Plant Pests - Global Travellers
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Plant Pests - Global Travellers
News about spread of plants, insects, bacteria and other harmful organisms moving with trade and traffic.
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After Europe and New Zealand, boxwood blight invades North America

After Europe and New Zealand, boxwood blight invades North America | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

Boxwood blight, caused by Cylindrocladium buxicola, is an emerging disease of boxwood (Buxus). After Europe and New Zealand, it is now invading North America. It was first recorded in USA  at the end of 2011 in Connecticut, North Carolina and Viriginia. By mid-January 2012, the fungus has been found in at least five more states in the USA — Virginia, Maryland, Rhode Island, Massachusetts and Oregon — and in British Columbia in Canada.

 

 


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Be a citizen scientist and stop the spread of invasive species in Britain - in pictures

Be a citizen scientist and stop the spread of invasive species in Britain - in pictures | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it
Have you seen one of these 10 dangerous aliens?


The list of Britain's top 10 unwanted non-native invasive species is listed in photos.

Some of those plants and animals look just nice, but....

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Maine agencies promote invasive species awareness - Lewiston Sun Journal

Maine agencies promote invasive species awareness

Lewiston Sun Journal. By AP AUGUSTA, Maine (AP) — Maine's natural resource agencies are calling attention to the problem of invasive species during National Invasive Species Awareness Week.

The week, which kicks off Sunday, features activities, briefings, workshops and events addressing invasive species issues at the local, state and national levels.

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Update: New Pest & Disease Records (21 Feb 12)

Plantwise blog: We’ve selected a few of the latest new geographic, host and species records for plant pests and diseases from CAB Abstracts.

Records this fortnight include a new, unnamed virus infecting tomatoes and Euphorbia species in Venezuela; first reports of watermelon viruses in Palestine and Serbia; and a phytoplasma that infects prickly pear being found in its weed, bug and mollusc pests


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Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in Turkey

Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in Turkey | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

A new disease was observed during the spring and autumn of 2009 and 2010 on kiwifruit plants (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) in Rize Province of Turkey. Disease incidence was estimated as 3% in approximately 10 ha. Symptoms were characterized by dark brown spots surrounded by yellow halos on leaves and cankers with reddish exudate production on twigs and stems. Eight representative bacterial strains were isolated from leaf spots and tissues under the bark on King's B medium (KB) and identified as Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae on the basis of biochemical, physiological (1,2), and PCR tests (3).

 

Bastas KK, Karakaya A (2012) First report of bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in Turkey. Plant Disease 96(3), p 452.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-11-0675

 


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Plant-killing diseases threaten wattle - Herald Sun

Plant-killing diseases threaten wattle - Herald Sun | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

Herald Sun; NEWS.com.au

Plant-killing disease Myrtle rust is known as the foot and mouth disease of the plant world. It belongs to a group of fungi known as the ‘guava rust complex’. Myrtle rust can affect plants belonging to the family Myrtaceae, which includes many Australian native species including Eucalyptus.


AUSTRALIA'S floral emblem is under threat from a variety of plant-killing diseases incubating overseas, scientists say. Myrtle rust attacks the gum family of plants, or Myrtaceae, which include about 2500 species. Myrtle rust was detected in Victoria in January 2012, having taken less than two years to colonise the rest of the east coast of mainland Australia. It may prove to be one of the most calamitous environmental pests of the century...

The fungus that causes Myrtle rust has not been found before in Australia. This complex of diseases is native to South America and is also present in the United States of America (Florida and Hawaii) and Mexico. It is not known how this disease entered Australia, however, rust fungi produce microscopic spores which are easily carried by wind current, on people’s clothing, on plants or on goods that are shipped around the world.

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Alien invaders

Alien invaders | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it
UD professor works to fight state's 10 'most wanted' invasive species (Delaware's environmental "most wanted" list http://t.co/KFAdrgTH #invasives #stinkbugs...)...
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“Anastrepha conflua,” new fruit fly species | Smithsonian Science

“Anastrepha conflua,” new fruit fly species | Smithsonian Science | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it
Anastrepha conflua, one of seven new species of fruit fly from the genus Anastrepha Schiner that are described in a new paper by USDA entomologist Allen Norrbom, Systematic Entomology Laboratory of the Smithsonian's ...
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Plant Quarantine as a Measure Against Invasive Alien Species

Plant Quarantine as a Measure Against Invasive Alien Species | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

The introduction of several plant pests into Europe in the 19th century with disastrous consequences called for the development of plant quarantine measures to prevent the spread and introduction of pests of plants and plant products. With the purpose of harmonising these measures, and of promoting measures for pest control, the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) was developed to address organisms that are both directly and indirectly injurious to plants. It supplies a framework for measures against invasive alien species according to the Convention on Biological Diversity, as far as they are plant pests.


Schrader G, Unger JG (2003) Plant Quarantine as a Measure Against Invasive Alien Species. The Framework of the International Plant Protection Convention and the plant health regulations in the European Union. Biological Invasions.

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First Report of Mango Malformation Disease Caused by Fusarium mangiferae in Spain

APS: Mango (Mangifera indica L.) malformation disease causes severe economic losses worldwide. Symptoms of this disease in Spain were observed for the first time in April of 2006 in three mango orchards in the Axarquia Region (southern Spain). 

The authors say that this is the first report of mango malformation disease caused by Fusarium mangiferae in Spain and Europe.

 


Crespo et al. (2012) First Report of Mango Malformation Disease Caused by Fusarium mangiferae in Spain, Plant Disease, Volume 96, Issue 2, Page 286, February 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-11-0599

Mango malformation, which is caused by Fusarium mangiferae and represents the most important floral disease of mango, is also known as Gibberella fujikuroi complex.

Kvas et al. (2008) Fusarium mangiferae associated with mango malformation in the Sultanate of Oman, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PLANT PATHOLOGY Volume 121, Number 2, 195-199, http://DOI: 10.1007/s10658-007-9231-8


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The spread of invasive species and infectious disease as drivers of ecosystem change

The spread of invasive species and infectious disease as drivers of ecosystem change | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

Crowl et al., 2008:
"Understanding the interactions of invasive species, disease vectors, and pathogens with other drivers of ecosystem change is critical to human health and economic well-being."


Todd A Crowl, Thomas O Crist, Robert R Parmenter, Gary Belovsky, and Ariel E Lugo. 2008. The spread of invasive species and infectious disease as drivers of ecosystem change. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6: 238–246.

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The Asian longhorn beetle in Europe

The Asian longhorn beetle in Europe | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

In Europe the Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) is present in incursions in Austria and Italy, where eradication is not feasible any more. It has been introduced also to France, Germany and Switzerland, where it is under eradication and has a transient status. Wood packing material used in international trade is regulated based on international standard for phytosanitary measures (ISPM 15) and should be treated to prevent harboring and spreading harmful organisms.

Source: EPPO (2011) PQR

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PQR

PQR | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it
A new upgrade of PQR - EPPO database on quarantine pests (distribution, host plants) has just been released #EPPOPQR http://t.co/4jKRBQ58...
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Invasive Plants: Climate Is a Determining Factor

Invasive Plants: Climate Is a Determining Factor | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

Most invasive plants colonize regions with climates similar to the one from their native areas. This is the main conclusion of a study carried out within the framework of the National Centre of Competence.

"This study offers the strongest empirical evidence to date that climate is a determining factor in the geographic distribution of invasive plants," states Antoine Guisan.

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Gardens Inspired: Destructive Insects - Control of the Japanese Beetle

Gardens Inspired: Destructive Insects - Control of the Japanese Beetle | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

In its native Japan, where the Beetle's natural enemies keep its populations in check, the Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica) is not a serious plant pest. 

But, in the United States, the beetle entered without its natural enemies and found a favorable climate and an abundant food supply. By 1972, beetle infestations had been reported in 22 States east of the Mississippi River and also in Arkansas, Iowa, and Missouri. Since then, the pest has spread to Southern and Western States, but tough regulations and careful monitoring have prevented its establishment there. Without its natural checks and balances, the Japanese beetle has become a serious plant pest and a threat to American agriculture.

Today, the Japanese beetle is the most widespread turf-grass pest in the United States. Efforts to control the larval and adult stages are estimated to cost more than $460 million a year. Losses attributable to the larval stage alone have been estimated at $234 million per year—$78 million for control costs and an additional $156 million for replacement of damaged turf.

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New moth species invades Italy's vineyards

New moth species invades Italy's vineyards | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

New species for Europe was identified in Italy (Trentino and Veneto Region). A leaf miner Antispila oinophylla (Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae) is common in North America. Since the initial discovery in 2006, the pest spread to several additional Italian provinces. In 2010 the incidence of infestation was locally high in commercial vineyards.


BBC News has just reported about new moth species invading Italy's vineyards. They said that the pest was first discovered by Italian scientists in 2006, but they were unable to identify it.


An original resarch article  has been written by van Nieukerken et al. (2012) and they admit unclarity in identification and taxonomy. The species Antispila oinophylla is closely related to, and previously confused with Antispila ampelopsifoliella Chambers, 1874, a species feeding on Virginia creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planchon.

Using barcodes the authors indicated that the Italian populations are recently established from eastern North America. The new species feeds on various wild Vitis species in North America, on cultivated Vitis vinifera L. in Italy, and also on Parthenocissus quinquefolia in Italy.

In Italy the biology of Antispila oinophylla was studied in a vineyard in the Trento Province in 2008 and 2009. Mature larvae overwinter inside their cases, fixed to vine trunks or training stakes. The first generation flies in June. An additional generation occurs from mid-August onwards. The impact of the pest in this vineyard was significant with more than 90% of leaves infested in mid-summer.



Nieukerken EJ van, Wagner DL,  Baldessari M, Mazzon M, Angeli G, Girolami V, Duso C, Doorenweerd C (2012) Antispila oinophylla new species (Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae), a new North American grapevine leafminer invading Italian vineyards: taxonomy, DNA barcodes and life cycle.- ZooKeys 170: 29–77, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.170.2617

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Luperomorpha xanthodera, a flea beetle recently introduced into Europe

Luperomorpha xanthodera, a flea beetle recently introduced into Europe | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

During the last decade, the presence of a new flea beetle species, Luperomorpha xanthodera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), has been reported from several European countries on ornamental plants. L. xanthodera is a polyphagous species which originates from China. In Europe, it was first reported in 2003 in the United Kingdom on roses (in garden centres). In Italy, the insect was first reported in 2006 in Toscana as Luperomorpha nigripennis (see EPPO RS 2007/195), but subsequently identified as L. xanthodera. The presence of this new species has also been reported from France (2008), the Netherlands (2008, on roses in garden centres), Switzerland, Germany (2009), Hungary (2010, on ornamental plants grown in containers which had been imported from Italy), and Austria (2011, in a private garden near Salzburg). Its currently known geographical distribution can be summarized as follows:
Asia: China (no details).
EPPO region: Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Switzerland, United Kingdom.

 

Del Bene G, Conti B (2009) Notes on the biology and ethology of Luperomorpha xanthodera, a flea beetle recently introduced into Europe. Bulletin of Insectology 62(1), 61-68.

http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/pdfarticles/vol62-2009-061-068delbene.pdf


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EA biggest coastal forest under threat - IPPmedia

EA biggest coastal forest under threat - IPPmedia | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

IPPmediaEA; By Gerald Kitabu: Biggest coastal forest under threat  Manager of Rondo forest reserve Kelvin Lilai (L) and lead researchers from Tanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG) to weed the invasive species known as Maesopsis eminii.

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Potential distribution range of invasive plant species in Spain - Pensoft

Potential distribution range of invasive plant species in Spain - Pensoft | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it
Success of invasive species has been frequently estimated as the present distribution range size in the introduced region.

A positive relationship between present and potential distribution of species was discovered. Most of the species have not yet occupied half of their potential distribution range. Sorghum halepense and Amaranthus retroflexus have the widest potential distribution range. Sorghum halepense and Robinia pseudoacacia have the highest relative occupancy...

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An economic analysis of Emerald Ash Borer management options - Eureka! Science News

An economic analysis of Emerald Ash Borer management options - Eureka! Science News | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it
Eureka! Science NewsAn economic analysis of Emerald Ash Borer management optionsEureka!
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Greening Disease in Rio Grande Valley Has Texas Citrus Growers on Alert

Greening Disease in Rio Grande Valley Has Texas Citrus Growers on Alert | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it
The orange and grapefruit harvests have begun again in the Rio Grande Valley, but the discovery of an outbreak of citrus greening disease there last month has raised concern.
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Mango longhorn beetle (Batocera rubus) - basic data

Mango longhorn beetle (Batocera rubus) - basic data | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

IDENTITY
Name: Batocera rubus (Linnaeus, 1758)
EPPO Code: BATCRB
Synonyms: Batocera albofasciata De Geer, 1775; Batocera albomaculatus Retzius
Taxonomic position: Animalia: Coleopera: Cerambycidae
Common names: rubber root borer; lateral-banded mango longhorn; mango longhorn beetle (en), asiatischer Kautschukbaumbohrer (de), panterboktor (nl)

Notes on taxonomy and nomenclature: none

EPPO status: none


HOSTS

Batocera rubus is known to attack broadleaf trees and woody plants. In Europe it was interecepted on bonsay trees. Batocera rubus is a large wood borer that has been recorded on rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis in Thailand, particularly on trees damaged by other causes such as fire and lightning. Larvae (6-8 cm) also feed on freshly felled timber (FAO-Forest Health & Biosecurity Working Papers, 2007). The other recorded major hosts: bread fruit trees Artocarpus altilis, A. heterophyllus, fig Ficus carica, mango Mangifera indica (PQR).


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

In its native area in Asia B. rubus is seldom a serious pest. It is present in:


America: no data
Asia: Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Phillipines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam
Africa: no data
Europe: intercepted in France (2011, Nanterre on a single bonsai plant-Ficus microcarpa), incursion in Italy (2012)



FAO-Forest Health & Biosecurity Working Papers, OVERVIEW OF FOREST PESTS, Thailand, 2007

EPPO (2011) PQR - EPPO database on quarantine pests (available online). http://www.eppo.int


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New EPPO Pest Alert: Sakhalin-fir bark beetle

New EPPO Pest Alert: Sakhalin-fir bark beetle | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

Photo: Evgeni Akulov, Russian Federation

New addition to the EPPO Alert list: 

Sakhalin-fir bark beetle Polygraphus proximus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

Sakhalin-fir bark beetle may represent a major threat to European and Siberian fir species (Abies spp.). The bark beetle has been introduced from the Far East of Russia into the Western part of Siberia and European Russia. 

Currently, the pest has invaded Moscow and Leningrad regions in European Russia, and several areas in  (Kemerov and Tomsk regions, Krasnoyarsk Territory – covering an area of approximately 30 000 ha). In Siberia, it has caused significant damage and tree mortality in forests of Siberian fir (A. sibirica). 

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EPPO Alert on Zigzag elm sawfly

EPPO Alert on Zigzag elm sawfly | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

Photo: J. Martin, Spain

 

New addition to the EPPO Alert list: Zigzag elm sawfly Aproceros leucopoda (Hymenoptera: Argidae). 

 

Severe defoliation and branch dieback of native and non-native elms in central Europe caused by an East-Asian sawfly Aproceros leucopoda has been reported several times in last years. The pest is a multivoltine species having four generations per year with female populations reproducing by parthenogenesis.

 

Due to its observation already in 10 countries in the region it is very likely that A. leucopoda is able to establish in the centre and south of the EPPO region where cultivated or wild elms are grown.

 

Considering that the abundance of elm trees has dramatically declined in Europe over the last decades due to Dutch elm disease and the fact that the new pest has a high potential for spread and damage, the EPPO Secretariat decided to add A. leucopoda to the EPPO Alert List.

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Ohio-Cooperative Eradication Program-Asian longhorn beetle

The Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) is an invasive pest from Asia that came to the US concealed in solid wood packing material (pallets, crates and dunnage), used to transport goods from overseas. It was first detected in the US in 1996 in Brooklyn, NY. Ohio is the fifth state to detect the destructive pest species, which infests healthy and stressed deciduous hardwood tree species, such as maple, birch, horse chestnut, poplar, willow, elm, and ash.

Since November 2011 cooperative eradication program is ongoing with removals of infested trees. Ground and aerial survey crews continue to conduct delimiting surveys, inspecting all host trees throughout the regulated areas.

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