acid, acetylsalicylic acid and methyl salicylate are promising growth regulators as they also increase total phenolics, anthocyanins and induce higher activity of antioxidant enzymes. These growth regulators are now also applied as fruit coatings that improve shelf-life with higher antioxidant enzyme activities and total phenolics. Optimizing storage and transport conditions, such as hydro cooling with added CaCl2, chain temperature and relative humidity control, are crucial for slowing down decay of quality attributes and increasing the antioxidant capacity. Application of controlled atmosphere during storage is successful in delaying quality attributes, but lowers ascorbic acid levels. The combination of low temperature storage in combination with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is successful in reducing the incidence of fruit decay, while preserving taste attributes and stem colour with a higher antioxidant capacity. A new trend in MAP is the use of biodegradable films such as micro-perforated polylactic acid film that combine significant retention of quality attributes, high consumer acceptability and a reduced environmental footprint. Another trend is to replace MAP with fruit edible coatings. Edible coatings, such as various lipid composite coatings, have advantages in retaining quality attributes and increasing the antioxidant activity (chitosan) and are regarded as approved food additives, although studies regarding consumer acceptance are needed. The recent publication of the sweet cherry genome will likely increase the identification of more candidate genes involved in growing and maintaining health related compounds and quality attributes.
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Effect of cold storage on stomatal functionality, water relations and flower performance in cut roses - ScienceDirect

Effect of cold storage on stomatal functionality, water relations and flower performance in cut roses - ScienceDirect | postharvest central | Scoop.it
Storage affects stomata functionality in cv Akito but not in cv Grand Prix.

Decreased stomata functionality correlates with lesser flower performance in cv Akito.


ABA pre-treatment improves stomata functionality.


Other factors than stomata functionality determine flower failure of stored cv Grand Prix.


Flower failure after storage in not related to increased bacterial contamination.
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Combined preharvest and postharvest treatments affect rapid leaf wilting in Bouvardia cut flowers - ScienceDirect

Combined preharvest and postharvest treatments affect rapid leaf wilting in Bouvardia cut flowers - ScienceDirect | postharvest central | Scoop.it
High air humidity during preharvest limits vase life of cut Bouvardia flowers

High water uptake doesn’t affect vase life when combined with high evaporation

Surfactant and cold-water treatments can prevent water uptake limitations.
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POSTHARVEST 2016 - Home

POSTHARVEST 2016 - Home | postharvest central | Scoop.it
VIII International Postharvest Symposium 2016 - Cartagena (Spain), 21-24 June 2016
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Genetically Engineered Crops Are Safe and Possibly Good for Climate Change

Genetically Engineered Crops Are Safe and Possibly Good for Climate Change | postharvest central | Scoop.it
The National Academy of Sciences reaffirmed GMO safety and pointed to the potential for future improvements
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Sugar and acid interconversion in tomato fruits based on biopsy sampling of locule gel and pericarp tissue

Sugar and acid interconversion in tomato fruits based on biopsy sampling of locule gel and pericarp tissue | postharvest central | Scoop.it
Highlights 
• A medical biopsy needle is introduced to sample pericarp and gel tissue of tomato. 
• Sugar and acid interconversions within individual tomatoes are measured. 
• A sugar acid model is proposed and calibrated on data from several cultivars. 
• More hexose turnover was found in locular gel than in pericarp tissue. 
• Acid to sugar conversion is more important in the cherry type cultivar. 

Abstract 
This study deals with quantifying sugar and acids levels important for the perceived taste of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum). Sugar and acids levels were measured repeatedly on the same tomato using tissue samples obtained with a biopsy needle in combination with HPLC protocols. Biopsies of pericarp and locular gel tissue from tomatoes differing in position in the truss, from mature green to ripe red, were taken from a beef- (‘Licorossa’), a cocktail- (‘Lucino’) and a cherry type (‘Petit Sweet’) cultivar. Tomatoes were stored up to three weeks at three temperatures (12, 19 and 24.5 °C) and biopsy samples were taken every few days. A model regarding the most important processes that interconvert sugars and acids (glycolysis, TCA cycle and gluconeogenesis (GNG)) is proposed. Results of the model calibration showed more breakdown of hexoses in red tomatoes and more conversion of malate into hexoses in green tomatoes. More hexose turnover was found in locular gel than in pericarp tissue. GNG was more important in the cherry type cultivar due to faster hexose and malate breakdown. In the round type cultivar malate levels were higher due to faster citrate breakdown and slower malate breakdown. Starch and sucrose levels did not significantly affect postharvest sugar and acid development. Molecular markers that quantify the kinetic parameters of the model might be important to develop genotypes with better taste performance. Keywords Biopsy; HPLC; OptiPa; Glycolysis; Citric acid cycle; Gluconeogenesis
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Multi-level engineering facilitates the production of phenylpropanoid compounds in tomato : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

Multi-level engineering facilitates the production of phenylpropanoid compounds in tomato : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | postharvest central | Scoop.it
Experimental evidence for compositional syntax in bird calls Nature Communications 08 March 2016
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An integrated genomic and metabolomic framework for cell wall biology in rice

Plant cell walls are complex structures that full-fill many diverse functions during plant growth and development. It is therefore not surprising that thousands of gene products are involved in cell wall synthesis and maintenance. However, functional association for the majority of these gene products remains obscure. One useful approach to infer biological associations is via transcriptional coordination, or co-expression of genes. This approach has proved useful for several biological processes. Nevertheless, combining co-expression with other large-scale measurements may improve the biological inferences.

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Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's curator insight, July 18, 2014 12:01 PM
Abstract (provisional)Background

Plant cell walls are complex structures that full-fill many diverse functions during plant growth and development. It is therefore not surprising that thousands of gene products are involved in cell wall synthesis and maintenance. However, functional association for the majority of these gene products remains obscure. One useful approach to infer biological associations is via transcriptional coordination, or co-expression of genes. This approach has proved useful for several biological processes. Nevertheless, combining co-expression with other large-scale measurements may improve the biological inferences.

Results

In this study, we used a combined approach of co-expression and cell wall metabolomics to obtain new insight into cell wall synthesis in rice. We initially created a weighted gene co-expression network from publicly available datasets, and then established a comprehensive cell wall dataset by determining cell wall compositions from 29 tissues that almost cover the whole life cycle of rice. We subsequently combined the datasets through the conversion of co-expressed gene modules into eigen-vectors, representing expression profiles for the genes in the modules, and performed comparative analyses against the cell wall contents. Here, we made three major discoveries. First, we confirmed our approach by finding primary and secondary wall cellulose biosynthesis modules, respectively. Second, we found co-expressed modules that strongly correlated with re-organization of the secondary cell walls and with modifications and degradation of hemicellulosic structures. Third, we inferred that at least one module is likely to play a regulatory role in the production of G-rich lignification.

Conclusions

Here, we integrated transcriptomic associations and cell wall metabolism and found that certain co-expressed gene modules are positively correlated with distinct cell wall characteristics. We propose that combining multiple data-types, such as coordinated transcription and cell wall analyses, may be a useful approach to glean new insight into biological processes. The combination of multiple datasets, as illustrated here, can further improve the functional inferences that typically are generated via a single type of datasets. In addition, our data extend the typical co-expression approach to allow deeper insight into cell wall biology in rice.

 
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Key Applications of Plant Metabolic Engineering

Key Applications of Plant Metabolic Engineering | postharvest central | Scoop.it

A remarkable 180 million tons of nitrogen fertilizer is used every year in industrial farming [12], and it has played such an enabling role that fertilizer use is estimated to meet the nutritional needs of one-third of the human population [13]. However, the use of nitrogen fertilizers has serious disadvantages, including substantial cost and deleterious effects on the soil and surrounding environment, and neighboring waterways. Plants that could satisfy some or all of their own nitrogen requirement would transform agriculture by reducing or eliminating this enormous dependence on fertilizer.

There are two conceivable ways in which a plant could be engineered to satisfy its own nitrogen requirement. The first takes advantage of the fact that some bacteria carry out their own version of the Haber-Bosch process—reducing atmospheric N2 into a more bioavailable form, NH3—using the enzyme nitrogenase [14]. This complex enzyme contains multiple metalloclusters and requires a large quantity of biochemical energy to transfer the electrons needed to activate the exceptionally stable N2 triple bond. By expressing nitrogenase, plants would be able to fix their own nitrogen. The primary advantage of this approach is that it is direct: nitrogen fixed by a plant could be used immediately to generate amino acid and nucleic acid monomers and transport them to neighboring cells. Although the process would incur a metabolic cost, it could be regulated by the endogenous level of nitrogen to maximize its efficiency.

Immense technological challenges stand in the way of accomplishing this goal [15]. Eighteen gene products (in Klebsiella oxytoca) are necessary and sufficient for the production of nitrogenase and its complex iron-molybdenum cofactor. By an impressive feat of microbial engineering, the biosynthetic gene cluster for nitrogenase has been refactored—taken apart, re-coded, and put back together using known components—and shown to be active in its new host [16]. The successful transfer of other large gene clusters from one microbe to another, such as the one encoding the magnetosome, suggests that the process of functionalizing microbes is undergoing a dramatic improvement [17].

But new challenges must be overcome for the expression of similar elements in plants. First, all 18 components of the nitrogenase biosynthetic apparatus would need to be expressed simultaneously in plants and function in concert, a considerable barrier given that the largest number of genes expressed in an engineered plant to date is eight in the establishment of a photorespiratory bypass in Arabidopsis [18]. Second, since plants are eukaryotic and multicellular, where in the plant cell should the genes be expressed and in which cell types of the plant? This question is especially relevant for nitrogenase, which is poisoned by oxygen and must therefore be expressed under anaerobic conditions. Tools that enable organelle- and cell-type specific expression will be of great utility here and in other plant engineering efforts.

The second way to reduce or eliminate the need for nitrogen fertilizer would be to engineer a rhizosphere symbiosis between a nitrogen-fixing microorganism and a plant host. Although this approach is less direct than expressing nitrogenase in plants, it has two primary advantages: (1) It uncouples the difficulties of utilizing nitrogenase (e.g., sequestering the enzyme in an anaerobic compartment) from the biology of the plant host, and outsources the demanding chemistry involved to a bacterial strain better suited to the task. (2) The well-studied symbioses between legumes and their nitrogen-fixing, root-nodulating bacterial symbionts prove that a bacterial mutualist can satisfy the nitrogen needs of a plant host [19]. Even though root-nodulating bacteria appear to be specific to legumes, the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere opens the possibility that symbioses of this sort are a much more widely distributed phenomenon [20]. If so, then the feasibility of making this mode of nitrogen exchange more efficient—rather than engineering it from scratch—would appear high. However, there remain two primary challenges in engineering a stable and practical rhizosphere symbiosis: enabling efficient nutrient exchange and maintaining specificity of the host-microbe pair. Both could take years to develop and are likely to require not just plant but also microbial metabolic engineering. In the meantime, advanced molecular breeding tools that enable access to natural variation in a plant's wild ancestors [21] are a promising alternative approach to increasing crop plant yields [22].


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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New PPH publication: "Transcription factor mediated control of anthocyanin biosynthesis in vegetative tissues" in Plant Physiology

New PPH publication: "Transcription factor mediated control of anthocyanin biosynthesis in vegetative tissues" in Plant Physiology | postharvest central | Scoop.it

By Nikolay Outchkourov, Rumyana Karlova, Matthijs Hoelscher, Xandra Schrama, Ikram Blilou, Esmer Jongedijk, Carmen Diez Simon, Aalt D.J. van Dijk, Dirk Bosch, Robert Hall and Jules Beekwilder


Via Wilco Ligterink
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New 'Tomato Expression Atlas' dives deep into the fruit's flesh

New 'Tomato Expression Atlas' dives deep into the fruit's flesh | postharvest central | Scoop.it
Researchers at BTI, Cornell and USDA published a spatiotemporal map of gene expression across all tissues and developmental stages of the tomato fruit - the genetic information underlying how a fruit changes from inside to out as it ripens. Their data is available in the new Tomato Expression Atlas (TEA).
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The Arabidopsis DNA Methylome Is Stable under Transgenerational Drought Stress

The Arabidopsis DNA Methylome Is Stable under Transgenerational Drought Stress | postharvest central | Scoop.it
Improving the responsiveness, acclimation, and memory of plants to abiotic stress holds substantive potential for improving agriculture. An unresolved question is the involvement of chromatin marks in the memory of agriculturally relevant stresses. Such potential has spurred numerous investigations yielding both promising and conflicting results. Consequently, it remains unclear to what extent robust stress-induced DNA methylation variation can underpin stress memory. Using a slow-onset water deprivation treatment in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we investigated the malleability of the DNA methylome to drought stress within a generation and under repeated drought stress over five successive generations. While drought-associated epi-alleles in the methylome were detected within a generation, they did not correlate with drought-responsive gene expression. Six traits were analyzed for transgenerational stress memory, and the descendants of drought-stressed lineages showed one case of memory in the form of increased seed dormancy, and that persisted one generation removed from stress. With respect to transgenerational drought stress, there were negligible conserved differentially methylated regions in drought-exposed lineages compared with unstressed lineages. Instead, the majority of observed variation was tied to stochastic or preexisting differences in the epigenome occurring at repetitive regions of the Arabidopsis genome. Furthermore, the experience of repeated drought stress was not observed to influence transgenerational epi-allele accumulation. Our findings demonstrate that, while transgenerational memory is observed in one of six traits examined, they are not associated with causative changes in the DNA methylome, which appears relatively impervious to drought stress.

Via Andres Zurita
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Komen wetenschappers nog wel aan waarheidsvinding toe?

Komen wetenschappers nog wel aan waarheidsvinding toe? | postharvest central | Scoop.it
Komen wetenschappers vandaag de dag nog wel aan waarheidsvinding toe? Is de wetenschap in crisis? Om op deze vragen een antwoord te krijgen, sprak Jop de Vrieze met een groot aantal wetenschappers.
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Article in dutch about Scientific Integrity 
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A catechol oxidase AcPPO from cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) is localized to the Golgi apparatus - ScienceDirect

A catechol oxidase AcPPO from cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) is localized to the Golgi apparatus - ScienceDirect | postharvest central | Scoop.it
AcPPO:GFP co-localizes with a Golgi apparatus marker in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves.

Peak AcPPO activity correlates with Golgi apparatus marker activity.


AcPPO faces the lumen of Golgi apparatus vesicles.
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Postharvest technology course, Wageningen 2017

Postharvest technology course, Wageningen 2017 | postharvest central | Scoop.it
Learn the basic principles behind the factors and processes affecting postharvest quality and understand how to apply this information in your daily practice.
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Postharvest technology course, Wageningen

Postharvest technology course, Wageningen | postharvest central | Scoop.it
Are you looking for an update on the latest technologies for storage, packaging and handling of fresh horticultural products? Would you like to broaden and deepen your knowledge of the biology of postharvest development, ripening and deterioration? Then this course might be something for you. 35% of all harvested crops is lost during storage and distribution. The increasing globalisation of both the fresh produce and ornamental sectors necessitates long-term transport and the demand for high quality products stresses the need for innovative and sustainable postharvest technologies. Prevention of postharvest losses therefore is of major importance for global food and nutritional security.
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Insight into the evolution of the Solanaceae from the parental genomes of Petunia hybrida

Insight into the evolution of the Solanaceae from the parental genomes of Petunia hybrida | postharvest central | Scoop.it
Two high-quality genomes of petunia wild parents reveal two rounds of hexaploidization in the evolution of Petunia lineage and provide insights into the diversity of floral patterns and pollination systems — enhancing the model value of this genus.
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Crop Diversity: An Unexploited Treasure Trove for Food Security: Trends in Plant Science

Crop Diversity: An Unexploited Treasure Trove for Food Security: Trends in Plant Science | postharvest central | Scoop.it
The prediction is that food supply must double by 2050 to cope with the impact of climate change and population pressure on global food systems. The diversification of staple crops and the systems in which they grow is essential to make future agriculture sustainable, resilient, and suitable for local environments and soils.

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The Potential of Transcription Factor-Based Genetic Engineering in Improving Crop Tolerance to Drought

Drought is one of the major constraints in crop production and has an effect on a global scale. In order to improve crop production, it is necessary to understand how plants respond to stress. A good understanding of regulatory mechanisms involved in plant responses during drought will enable researchers to explore and manipulate key regulatory points in order to enhance stress tolerance in crops. Transcription factors (TFs) have played an important role in crop improvement from the dawn of agriculture. TFs are therefore good candidates for genetic engineering to improve crop tolerance to drought because of their role as master regulators of clusters of genes. Many families of TFs, such as CCAAT, homeodomain, bHLH, NAC, AP2/ERF, bZIP, and WRKY have members that may have the potential to be tools for improving crop tolerance to drought. In this review, the roles of TFs as tools to improve drought tolerance in crops are discussed. The review also focuses on current strategies in the use of TFs, with emphasis on several major TF families in improving drought tolerance of major crops. Finally, many promising transgenic lines that may have improved drought responses have been poorly characterized and consequently their usefulness in the field is uncertain. New advances in high-throughput phenotyping, both greenhouse and field based, should facilitate improved phenomics of transgenic lines. Systems biology approaches should then define the underlying changes that result in higher yields under water stress conditions. These new technologies should help show whether manipulating TFs can have effects on yield under field conditions.

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De novo sequencing and comparative analysis of holy and sweet basil transcriptomes

Ocimum L. of family Lamiaceae is a well known genus for its ethnobotanical, medicinal and aromatic properties, which are attributed to innumerable phenylpropanoid and terpenoid compounds produced by the plant. To enrich genomic resources for understanding various pathways, de novo transcriptome sequencing of two important species, O. sanctum and O. basilicum, was carried out by Illumina paired-end sequencing.

Via Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
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Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's curator insight, July 18, 2014 12:03 PM
Abstract (provisional)Background

Ocimum L. of family Lamiaceae is a well known genus for its ethnobotanical, medicinal and aromatic properties, which are attributed to innumerable phenylpropanoid and terpenoid compounds produced by the plant. To enrich genomic resources for understanding various pathways, de novo transcriptome sequencing of two important species, O. sanctum and O. basilicum, was carried out by Illumina paired-end sequencing.

Results

The sequence assembly resulted in 69117 and 130043 transcripts with an average length of 1646 +/- 1210.1 bp and 1363 +/- 1139.3 bp for O. sanctum and O. basilicum, respectively. Out of the total transcripts, 59648 (86.30%) and 105470 (81.10%) from O. sanctum and O. basilicum, and respectively were annotated by uniprot blastx against Arabidopsis, rice and lamiaceae. KEGG analysis identified 501 and 952 transcripts from O. sanctum and O. basilicum, respectively, related to secondary metabolism with higher percentage of transcripts for biosynthesis of terpenoids in O. sanctum and phenylpropanoids in O. basilicum. Higher digital gene expression in O. basilicum was validated through qPCR and correlated to higher essential oil content and chromosome number (O. sanctum, 2n = 16; and O. basilicum, 2n = 48). Several CYP450 (26) and TF (40) families were identified having probable roles in primary and secondary metabolism. Also SSR and SNP markers were identified in the transcriptomes of both species with many SSRs linked to phenylpropanoid and terpenoid pathway genes.

Conclusion

This is the first report of a comparative transcriptome analysis of Ocimum species and can be utilized to characterize genes related to secondary metabolism, their regulation, and breeding special chemotypes with unique essential oil composition in Ocimum.