Plant roots and rhizosphere
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Plant roots and rhizosphere
dedicated to mechanisms associated to root development, and adaptation to abiotic stresses but also to the relations between  roots  and their surrounding microbial communities. Involvement  of hormones in the regulation of root development is now reported in the "Plant hormones" site (http://www.scoop.it/t/plant-hormones-by-christophe-jacquet).
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Genome‐wide association and gene validation studies for early root vigour to improve direct seeding of rice - Wang - 2018 - Plant, Cell & Environment -

Genome‐wide association and gene validation studies for early root vigour to improve direct seeding of rice - Wang - 2018 - Plant, Cell & Environment - | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Elucidation of the genetic control of rice seedling vigour is now paramount with global shifts towards direct seeding of rice and the consequent demand for early vigour traits in breeding programmes. In a genome‐wide association study using an indica‐predominant diversity panel, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root length and root number in rice seedlings. Among the identified QTLs, one QTL for lateral root number on chromosome 11, qTIPS‐11, was associated with a 32.4% increase in lateral root number. The locus was validated in independent backgrounds, and a predicted glycosyl hydrolase, TIPS‐11‐9, was identified as the causal gene for observed phenotypic differences. TIPS‐11‐9 was differentially expressed in emerging lateral roots of contrasting qTIPS‐11 haplotypes, which was likely due to differences in cis‐regulatory elements and auxin responsiveness. Abolishment of Tips‐11‐9 function through T‐DNA insertion in a qTIPS‐11‐positive background resulted in a reduction of lateral root number, which negatively affected biomass accumulation, particularly under phosphorous‐limiting conditions.

Marker‐assisted introgression of qTIPS‐11 into modern indica varieties will aid in the generation of varieties adapted to direct seeding and thus facilitate the adoption of direct seeding practices in tropical Asia.
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Microbial Interkingdom Interactions in Roots Promote Arabidopsis Survival - ScienceDirect

Microbial Interkingdom Interactions in Roots Promote Arabidopsis Survival - ScienceDirect | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Roots of healthy plants are inhabited by soil-derived bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes that have evolved independently in distinct kingdoms of life. How these microorganisms interact and to what extent those interactions affect plant health are poorly understood. We examined root-associated microbial communities from three Arabidopsis thaliana populations and detected mostly negative correlations between bacteria and filamentous microbial eukaryotes. We established microbial culture collections for reconstitution experiments using germ-free A. thaliana. In plants inoculated with mono- or multi-kingdom synthetic microbial consortia, we observed a profound impact of the bacterial root microbiota on fungal and oomycetal community structure and diversity. We demonstrate that the bacterial microbiota is essential for plant survival and protection against root-derived filamentous eukaryotes. Deconvolution of 2,862 binary bacterial-fungal interactions ex situ, combined with community perturbation experiments in planta, indicate that biocontrol activity of bacterial root commensals is a redundant trait that maintains microbial interkingdom balance for plant health.
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IJMS | Free Full-Text | Identification of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi Responsive microRNAs and Their Regulatory Network in Maize

IJMS | Free Full-Text | Identification of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi Responsive microRNAs and Their Regulatory Network in Maize | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Maize can form symbiotic relationships with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungus to increase productivity and resistance, but the miRNAs in maize responsible for this process have not been discovered. In this study, 155 known and 28 novel miRNAs were identified by performing high-throughput sequencing of sRNA in maize roots colonized by AM fungi. Similar to the profiles in other AM-capable plants, a large proportion of identified maize miRNAs were 24 nt in length. Fourteen and two miRNAs were significantly down- and up-regulated in response to AM fungus Glomus intraradices inoculation, respectively, suggesting potential roles of these miRNAs in AM symbiosis. Interestingly, 12 of 14 significantly down-regulated known maize miRNAs belong to the miR399 family, which was previously reported to be involved in the interaction between Medicago truncatula and AM fungi. This result indicated that the miR399 family should regulate AM symbiosis conservatively across different plant lineages. Pathway and network analyses showed that the differentially expressed miRNAs might regulate lipid metabolism and phosphate starvation response in maize during the symbiosis process via their target genes. Several members of the miR399 family and the miR397 family should be involved in controlling the fatty acid metabolism and promoting lipid delivering from plants to AM fungi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on miRNAs mediating fatty acids from plant to AM fungi. This study provides insight into the regulatory roles of miRNAs in the symbiosis between plants and AM fungi. View Full-Text
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Lipo‐chitooligosaccharides promote lateral root formation and modify auxin homeostasis in Brachypodium distachyon - Buendia - - New Phytologist -

Lipo‐chitooligosaccharides promote lateral root formation and modify auxin homeostasis in Brachypodium distachyon - Buendia - - New Phytologist - | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Lipo‐chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) are microbial symbiotic signals that also influence root growth. In Medicago truncatula, LCOs stimulate lateral root formation (LRF) synergistically with auxin. However, the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon and whether it is restricted to legume plants are not known.
We have addressed the capacity of the model monocot Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) to respond to LCOs and auxin for LRF. For this, we used a combination of root phenotyping assays, live‐imaging and auxin quantification, and analysed the regulation of auxin homeostasis genes.
We show that LCOs and a low dose of the auxin precursor indole‐3‐butyric acid (IBA) stimulated LRF in Brachypodium, while a combination of LCOs and IBA led to different regulations. Both LCO and IBA treatments locally increased endogenous indole‐3‐acetic acid (IAA) content, whereas the combination of LCO and IBA locally increased the endogenous concentration of a conjugated form of IAA (IAA‐Ala). LCOs, IBA and the combination differentially controlled expression of auxin homeostasis genes.
These results demonstrate that LCOs are active on Brachypodium roots and stimulate LRF probably through regulation of auxin homeostasis. The interaction between LCO and auxin treatments observed in Brachypodium on root architecture opens interesting avenues regarding their possible combined effects during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.
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Medicago AP2-Domain Transcription Factor WRI5a Is a Master Regulator of Lipid Biosynthesis and Transfer during Mycorrhizal Symbiosis - ScienceDirect

Medicago AP2-Domain Transcription Factor WRI5a Is a Master Regulator of Lipid Biosynthesis and Transfer during Mycorrhizal Symbiosis - ScienceDirect | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Most land plants have evolved a mutualistic symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi that improve nutrient acquisition from the soil. In return, up to 20% of host plant photosynthate is transferred to the mycorrhizal fungus in the form of lipids and sugar. Nutrient exchange must be regulated by both partners in order to maintain a reliable symbiotic relationship. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of lipid transfer from the plant to the AM fungus remain elusive. Here, we show that the Medicago truncatula AP2/EREBP transcription factor WRI5a, and likely its two homologs WRI5b/Erf1 and WRI5c, are master regulators of AM symbiosis controlling lipid transfer and periarbuscular membrane formation. We found that WRI5a binds AW-box cis-regulatory elements in the promoters of M. truncatula STR, which encodes a periarbuscular membrane-localized ABC transporter required for lipid transfer from the plant to the AM fungus, and MtPT4, which encodes a phosphate transporter required for phosphate transfer from the AM fungus to the plant. The hairy roots of the M. truncatula wri5a mutant and RNAi composite plants displayed impaired arbuscule formation, whereas overexpression of WRI5a resulted in enhanced expression of STR and MtPT4, suggesting that WRI5a regulates bidirectional symbiotic nutrient exchange. Moreover, we found that WRI5a and RAM1 (Required for Arbuscular Mycorrhization symbiosis 1), which encodes a GRAS-domain transcription factor, regulate each other at the transcriptional level, forming a positive feedback loop for regulating AM symbiosis. Collectively, our data suggest a role for WRI5a in controlling bidirectional nutrient exchange and periarbuscular membrane formation via the regulation of genes involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and phosphate uptake in arbuscule-containing cells.
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PtdIns(3,5)P 2 mediates root hair shank hardening in Arabidopsis

PtdIns(3,5)P 2 mediates root hair shank hardening in Arabidopsis | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Root hairs elongate by tip growth and simultaneously harden the shank by constructing the inner secondary cell wall layer. While much is known about the process of tip growth1, almost nothing is known about the mechanism by which root hairs harden the shank. Here we show that phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2), the enzymatic product of FORMATION OF APLOID AND BINUCLEATE CELLS 1 (FAB1), is involved in the hardening of the shank in root hairs in Arabidopsis. FAB1 and PtdIns(3,5)P2 localize to the plasma membrane along the shank of growing root hairs. By contrast, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase 3 (PIP5K3) and PtdIns(4,5)P2 localize to the apex of the root hair where they are required for tip growth. Reduction of FAB1 function results in the formation of wavy root hairs while those of the wild type are straight. The localization of FAB1 in the plasma membrane of the root hair shank requires the activity of Rho-related GTPases from plants 10 (ROP10) and localization of ROP10 requires FAB1 activity. Computational modelling of root hair morphogenesis successfully reproduces the wavy root hair phenotype. Taken together, these data demonstrate that root hair shank hardening requires PtdIns(3,5)P2/ROP10 signalling.
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Frontiers | OsWRKY28 Regulates Phosphate and Arsenate Accumulation, Root System Architecture and Fertility in Rice | Plant Science

Frontiers | OsWRKY28 Regulates Phosphate and Arsenate Accumulation, Root System Architecture and Fertility in Rice | Plant Science | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
WRKYs are transcriptional factors involved in stress tolerance and development of plants. In the present study, we characterized OsWRKY28, a group IIa WRKY gene, in rice, because its expression was found to be upregulated by arsenate exposure in previous transcriptomic studies. Subcellular localization using YFP–OsWRKY28 fusion protein showed that the protein was localized in the nuclei. Transgenic rice plants expressing pOsWRKY28::GUS suggested that the gene was expressed in various tissues in the whole plant, with a strong expression in the root tips, lateral roots and reproductive organs. The expression of OsWRKY28 was markedly induced by arsenate and other oxidative stresses. In a hydroponic experiment, loss-of-function mutation in OsWRKY28 resulted in lower accumulation of arsenate and phosphate concentration in the shoots. The mutants showed altered root system architecture, with fewer lateral roots and shorter total root length than wild-type plants. In a soil pot experiment, the mutants produced lower grain yield than wild-type because of reduced fertility and smaller effective tiller numbers. Transcriptomic profiling using RNA-seq showed altered expression in the mutant of genes involved in the biosynthesis of phytohormones, especially jasmonic acid (JA). Exogenous JA treatments mimicked the phenotypes of the oswrky28 mutants with inhibited root elongation and decreased arsenate/phosphate translocation. Our results suggested that OsWRKY28 affected arsenate/phosphate accumulation, root development at the seedling stage and fertility at the reproductive stage possibly by influencing homeostasis of JA or other phytohormones.
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Evolution of the Symbiosis-Specific GRAS Regulatory Network in Bryophytes

Evolution of the Symbiosis-Specific GRAS Regulatory Network in Bryophytes | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Arbuscular mycorrhiza is one of the most common plant symbiotic interactions observed today. Due to their nearly ubiquitous occurrence and their beneficial impact on both partners it was suggested that this mutualistic interaction was crucial for plants to colonize the terrestrial habitat approximately 500 Ma ago. On the plant side the association is established via the common symbiotic pathway (CSP). This pathway allows the recognition of the fungal symbiotic partner, subsequent signaling to the nucleus, and initiation of the symbiotic program with respect to specific gene expression and cellular re-organization. The downstream part of the CSP is a regulatory network that coordinates the transcription of genes necessary to establish the symbiosis, comprising multiple GRAS transcription factors (TFs). These regulate their own expression as an intricate transcriptional network. Deduced from non-host genome data the loss of genes encoding CSP components coincides with the loss of the interaction itself. Here, we analyzed bryophyte species with special emphasis on the moss Physcomitrella patens, supposed to be a non-host, for the composition of the GRAS regulatory network components. We show lineage specific losses and expansions of several of these factors in bryophytes, potentially coinciding with the proposed host/non-host status of the lineages. We evaluate losses and expansions and infer clade-specific evolution of GRAS TFs.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Frontiers | Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria: Context, Mechanisms of Action, and Roadmap to Commercialization of Biostimulants for Sustainable Agriculture | Plant Science

Frontiers | Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria: Context, Mechanisms of Action, and Roadmap to Commercialization of Biostimulants for Sustainable Agriculture | Plant Science | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Microbes of the phytomicrobiome are associated with every plant tissue and, in combination with the plant form the holobiont. Plants regulate the composition and activity of their associated bacterial community carefully. These microbes provide a wide range of services and benefits to the plant; in return, the plant provides the microbial community with reduced carbon and other metabolites. Soils are generally a moist environment, rich in reduced carbon which supports extensive soil microbial communities. The rhizomicrobiome is of great importance to agriculture owing to the rich diversity of root exudates and plant cell debris that attract diverse and unique patterns of microbial colonization. Microbes of the rhizomicrobiome play key roles in nutrient acquisition and assimilation, improved soil texture, secreting, and modulating extracellular molecules such as hormones, secondary metabolites, antibiotics, and various signal compounds, all leading to enhancement of plant growth. The microbes and compounds they secrete constitute valuable biostimulants and play pivotal roles in modulating plant stress responses. Research has demonstrated that inoculating plants with plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) or treating plants with microbe-to-plant signal compounds can be an effective strategy to stimulate crop growth. Furthermore, these strategies can improve crop tolerance for the abiotic stresses (e.g., drought, heat, and salinity) likely to become more frequent as climate change conditions continue to develop. This discovery has resulted in multifunctional PGPR-based formulations for commercial agriculture, to minimize the use of synthetic fertilizers and agrochemicals. This review is an update about the role of PGPR in agriculture, from their collection to commercialization as low-cost commercial agricultural inputs. First, we introduce the concept and role of the phytomicrobiome and the agricultural context underlying food security in the 21st century. Next, mechanisms of plant growth promotion by PGPR are discussed, including signal exchange between plant roots and PGPR and how these relationships modulate plant abiotic stress responses via induced systemic resistance. On the application side, strategies are discussed to improve rhizosphere colonization by PGPR inoculants. The final sections of the paper describe the applications of PGPR in 21st century agriculture and the roadmap to commercialization of a PGPR-based technology.
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Hydrogen Sulfide Disturbs Actin Polymerization via S-Sulfhydration Resulting in Stunted Root Hair Growth

Hydrogen Sulfide Disturbs Actin Polymerization via S-Sulfhydration Resulting in Stunted Root Hair Growth | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important signaling molecule in plants. Our previous report suggested that H2S signaling affects the actin cytoskeleton and root hair growth. However, the underlying mechanisms of its effects are not understood. S-Sulfhydration of proteins is regulated directly by H2S, which converts the thiol groups of cysteine (Cys) residues to persulfides and alters protein function. In this work, we studied the effects of S-sulfhydration on actin dynamics in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We generated transgenic plants overexpressing the H2S biosynthesis-related genes l-CYSTEINE DESULFHYDRASE (LCD) and d-CYSTEINE DESULFHYDRASE in the O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase isoform a1 (oasa1) mutant and Columbia-0 backgrounds. The H2S content increased significantly in overexpressing LCD/oasa1 plants. The density of filamentous actin (F-actin) bundles and the F-actin/globular actin ratio decreased in overexpressing LCD/oasa1 plants. S-Sulfhydration also was enhanced in overexpressing LCD/oasa1 plants. An analysis of actin dynamics suggested that S-sulfhydration inhibited actin polymerization. We also found that ACTIN2 (ACT2) was S-sulfhydrated at Cys-287. Cys-287 is adjacent to the D-loop, which acts as a central region for hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions and stabilizes F-actin filaments. Overaccumulation of H2S caused the depolymerization of F-actin bundles and inhibited root hair growth. Introduction of ACT2 carrying a Cys-287-to-Ser mutation into an act2-1 mutant partially suppressed H2S-dependent inhibition of root hair growth. We conclude that H2S regulates actin dynamics and affects root hair growth.
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The future has roots in the past: the ideas and scientists that shaped mycorrhizal research

The future has roots in the past: the ideas and scientists that shaped mycorrhizal research | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Our knowledge of mycorrhizas dates back to at least 150 years ago, when the plant pathologists A. B. Frank and G. Gibelli described the surprisingly morphology of forest tree roots surrounded by a fungal mantle. Compared with this history, our molecular study of mycorrhizas remains a young science. To trace the history of mycorrhizal research, from its roots in the distant past, to the present and the future, this review outlines a few topics that were already central in the 19th century and were seminal in revealing the biological meaning of mycorrhizal associations. These include investigations of nutrient exchange between partners, plant responses to mycorrhizal fungi, and the identity and evolution of mycorrhizal symbionts as just a few examples of how the most recent molecular studies of mycorrhizal biology sprouted from the roots of past research. In addition to clarifying the ecological role of mycorrhizas, some of the recent results have changed the perception of the relevance of mycorrhizas in the scientific community, and in the whole of society. Looking to past knowledge while foreseeing strategies for the next steps can help us catch a glimpse of the future of mycorrhizal research.
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Ectopic activation of cortical cell division during the accommodation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Ectopic activation of cortical cell division during the accommodation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) between plants and soil fungi are widespread symbioses with a major role in soil nutrient uptake.
In this study we investigated the induction of root cortical cell division during AM colonization by combining morphometric and gene expression analyses with promoter activation and protein localization studies of the cell‐plate‐associated exocytic marker TPLATE.
Our results show that TPLATE promoter is activated in colonized cells of the root cortex where we also observed the appearance of cells that are half the size of the surrounding cells. Furthermore, TPLATE‐green fluorescent protein recruitment to developing cell plates highlighted ectopic cell division events in the inner root cortex during early AM colonization. Lastly, transcripts of TPLATE, KNOLLE and Cyclinlike 1 (CYC1) are all upregulated in the same context, alongside endocytic markers Adaptor‐Related Protein complex 2 alpha 1 subunit (AP2A1) and Clathrin Heavy Chain 2 (CHC2), known to be active during cell plate formation. This pattern of gene expression was recorded in wild‐type Medicago truncatula roots, but not in a common symbiotic signalling pathway mutant where fungal colonization is blocked at the epidermal level.
Altogether, these results suggest the activation of cell‐division‐related mechanisms by AM hosts during the accommodation of the symbiotic fungus.
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Frontiers | The Association With Two Different Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Differently Affects Water Stress Tolerance in Tomato | Plant Science

Frontiers | The Association With Two Different Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Differently Affects Water Stress Tolerance in Tomato | Plant Science | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are very widespread, forming symbiotic associations with ∼80% of land plant species, including almost all crop plants. These fungi are considered of great interest for their use as biofertilizer in low-input and organic agriculture. In addition to an improvement in plant nutrition, AM fungi have been reported to enhance plant tolerance to important abiotic and biotic environmental conditions, especially to a reduced availability of resources. These features, to be exploited and applied in the field, require a thorough identification of mechanisms involved in nutrient transfer, metabolic pathways induced by single and multiple stresses, physiological and eco-physiological mechanisms resulting in improved tolerance. However, cooperation between host plants and AM fungi is often related to the specificity of symbiotic partners, the environmental conditions and the availability of resources. In this study, the impact of two AM fungal species (Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus intraradices) on the water stress tolerance of a commercial tomato cultivar (San Marzano nano) has been evaluated in pots. Biometric and eco-physiological parameters have been recorded and gene expression analyses in tomato roots have been focused on plant and fungal genes involved in inorganic phosphate (Pi) uptake and transport. R. intraradices, which resulted to be more efficient than F. mosseae to improve physiological performances, was selected to assess the role of AM symbiosis on tomato plants subjected to combined stresses (moderate water stress and aphid infestation) in controlled conditions. A positive effect on the tomato indirect defense toward aphids in terms of enhanced attraction of their natural enemies was observed, in agreement with the characterization of volatile organic compound (VOC) released. In conclusion, our results offer new insights for understanding the molecular and physiological mechanisms involved in the tolerance toward water deficit as mediated by a specific AM fungus. Moreover, they open new perspectives for the exploitation of AM symbiosis to enhance crop tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses in a scenario of global change.
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Silicon decreases cadmium concentrations by modulating root endodermal suberin development in wheat plants - ScienceDirect

Silicon decreases cadmium concentrations by modulating root endodermal suberin development in wheat plants - ScienceDirect | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Silicon (Si) can alleviate cadmium (Cd) toxicity in many plants, but mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect are still lacking. In this study, the roles of Si in time-dependent apoplastic and symplastic Cd absorption by roots of wheat plants were investigated. Results showed that, during short-term Cd exposure, the symplastic pathway of Cd in roots was not significantly affected by Si. Cell wall properties and cell wall-bound Cd regarding the apoplastic pathway were unaffected by Si either. Nevertheless, Cd concentrations in the apoplastic fluid of roots were decreased by Si. The reason could be that Si delayed endodermal suberization of roots resulting in promoted apoplastic Cd translocation to shoots, thus decreasing Cd in the apoplastic fluid of roots after short-term Cd stress. By contrast, after long-term Cd stress, cell wall properties and the expression of genes related to Cd influx and transport were unaffected. Intriguingly, Si up-regulated the expression of the Cd efflux-related gene TaTM20 and repressed apoplastic Cd translocation to shoots, which might contribute to decrease of Cd after long-term Cd exposure. Taken together, these results indicate that Si-dependent decrease in root Cd concentrations during short-term Cd exposure helps plants to mitigate Cd toxicity in the long-term.
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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate root damage stress induced by simulated coal mining subsidence ground fissures - ScienceDirect

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate root damage stress induced by simulated coal mining subsidence ground fissures - ScienceDirect | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Coal mining results in surface subsidence and induces the development of ground fissures that damage surrounding plant roots. Very few studies have explored the stress of root damage caused by ground fissures and whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can relieve root damage stress induced by ground fissures. In the present study we simulated ground fissure induced root damage, examined the resultant changes in endogenous hormones, root system morphology, leaf area, leaf chlorophyll content, nutrient content and biomass of maize, and examined the ameliorative effects of AMF on maize with root damage. Ground fissures led to significantly higher levels of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) but significantly reduced levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins (GA) and cytokinin (CTK). In addition, ground fissures led to significantly reduced root biomass, total root length, root tip number, total root volume, plant nutrient content, leaf chlorophyll content and leaf area. The shoot biomass of root damaged maize decreased significantly by 46%. By contrast, AMF increased IAA and CTK levels in maize roots, reduced ABA levels, improved the hormone balance of damaged plants, increased total root length, root tip number, total root volume, leaf area and leaf chlorophyll content, increased nutrient content and increased shoot biomass by 34%. Overall, by simulating coal mining subsidence ground fissures, the study investigated the effects of root damage stress on plant biomass, found that AMF can alleviate the mechanical damages to the root system, and provided a theoretical basis for microbial remediation in areas subject to subsidence due to coal mining.
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Osmotic stress enhances suberization of apoplastic barriers in barley seminal roots: analysis of chemical, transcriptomic and physiological responses - Kreszies - 2019 - New Phytologist -

Osmotic stress enhances suberization of apoplastic barriers in barley seminal roots: analysis of chemical, transcriptomic and physiological responses - Kreszies - 2019 - New Phytologist - | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is more drought tolerant than other cereals, thus making it an excellent model for the study of the chemical, transcriptomic and physiological effects of water deficit. Roots are the first organ to sense soil water deficit. Therefore, we studied the response of barley seminal roots to different water potentials induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000.
We investigated changes in anatomical parameters by histochemistry and microscopy, quantitative and qualitative changes in suberin composition by analytical chemistry, transcript changes by RNA‐sequencing (RNA‐Seq), and the radial water and solute movement of roots using a root pressure probe.
In response to osmotic stress, genes in the suberin biosynthesis pathway were upregulated that correlated with increased suberin amounts in the endodermis and an overall reduction in hydraulic conductivity (Lpr). In parallel, transcriptomic data indicated no or only weak effects of osmotic stress on aquaporin expression.
These results indicate that osmotic stress enhances cell wall suberization and markedly reduces Lpr of the apoplastic pathway, whereas Lpr of the cell‐to‐cell pathway is not altered. Thus, the sealed apoplast markedly reduces the uncontrolled backflow of water from the root to the medium, whilst keeping constant water flow through the highly regulated cell‐to‐cell path.
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TaWRKY51 promotes lateral root formation through negative regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) - Hu - 2018 - The Plant Journal -

TaWRKY51 promotes lateral root formation through negative regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) - Hu - 2018 - The Plant Journal - | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important staple food crop worldwide. Lateral roots (LRs), as the major component of root architecture, affect water and nutrient uptake in wheat. The phytohormone ethylene is known to affect LR formation; however, the factor(s) modulating ethylene during this process have not yet been elucidated in wheat. Here we identified wheat TaWRKY51 as a key factor that functions in LR formation by modulating ethylene biosynthesis. Wheat TaWRKY51RNA interference lines (TaWRKY51‐RNAi) and the homozygous mutants tawrky51‐2a and tawrky51‐2b all produced fewer LRs than the wild type and negative transgenic plants, whereas the TaWRKY51 overexpression lines (TaWRKY51‐OE) had the opposite phenotype. Transcription analysis revealed that 1‐aminocyclopropane‐1‐carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) genes (TaACS2, TaACS7 and TaACS8) involved in ethylene biosynthesis were downregulated in TaWRKY51‐OE lines but upregulated in TaWRKY51‐RNAi lines. The rate of ethylene production also decreased in TaWRKY51‐OE lines but increased in TaWRKY51‐RNAi lines compared with their respective negative transgenic controls. Electrophoretic mobility shift and transient expression assays revealed that TaWRKY51 inhibits the expression of ACS genes by binding to the W‐box cis‐element present in their promoter region. Moreover, overexpression of ACS2 or exogenous application of 1‐aminocyclopropane‐1‐carboxylic acid reversed the phenotype of enhanced LR number in TaWRKY51‐OE Arabidopsis lines, and overexpression of TaWRKY51 in the ethylene‐overproducing mutant eto1‐1 rescued its LR defect phenotype. In addition, genetic evidence demonstrates that TaWRKY51‐regulated LR formation is also dependent on ethylene and auxin signaling pathways. Our findings reveal a molecular genetic mechanism by which a WRKY gene coordinates ethylene production and LR formation in wheat.
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Transcriptomic analysis reveals the possible roles of sugar metabolism and export for positive mycorrhizal growth responses in soybean - Zhao - - Physiologia Plantarum -

Transcriptomic analysis reveals the possible roles of sugar metabolism and export for positive mycorrhizal growth responses in soybean - Zhao - - Physiologia Plantarum - | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
To elucidate molecular mechanisms controlling differential growth responses to root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi varying in colonization and cooperative behavior, a pot experiment was carried out using two soybean genotypes and three AM inocula. The results showed that inoculation by cooperative Rhizophagus irregularis (Ri) or less cooperative Glomus aggregatum with high AM colonization (Ga‐H) significantly promoted plant growth compared with inoculation by G. aggregatum with low AM colonization (Ga‐L). A comparative RNA sequencing analysis of the root transcriptomes showed that fatty acid synthesis pathway was significantly enriched in all three AM inoculation roots. However, sugar metabolism and transport were significantly enriched only in Ri and Ga‐H inoculation, which was consistent with positive growth responses in these two inoculation treatments. Accordingly, the expression levels of the key genes related to sugar metabolism and transport were also upregulated in Ri and Ga‐H roots compared with Ga‐L roots. Of them, two sugars will eventually be exported transporters (SWEET) transporter genes, GmSWEET6 (Glyma.04G198600) and GmSWEET15 (Glyma.06G166800), and one invertase (Glyma.17G227900) gene were exclusively induced only in Ri and Ga‐H roots. Promoter analyses in transgenic soybean roots further demonstrated that GUS driven by the GmSWEET6 promoter was highly expressed in arbuscule‐containing cortical cells. Additionally, Ri and Ga‐H inoculation increased the contents of sucrose, glucose and fructose in both shoots and roots compared with those of Ga‐L and non‐mycorrhizal. These results imply that positive mycorrhizal growth responses in plants might mostly be due to the stimulation of photosynthate metabolism and transport by AM fungal inoculum with high colonization capabilities.
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Rhizosphere pseudomonads as probiotics improving plant health - Kim - 2018 - Molecular Plant Pathology -

Rhizosphere pseudomonads as probiotics improving plant health - Kim - 2018 - Molecular Plant Pathology - | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Many root‐colonizing microbes are multifaceted in traits that improve plant health. Although isolates designated as biological control agents directly reduce pathogen growth, many exert additional beneficial features that parallel changes induced in animal and other hosts by health‐promoting microbes termed probiotics. Both animal and plant probiotics cause direct antagonism of pathogens and induce systemic immunity in the host to pathogens and other stresses. They also alter host development and improve host nutrition. The probiotic root‐colonizing pseudomonads are generalists in terms of plant hosts, soil habitats and the array of stress responses that are ameliorated in the plant. This article illustrates how the probiotic pseudomonads, nurtured by the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) sources released by the plant in root exudates, form protective biofilms on the root surface and produce the metabolites or enzymes to boost plant health. The findings reveal the multifunctional nature of many of the microbial metabolites in the plant–probiotic interplay. The beneficial effects of probiotics on plant function can contribute to sustainable yield and quality in agricultural production.
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Frontiers | RiCRN1, a Crinkler Effector From the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, Functions in Arbuscule Development | Microbiology

Frontiers | RiCRN1, a Crinkler Effector From the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, Functions in Arbuscule Development | Microbiology | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is one of the most prominent and beneficial plant–microbe interactions that facilitates mineral nutrition and confers tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. AM fungi colonize the root cortex and develop specialized structures called arbuscules where the nutrient exchange takes place. Arbuscule development is a highly controlled and coordinated process requiring the involvement of many plant proteins recruited at that interface. In contrast, much less is known about the fungal proteins involved in this process. Here, we have identified an AM fungal effector that participates in this developmental step of the symbiosis. RiCRN1 is a crinkler (CRN) effector that belongs to a subfamily of secreted CRN proteins from R. irregularis. CRNs have been so far only functionally characterized in pathogenic microbes and shown to participate in processes controlling plant cell death and immunity. RiCRN1 accumulates during symbiosis establishment parallel to MtPT4, the gene coding for an arbuscule-specific phosphate transporter. Expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and in Medicago truncatula roots suggest that RiCRN1 is not involved in cell death processes. RiCRN1 dimerizes and localizes to nuclear bodies, suggesting that, similar to other CRNs, it functions in the plant nucleus. Downregulation of RiCRN1 using host-induced gene silencing led to an impairment of the symbiosis in M. truncatula and to a reduction of MtPT4, while ectopic expression of RiCRN1, surprisingly, led to a drastic reduction in arbuscule size that correlated with a decrease not only in MtPT4 but also in MtBCP1, a marker for initial stages of arbuscule development. Altogether, our results suggest that a tightly regulated expression in time and space of RiCRN1 is critical for symbiosis progression and for the proper initiation of arbuscule development.
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Rhizosphere microbiome structure alters to enable wilt resistance in tomato

Rhizosphere microbiome structure alters to enable wilt resistance in tomato | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Tomato variety Hawaii 7996 is resistant to the soil-borne pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, whereas the Moneymaker variety is susceptible to the pathogen. To evaluate whether plant-associated microorganisms have a role in disease resistance, we analyzed the rhizosphere microbiomes of both varieties in a mesocosm experiment. Microbiome structures differed between the two cultivars. Transplantation of rhizosphere microbiota from resistant plants suppressed disease symptoms in susceptible plants. Comparative analyses of rhizosphere metagenomes from resistant and susceptible plants enabled the identification and assembly of a flavobacterial genome that was far more abundant in the resistant plant rhizosphere microbiome than in that of the susceptible plant. We cultivated this flavobacterium, named TRM1, and found that it could suppress R. solanacearum-disease development in a susceptible plant in pot experiments. Our findings reveal a role for native microbiota in protecting plants from microbial pathogens, and our approach charts a path toward the development of probiotics to ameliorate plant diseases.
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Frontiers | Chromatin-Based Regulation of Plant Root Development | Plant Science

Frontiers | Chromatin-Based Regulation of Plant Root Development | Plant Science | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Plant is endowed with sessile habit and nutrient acquisition mainly through the root organ, which also provides an excellent model to study stem cell fate and asymmetric division due to well-organized cell layers and relatively simple cell types in root meristem. Besides genetic material DNA wrapped around histone octamer, chromatin structure determined by chromatin modification including DNA methylation, histone modification and chromatin remodeling also contributes greatly to the regulation of gene expression. In this review, we summarize the current progresses on the molecular mechanisms of chromatin modification in regulating root development.
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PtdIns(3,5)P 2 mediates root hair shank hardening in Arabidopsis

PtdIns(3,5)P 2 mediates root hair shank hardening in Arabidopsis | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
Root hairs elongate by tip growth and simultaneously harden the shank by constructing the inner secondary cell wall layer. While much is known about the process of tip growth1, almost nothing is known about the mechanism by which root hairs harden the shank. Here we show that phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2), the enzymatic product of FORMATION OF APLOID AND BINUCLEATE CELLS 1 (FAB1), is involved in the hardening of the shank in root hairs in Arabidopsis. FAB1 and PtdIns(3,5)P2 localize to the plasma membrane along the shank of growing root hairs. By contrast, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase 3 (PIP5K3) and PtdIns(4,5)P2 localize to the apex of the root hair where they are required for tip growth. Reduction of FAB1 function results in the formation of wavy root hairs while those of the wild type are straight. The localization of FAB1 in the plasma membrane of the root hair shank requires the activity of Rho-related GTPases from plants 10 (ROP10) and localization of ROP10 requires FAB1 activity. Computational modelling of root hair morphogenesis successfully reproduces the wavy root hair phenotype. Taken together, these data demonstrate that root hair shank hardening requires PtdIns(3,5)P2/ROP10 signalling.
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OsMADS25 regulates root system development via auxin signalling in rice - Zhang - 2018 - The Plant Journal -

OsMADS25 regulates root system development via auxin signalling in rice - Zhang - 2018 - The Plant Journal - | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
The phytohormone auxin is essential for root development in plants. OsMADS25 is a homologue of the AGL17‐clade MADS‐box genes in rice. Despite recent progress, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of root development by OsMADS25 are not well known. It is unclear whether OsMADS25 regulates root development via auxin signalling. In this study, we examined the role of OsMADS25 in root development and characterized the signalling pathway through which OsMADS25 regulates root system development in rice. OsMADS25 overexpression significantly increased, but RNAi gene silencing repressed primary root (PR) length and lateral root (LR) density. Moreover, OsMADS25 promoted LR development in response to NO3−. Further study showed that OsMADS25 increased auxin accumulation in the root system by enhancing auxin biosynthesis and transport, while also reducing auxin degradation, therefore stimulating root development. More importantly, OsMADS25 was found to regulate OsIAA14 expression directly by binding to the CArG‐box in the promoter region of OsIAA14, which encodes an Aux/indole acetic acid (IAA) transcriptional repressor of auxin signalling. Elevated auxin levels and decreased OsIAA14 expression might lead to reduced OsIAA14 protein accumulation, as a mechanism to regulate auxin signalling. Therefore, our findings reveal a molecular mechanism by which OsMADS25 modulates root system growth and development in rice, at least partilly, via Aux/IAA‐based auxin signalling.
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Blumenols as shoot markers of root symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Blumenols as shoot markers of root symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi | Plant roots and rhizosphere | Scoop.it
High-through-put (HTP) screening for functional arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)-associations is challenging because roots must be excavated and colonization evaluated by transcript analysis or microscopy. Here we show that specific leaf-metabolites provide broadly applicable accurate proxies of these associations, suitable for HTP-screens. With a combination of untargeted and targeted metabolomics, we show that shoot accumulations of hydroxy- and carboxyblumenol C-glucosides mirror root AMF-colonization in Nicotiana attenuata plants. Genetic/pharmacologic manipulations indicate that these AMF-indicative foliar blumenols are synthesized and transported from roots to shoots. These blumenol-derived foliar markers, found in many di- and monocotyledonous crop and model plants (Solanum lycopersicum, Solanum tuberosum, Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum, Medicago truncatula and Brachypodium distachyon), are not restricted to particular plant-AMF interactions, and are shown to be applicable for field-based QTL mapping of AMF-related genes.
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