Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis
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Chemical hijacking of auxin signaling with an engineered auxin–TIR1 pair

Chemical hijacking of auxin signaling with an engineered auxin–TIR1 pair | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
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Pretty impressive study from @Stomata_Tweets @KeikoUTorii! Chemical hijacking of auxin signaling with an engineered auxin–TIR1 pair.
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Formation and Shaping of the Antirrhinum Flower through Modulation of the CUP Boundary Gene

Formation and Shaping of the Antirrhinum Flower through Modulation of the CUP Boundary Gene | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
Rebocho et al. shows how the CUP boundary gene plays a key role in the shaping of
the ornate Snapdragon flower by controlling differential growth. Clearing of CUP expression
from petal junctions allows the flower tube to form, while activation of CUP in the
lower petal promotes growth and formation of the convoluted lower palate and lip.
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ZHOUPI and KERBEROS Mediate Embryo/Endosperm Separation by Promoting the Formation of an Extra-Cuticular Sheath at the Embryo Eurface.

Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed development requires the concomitant development of two zygotic compartments, the embryo and the endosperm. Following fertilization, the endosperm expands and the embryo grows invasively through the endosperm, which breaks down. Here we describe a structure we refer to as the embryo sheath that forms on the surface of the embryo as it starts to elongate. The sheath is deposited outside the embryonic cuticle, and incorporates endosperm-derived material rich in extensin-like molecules. Sheath production is dependent upon the activity of ZHOUPI, an endosperm-specific transcription factor necessary for endosperm degradation, embryo growth, embryo-endosperm separation and normal embryo cuticle formation. We show that the peptide, KERBEROS, whose expression is ZHOUPI-dependent, is necessary both for the formation of a normal embryo sheath and for embryo-endosperm separation. Finally, we show that the receptor-like kinases GSO1 and GSO2 are required for sheath deposition at the embryo surface but not for production of sheath material in the endosperm. We present a model in which sheath formation depends on the co-ordinated production of material in the endosperm and signalling within the embryo, highlighting the complex molecular interaction between these two tissues during early seed development.
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Role of LOTR1 in Nutrient Transport through Organization of Spatial Distribution of Root Endodermal Barriers

Role of LOTR1 in Nutrient Transport through Organization of Spatial Distribution of Root Endodermal Barriers | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
Li, Kamiya, et al. identify a novel gene required for ion transport by organizing
Casparian strip formation and suberin deposition. Further, through the analysis of
the Casparian strip mutants, they show that suberin lamella functions as an apoplastic
barrier at the site of lateral root emergence where Casparian strips are disrupted.
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outlook on protein S-acylation in plants: what are the next steps? | Journal of Experimental Botany | Oxford Academic

outlook on protein S-acylation in plants: what are the next steps? | Journal of Experimental Botany | Oxford Academic | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
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Plant Stress Tolerance Requires Auxin-Sensitive Aux/IAA Transcriptional Repressors

Plant Stress Tolerance Requires Auxin-Sensitive Aux/IAA Transcriptional Repressors | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
The Aux/IAA repressors are key regulators of auxin response in plants, but the factors
that regulate their synthesis are largely unknown. Shani et al. identify transcription
factors that regulate these genes. The DREB proteins directly regulate expression
of IAA5 and IAA19. Furthermore, the authors show that these Aux/IAAs are required
for stress tolerance.
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Phosphorylation of the Polarity Protein BASL Differentiates Asymmetric Cell Fate through MAPKs and SPCH

Phosphorylation of the Polarity Protein BASL Differentiates Asymmetric Cell Fate through MAPKs and SPCH | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
BASL is polarized premitotically and inherited to the large daughter cells after a
stomatal asymmetric division. Zhang et al. show that polarized BASL distinguishes
two daughter cells by elevating nuclear MAPK activity to suppress SPCH. FRAP assays
reveal that intracellular mobility of polarized BASL is tightly related to its phosphorylation
status.
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A Potassium-Dependent Oxygen Sensing Pathway Regulates Plant Root Hydraulics

A Potassium-Dependent Oxygen Sensing Pathway Regulates Plant Root Hydraulics | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
A pathway that integrates oxygen and potassium levels to modulate root hydraulics
allows plants to survive flooding.
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Quiescent center initiation in the Arabidopsis lateral root primordia is dependent on the SCARECROW transcription factor

Quiescent center initiation in the Arabidopsis lateral root primordia is dependent on the SCARECROW transcription factor | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
Lateral root (LR) formation is an important determinant of root system architecture. In Arabidopsis , LRs originate from pericycle cells, which undergo a programme of morphogenesis to generate a new LR meristem. Despite its importance for root meristem organisation, the onset of organizing center (termed quiescent center; QC) formation during LR morphogenesis remains unclear. Here, we used live 3D confocal imaging to monitor cell organization and identity acquisition during LR development. Our dynamic observations revealed an early morphogenesis phase and a late meristem formation phase as proposed in the bi-phasic growth model described by Sussex and co-workers. LR QC establishment coincided with this developmental phase transition. QC precursor cells originated from the outer layer of stage II LR primordia, within which the SCARECROW ( SCR ) transcription factor was specifically expressed. Disrupting SCR function abolished periclinal divisions in this LR primordia cell layer and perturbed the formation of QC precursor cells . We conclude that de novo QC establishment in LR primordia operates via SCR-mediated formative cell division and coincides with the developmental phase transition.
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RALFL34 regulates formative cell divisions in Arabidopsis pericycle during lateral root initiation

RALFL34 regulates formative cell divisions in Arabidopsis pericycle during lateral root initiation | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
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Cellulose-Microtubule Uncoupling Proteins Prevent Lateral Displacement of Microtubules during Cellulose Synthesis in Arabidopsis

Cellulose-Microtubule Uncoupling Proteins Prevent Lateral Displacement of Microtubules during Cellulose Synthesis in Arabidopsis | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth and is synthesized at the plasma
membrane of plant cells. Liu and co-workers reveal how a microtubule-localized protein
family, the CMUs, can control the movement of the protein complex that produces cellulose,
which is essential for directed plant cell growth.
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ENDOSOMAL RAB EFFECTOR WITH PX-DOMAIN, an interacting partner of RAB5 GTPases, regulates membrane trafficking to protein storage vacuoles in Arabidopsis

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Defining the physiological role of SRP in protein-targeting efficiency and specificity

Defining the physiological role of SRP in protein-targeting efficiency and specificity | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
The signal recognition particle (SRP) enables cotranslational delivery of proteins for translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but its full in vivo role remains incompletely explored. We combined rapid auxin-induced SRP degradation with proximity-specific ribosome profiling to define SRP’s in vivo function in yeast. Despite the classic view that SRP recognizes N-terminal signal sequences, we show that SRP was generally essential for targeting transmembrane domains regardless of their position relative to the N terminus. By contrast, many proteins containing cleavable N-terminal signal peptides were efficiently cotranslationally targeted in SRP’s absence. We also revealed an unanticipated consequence of SRP loss: Normally ER-targeted transcripts were mistargeted to mitochondria, leading to mitochondrial defects. These results elucidate SRP’s essential roles in maintaining the efficiency and specificity of protein targeting.
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A Novel Plasma Membrane-Anchored Protein Regulates Xylem Cell-Wall Deposition through Microtubule-Dependent Lateral Inhibition of Rho GTPase Domains

A Novel Plasma Membrane-Anchored Protein Regulates Xylem Cell-Wall Deposition through Microtubule-Dependent Lateral Inhibition of Rho GTPase Domains | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
Rho GTPases and cortical microtubules play central roles in directing cell-wall patterns.
Sugiyama et al. show that a microtubule-associated protein, IQD13, interacts with
the plasma membrane to laterally confine the Rho GTPase domains, thereby leading to
the formation of oval secondary cell-wall pits in xylem vessels.
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Dimerization in LBD16 and LBD18 transcription factors Is Critical for Lateral Root Formation

Dimerization in LBD16 and LBD18 transcription factors Is Critical for Lateral Root Formation | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
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Shortening of Microtubule Overlap Regions Defines Membrane Delivery Sites during Plant Cytokinesis

Shortening of Microtubule Overlap Regions Defines Membrane Delivery Sites during Plant Cytokinesis | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
Plants and animals synthesize and move large amounts of membranous material to construct
a division plane for cell division. De Keijzer et al. define short stretches of antiparallel
microtubule overlap as membrane accumulation sites in moss plants. Dimensions of the
dividing cell plate are set by kinesin-4-mediated shortening of these overlaps.
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Regional Growth Rate Differences Specified by Apical Notch Activities Regulate Liverwort Thallus Shape

Regional Growth Rate Differences Specified by Apical Notch Activities Regulate Liverwort Thallus Shape | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
Tissue polarity and anisotropic growth are pivotal to the generation of planar growth
forms in flowering plants and flies. Liverworts have an ancient planar growth form
of mixed shoot and organ nature. Solly et al. show that growth rate heterogeneity
patterned relative to the apical notches is sufficient to generate thallus shape.
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Dynamic control of lateral root positioning

Dynamic control of lateral root positioning | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
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Excellent review about LR positioning from the Beeckman lab
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Plant development regulated by cytokinin sinks

Plant development regulated by cytokinin sinks | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
Morphogenetic signals control the patterning of multicellular organisms. Cytokinins are mobile signals that are perceived by subsets of plant cells. We found that the responses to cytokinin signaling during Arabidopsis development are constrained by the transporter PURINE PERMEASE 14 (PUP14). In our experiments, the expression of PUP14 was inversely correlated to the cytokinin signaling readout. Loss of PUP14 function allowed ectopic cytokinin signaling accompanied by aberrant morphogenesis in embryos, roots, and the shoot apical meristem. PUP14 protein localized to the plasma membrane and imported bioactive cytokinins, thus depleting apoplastic cytokinin pools and inhibiting perception by plasma membrane–localized cytokinin sensors to create a sink for active ligands. We propose that the spatiotemporal cytokinin sink patterns established by PUP14 determine the cytokinin signaling landscape that shapes the morphogenesis of land plants.
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Very insightful paper from Bruno Müller's group
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Plastid osmotic stress influences cell differentiation at the plant shoot apex

Plastid osmotic stress influences cell differentiation at the plant shoot apex | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
The balance between proliferation and differentiation in the plant shoot apical meristem is controlled by regulatory loops involving the phytohormone cytokinin and stem cell identity genes. Concurrently, cellular differentiation in the developing shoot is coordinated with the environmental and developmental status of plastids within those cells. Here we employ an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant exhibiting constitutive plastid osmotic stress to investigate the molecular and genetic pathways connecting plastid osmotic stress with cell differentiation at the shoot apex. msl2 msl3 mutants exhibit dramatically enlarged and deformed plastids in the shoot apical meristem, and develop a mass of callus tissue at the shoot apex. Callus production in this mutant requires the cytokinin receptor AHK2 and is characterized by increased cytokinin levels, down-regulation of cytokinin signaling inhibitors ARR7 and ARR15, and induction of the stem cell identity gene WUSCHEL . Furthermore, plastid stress-induced apical callus production requires elevated plastidic ROS, ABA biosynthesis, the retrograde signaling protein GUN1, and ABI4. These results are consistent with a model wherein the cytokinin/WUS pathway and retrograde signaling control cell differentiation at the shoot apex.
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The impact of mechanical compression on cortical microtubules in Arabidopsis: a quantitative pipeline - Louveaux - 2016 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library

The impact of mechanical compression on cortical microtubules in Arabidopsis: a quantitative pipeline - Louveaux - 2016 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
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Mapping the subcellular mechanical properties of live cells in tissues with fluorescence emission–Brillouin imaging

Mapping the subcellular mechanical properties of live cells in tissues with fluorescence emission–Brillouin imaging | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
Mechanical properties of cells and the matrix that surrounds them contribute to cell shape, control cell migration, and regulate cell growth. Elsayad et al. engineered a microscope system that integrated fluorescence emission detection with detection of a light-scattering process called the Brillouin frequency shift and called the method fluorescence emission–Brillouin scattering imaging (FBi). With this optical approach, the authors showed that the mechanical properties of live plants can be visualized at the submicrometer scale and demonstrated that this approach can be used to investigate regulatory events that alter cellular and extracellular mechanical properties of living cells within tissues. This work also revealed that the cytoplasm near the cell membrane and the extracellular matrix are regions of locally increased stiffness and showed that the sides parallel to the growth axis of an expanding plant hypocotyl, but not root, cells are “stiffer” than the sides perpendicular to the growth axis. Thus, FBi is another tool in the microscopy toolkit for exploring properties of cells and tissues.
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CEP5 and XIP1/CEPR1 regulate lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis

CEP5 and XIP1/CEPR1 regulate lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
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