plant pathology
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Rescooped by ZHAO Huizhang from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Global Genome and Transcriptome Analyses of Magnaporthe oryzae Epidemic Isolate 98-06 Uncover Novel Effectors and Pathogenicity-Related Genes, Revealing Gene Gain and Lose Dynamics in Genome Evol...

Global Genome and Transcriptome Analyses of  Magnaporthe oryzae  Epidemic Isolate 98-06 Uncover Novel Effectors and Pathogenicity-Related Genes, Revealing Gene Gain and Lose Dynamics in Genome Evol... | plant pathology | Scoop.it
Genome dynamics of pathogenic organisms are driven by pathogen and host co-evolution, in which pathogen genomes are shaped to overcome stresses imposed by hosts with various genetic backgrounds through generation of a variety of isolates. This same principle applies to the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae and the rice host; however, genetic variations among different isolates of M. oryzae remain largely unknown, particularly at genome and transcriptome levels. Here, we applied genomic and transcriptomic analytical tools to investigate M. oryzae isolate 98-06 that is the most aggressive in infection of susceptible rice cultivars. A unique 1.4 Mb of genomic sequences was found in isolate 98-06 in comparison to reference strain 70-15. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed the presence of two critical expression patterns of M. oryzae based on 64 known pathogenicity-related (PaR) genes. In addition, 134 candidate effectors with various segregation patterns were identified. Five tested proteins could suppress BAX-mediated programmed cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Characterization of isolate-specific effector candidates Iug6 and Iug9 and PaR candidate Iug18 revealed that they have a role in fungal propagation and pathogenicity. Moreover, Iug6 and Iug9 are located exclusively in the biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC) and their overexpression leads to suppression of defense-related gene expression in rice, suggesting that they might participate in biotrophy by inhibiting the SA and ET pathways within the host. Thus, our studies identify novel effector and PaR proteins involved in pathogenicity of the highly aggressive M. oryzae field isolate 98-06, and reveal molecular and genomic dynamics in the evolution of M. oryzae and rice host interactions.

Via Francis Martin
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Rescooped by ZHAO Huizhang from TAL effector science
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TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in the early-branching metazoan Nematostella vectensis : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in the early-branching metazoan Nematostella vectensis : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | plant pathology | Scoop.it

(via T. Schreiber, thx)

Ikmi et al, 2014

Non-bilaterian phyla represent key lineages for exploring the evolutionary history of early animals. However, despite an increasing number of sequenced genomes from early-branching metazoans, efficient and reproducible methodologies for analysis of gene function remain a major challenge. Here we report the utilization of the TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 systems to induce targeted mutations and homologous recombination-mediated transgenesis in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. We also present a new method to isolate genetically modified animals using engineered selection cassettes introduced by homologous recombination. Taken together, these methods will permit sophisticated gain- and loss-of-function analyses in Nematostella and perhaps other early metazoan species that allow for zygotic injection.


Via dromius
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Scooped by ZHAO Huizhang
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ATI Industrial Automation's 8th Annual Technology Fair Scheduled for August ... - ThomasNet News (press release)

ATI Industrial Automation's 8th Annual Technology Fair Scheduled for August ... - ThomasNet News (press release) | plant pathology | Scoop.it
ATI Industrial Automation's 8th Annual Technology Fair Scheduled for August ...
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Rescooped by ZHAO Huizhang from Plant Pathogenomics
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Molecular Cellular Proteomics: Profiling the secretome and extracellular proteome of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans (2014)

Molecular Cellular Proteomics: Profiling the secretome and extracellular proteome of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans (2014) | plant pathology | Scoop.it

Oomycetes are filamentous organisms that cause notorious diseases, several of which have a high economic impact. Well known is Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight. Previously, in silico analyses of the genome and transcriptome of P. infestans resulted in the annotation of a large number of genes encoding proteins with an N-terminal signal peptide. This set is collectively referred to as the secretome and comprises proteins involved in, for example, cell wall growth and modification, proteolytic processes and the promotion of successful invasion of plant cells. So far, proteomic profiling in oomycetes was primarily focussed on subcellular, intracellular or cell wall fractions; the extracellular proteome has not been studied systematically. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of the in vivo secretome and extracellular proteome of P. infestans. We have used mass spectrometry to analyse P. infestans proteins present in seven different growth media with mycelial cultures and this resulted in the consistent identification of over two hundred proteins. Gene ontology classification pinpointed proteins involved in cell wall modifications, pathogenesis, defense responses and proteolytic processes. Moreover, we found members of the RXLR and CRN effector families as well as several proteins lacking an obvious signal peptide. The latter were confirmed to be bona fide extracellular proteins and this suggests that, similar to other organisms, oomycetes exploit non-conventional secretion mechanisms to transfer certain proteins to the extracellular environment.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by ZHAO Huizhang from Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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Deletion of the α-(1,3)-Glucan Synthase Genes Induces a Restructuring of the Conidial Cell Wall Responsible for the Avirulence of Aspergillus fumigatus

Deletion of the α-(1,3)-Glucan Synthase Genes Induces a Restructuring of the Conidial Cell Wall Responsible for the Avirulence of Aspergillus fumigatus | plant pathology | Scoop.it
by Anne Beauvais, Silvia Bozza, Olaf Kniemeyer, Céline Formosa, Viviane Balloy, Christine Henry, Robert W. Roberson, Etienne Dague, Michel Chignard, Axel A.

Via IPM Lab
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Rescooped by ZHAO Huizhang from Plant-microbe interaction
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PLOS Pathogens: Bacterial Effector Activates Jasmonate Signaling by Directly Targeting JAZ Transcriptional Repressors

PLOS Pathogens: Bacterial Effector Activates Jasmonate Signaling by Directly Targeting JAZ Transcriptional Repressors | plant pathology | Scoop.it

Gram-negative bacterial pathogens deliver a variety of virulence proteins through the type III secretion system (T3SS) directly into the host cytoplasm. These type III secreted effectors (T3SEs) play an essential role in bacterial infection, mainly by targeting host immunity. However, the molecular basis of their functionalities remains largely enigmatic. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas syringae T3SE HopZ1a, a member of the widely distributed YopJ effector family, directly interacts with jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins through the conserved Jas domain in plant hosts. JAZs are transcription repressors of jasmonate (JA)-responsive genes and major components of the jasmonate receptor complex. Upon interaction, JAZs can be acetylated by HopZ1a through a putative acetyltransferase activity. Importantly,P. syringae producing the wild-type, but not a catalytic mutant of HopZ1a, promotes the degradation of HopZ1-interacting JAZs and activates JA signaling during bacterial infection. Furthermore, HopZ1a could partially rescue the virulence defect of a P. syringae mutant that lacks the production of coronatine, a JA-mimicking phytotoxin produced by a few P. syringaestrains. These results highlight a novel example by which a bacterial effector directly manipulates the core regulators of phytohormone signaling to facilitate infection. The targeting of JAZ repressors by both coronatine toxin and HopZ1 effector suggests that the JA receptor complex is potentially a major hub of host targets for bacterial pathogens.


Via Suayib Üstün
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Suayib Üstün's curator insight, November 1, 2013 3:44 AM

And the HopZ1a Story goes on!

Rescooped by ZHAO Huizhang from TAL effector science
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Microhomology-mediated end-joining-dependent integration of donor DNA in cells and animals using TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

Microhomology-mediated end-joining-dependent integration of donor DNA in cells and animals using TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | plant pathology | Scoop.it

(via T. Schreiber, thx)

Nakade et al, 2014

Genome engineering using programmable nucleases enables homologous recombination (HR)-mediated gene knock-in. However, the labour used to construct targeting vectors containing homology arms and difficulties in inducing HR in some cell type and organisms represent technical hurdles for the application of HR-mediated knock-in technology. Here, we introduce an alternative strategy for gene knock-in using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) mediated by microhomology-mediated end-joining, termed the PITCh (Precise Integration into Target Chromosome) system. TALEN-mediated PITCh, termed TAL-PITCh, enables efficient integration of exogenous donor DNA in human cells and animals, including silkworms and frogs. We further demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated PITCh, termed CRIS-PITCh, can be applied in human cells without carrying the plasmid backbone sequence. Thus, our PITCh-ing strategies will be useful for a variety of applications, not only in cultured cells, but also in various organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates.


Via dromius
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Fesquet didier's curator insight, November 21, 2014 7:55 AM

and other strategy fo Ki experiments

 

Rescooped by ZHAO Huizhang from Plants and Microbes
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Curr Opin Plant Biol: Cross-interference of plant development and plant–microbe interactions (2014)

Curr Opin Plant Biol: Cross-interference of plant development and plant–microbe interactions (2014) | plant pathology | Scoop.it

Plant roots are host to a multitude of filamentous microorganisms. Among these, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provide benefits to plants, while pathogens trigger diseases resulting in significant crop yield losses. It is therefore imperative to study processes which allow plants to discriminate detrimental and beneficial interactions in order to protect crops from diseases while retaining the ability for sustainable bio-fertilisation strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests that some symbiosis processes also affect plant–pathogen interactions. A large part of this overlap likely constitutes plant developmental processes. Moreover, microbes utilise effector proteins to interfere with plant development. Here we list relevant recent findings on how plant–microbe interactions intersect with plant development and highlight future research leads.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Steve Marek's curator insight, June 16, 2014 2:56 PM

Nice review

Rakesh Yashroy's curator insight, July 2, 2014 10:54 AM

Microbe-macrobe or host-pathogen interface determines the cell-cell interactions largely @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host-pathogen_interface

Rescooped by ZHAO Huizhang from Plants and Microbes
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Curr Opin Plant Biol: Filamentous pathogen effector functions: of pathogens, hosts and microbiomes (2014)

Curr Opin Plant Biol: Filamentous pathogen effector functions: of pathogens, hosts and microbiomes (2014) | plant pathology | Scoop.it

Microorganisms play essential roles in almost every environment on earth. For instance, microbes decompose organic material, or establish symbiotic relationships that range from pathogenic to mutualistic. Symbiotic relationships have been particularly well studied for microbial plant pathogens and have emphasized the role of effectors; secreted molecules that support host colonization. Most effectors characterized thus far play roles in deregulation of host immunity. Arguably, however, pathogens not only deal with immune responses during host colonization, but also encounter other microbes including competitors, (myco)parasites and even potential co-operators. Thus, part of the effector catalog may target microbiome co-inhabitants rather than host physiology.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rakesh Yashroy's curator insight, July 2, 2014 11:16 AM

Host-pathogen interface is the 'kurukshetra' or battlefield of life @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host-pathogen_interface

Rescooped by ZHAO Huizhang from Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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The haustorial transcriptomes of Uromyces appendiculatus and Phakopsora pachyrhizi and their candidate effector families

Summary
Haustoria of biotrophic rust fungi are responsible for uptake of nutrients from their hosts and for production of secreted proteins known as effectors that modulate the host immune system.

Via IPM Lab
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Rescooped by ZHAO Huizhang from TAL effector science
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Targeted Gene Deletion of miRNAs in Mice by TALEN System - PLOS One

Targeted Gene Deletion of miRNAs in Mice by TALEN System - PLOS One | plant pathology | Scoop.it

(via T. Schreiber, thx)

Takada et al, 2013

Mice are among the most valuable model animal species with an enormous amount of heritage in genetic modification studies. However, targeting genes in mice is sometimes difficult, especially for small genes, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and targeting genes in repeat sequences. Here we optimized the application of TALEN system for mice and successfully obtained gene targeting technique in mice for intergenic region and series of microRNAs. Microinjection of synthesized RNA of TALEN targeting each gene in one cell stage of embryo was carried out and injected oocytes were transferred into pseudopregnant ICR female mice, producing a high success rate of the targeted deletion of miRNA genes. In our condition, TALEN RNA without poly(A) tail worked better than that of with poly(A) tail. This mutated allele in miRNA was transmitted to the next generation, suggesting the successful germ line transmission of this targeting method. Consistent with our notion of miRNAs maturation mechanism, in homozygous mutant mice of miR-10a, the non- mutated strand of miRNAs expression was completely diminished. This method will lead us to expand and accelerate our genetic research using mice in a high throughput way.

 

 


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