Plant Microbe Interactions
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Circadian regulation of sunflower heliotropism, floral orientation, and pollinator visits

Circadian regulation of sunflower heliotropism, floral orientation, and pollinator visits | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
The growth of immature sunflower plants tracks the Sun's movement. The young plants lean westward as the day progresses but reorient to the east each night. As the flowers mature and open, they settle into a stable east-facing orientation. Atamian et al. show how circadian rhythms regulate the east-west elongation of cells in the young plants' stems (see the Perspective by Briggs). They show that eastward-oriented flowers are warmer than westward-oriented flowers, and this warmth attracts pollinators. Auxin signaling pathways in the stem coordinate to fix the eastward orientation of the mature plant.

Science , this issue p. [587][1]; see also p. [541][2]

[1]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.aaf9793
[2]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.aah4439
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Mol Plant Path: Bacterial pathogenesis of plants: Future challenges from a microbial perspective (2016)

Mol Plant Path: Bacterial pathogenesis of plants: Future challenges from a microbial perspective (2016) | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it

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The Sainsbury Lab's curator insight, May 16, 2016 4:03 AM
Plant infection is a complicated process. Upon encountering a plant, pathogenic microorganisms must first adapt to life on the epiphytic surface, and survive long enough to initiate an infection. Responsiveness to the environment is critical throughout infection, with intracellular and community-level signal transduction pathways integrating environmental signals and triggering appropriate responses in the bacterial population. Ultimately, phytopathogens must migrate from the epiphytic surface into the plant tissue using motility and chemotaxis pathways. This migration is coupled to overcoming the physical and chemical barriers to entry into the plant apoplast. Once inside the plant, bacteria use an array of secretion systems to release phytotoxins and protein effectors that fulfil diverse pathogenic functions (Fig. 1)(Phan Tran et al., 2011, Melotto & Kunkel, 2013).
Rakesh Yashroy's curator insight, May 18, 2016 9:54 PM
Host-pathogen interface is the real battle field of survival against odds both for animals and plant infections @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host-pathogen_interface
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The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Seagrasses colonized the sea on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants.
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Two LysM receptor molecules, CEBiP and OsCERK1, cooperatively regulate chitin elicitor signaling in rice

Two LysM receptor molecules, CEBiP and OsCERK1, cooperatively regulate chitin elicitor signaling in rice | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Chitin is a major molecular pattern for various fungi, and its fragments, chitin oligosaccharides, are known to induce various defense responses in plant cells. A plasma membrane glycoprotein, CEBiP (chitin elicitor binding protein) and a receptor kinase, ...
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Cytokinin Production by the Rice Blast Fungus Is a Pivotal Requirement for Full Virulence

Cytokinin Production by the Rice Blast Fungus Is a Pivotal Requirement for Full Virulence | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Author Summary The role of plant-like hormonal compounds produced by fungal pathogens during infection has not been elucidated. Here we identified a conserved gene in most fungi, required for cytokinin production by the rice blast fungus and for its full virulence. Fungal-derived cytokinins are likely potent inhibitors of plant immunity. They are also needed to maintain elevated sugar contents at the site of infection and to drain or consume essential amino acids at, and around, the infection site. Thus, cytokinins represent the second example, after the bacterially-produced coronatine, of plant hormones hijacked by pathogens to successfully invade plant tissues. These findings also suggest that this invasion strategy could be widely conserved among fungi.
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Cytokinin and fungal pathogenesis

 

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Pathogen to powerhouse

Pathogen to powerhouse | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
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Pathogen, mitochondria and chloroplast

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EffectorP: predicting fungal effector proteins from secretomes using machine learning - Sperschneider - 2015 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

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Predicting fungal effectors

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Structure of a bacterial type III secretion system in contact with a host membrane in situ : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

Structure of a bacterial type III secretion system in contact with a host membrane in situ : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
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Want to see type III secretion in vivo?

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Receptor Complex Mediated Regulation of Symplastic Traffic

Receptor Complex Mediated Regulation of Symplastic Traffic | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
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Plasmodesmata and plant immunity

 

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Detoxification of hostplant's chemical defence rather than its anti-predator co-option drives β-glucosidase-mediated lepidopteran counteradaptation. - PubMed - NCBI

Detoxification of hostplant's chemical defence rather than its anti-predator co-option drives β-glucosidase-mediated lepidopteran counteradaptation. - PubMed - NCBI | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Nat Commun. 2015 Oct 7;6:8525. doi: 10.1038/ncomms9525. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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This week's (01/28/16) journal club article selected by Koichi Sugimoto.

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Video: Venus flytrap counts to avoid being tricked | Science | AAAS

Video: Venus flytrap counts to avoid being tricked | Science | AAAS | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it

Carnivorous plants like the Venus flytrap cope with poor soil by eating bugs. But the cost of insect hunting is high. Catching prey requires Dionaea muscipula to snap down quickly and then carry out the energy-intensive process of digestion. To balance the costs and benefits of eating meat, the plants have developed a counting system to identify real prey from false alarms, according to a new study. To understand how the flytrap distinguishes a potential food source from a false alarm like a raindrop, researchers observed the electrical and chemical response of the plant to touch stimulation. In order to mimic insect prey, the scientists stimulated the hairlike sensors located on the plant’s trap. Touching the sensors two times quickly caused the leaf trap to snap shut. The researchers continued stimulating the sensors in order to mimic a struggling insect trying to break free. At this stage, the plant produced a plant defense hormone, jasmonic acid—the same one released in noncarnivorous plants when being eaten by an insect. In the Venus flytrap, this hormone triggers the production of digestive enzymes. After a fifth touch, the plant produced chemicals used in absorbing nutrients, the team reports online today in Current Biology. So thanks to a bit of counting, the Venus flytrap can save its energy for when it’s really needed.  

(Video credit: Science/Böhm and Scherzer et al.)

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How could Venus flytrap do this?

 

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Gut Microbiota Orchestrates Energy Homeostasis during Cold: Cell

Gut Microbiota Orchestrates Energy Homeostasis during Cold: Cell | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
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Cold-microbiota-energy homeostasis in the gut.

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Transgenic Citrus Expressing an Arabidopsis NPR1 Gene Exhibit Enhanced Resistance against Huanglongbing (HLB; Citrus Greening)

Transgenic Citrus Expressing an  Arabidopsis  NPR1 Gene Exhibit Enhanced Resistance against Huanglongbing (HLB; Citrus Greening) | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Commercial sweet orange cultivars lack resistance to Huanglongbing (HLB), a serious phloem limited bacterial disease that is usually fatal. In order to develop sustained disease resistance to HLB, transgenic sweet orange cultivars ‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene under the control of a constitutive CaMV 35S promoter or a phloem specific Arabidopsis SUC2 ( AtSUC2 ) promoter were produced. Overexpression of AtNPR1 resulted in trees with normal phenotypes
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DWARF14 is a non-canonical hormone receptor for strigolactone : Nature : Nature Research

DWARF14 is a non-canonical hormone receptor for strigolactone : Nature : Nature Research | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
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A fungal pathogen secretes plant alkalinizing peptides to increase infection

A fungal pathogen secretes plant alkalinizing peptides to increase infection | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
The fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum is shown to use a functional homologue of the plant regulatory peptide RALF (rapid alkalinization factor) to induce alkalinization and cause disease in plants.
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A fungal pathogen secretes plant alkalinizing peptides to increase infection - cool story of pathogen evasion of plant "non-self" detection to prevent defense activation.
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Spike-dip transformation of Setaria viridis - Saha - 2016 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library

Spike-dip transformation of Setaria viridis - Saha - 2016 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
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A receptor heteromer mediates the male perception of female attractants in plants : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

A receptor heteromer mediates the male perception of female attractants in plants : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Sexual reproduction requires recognition between the male and female gametes. In flowering plants, the immobile sperms are delivered to the ovule-enclosed female gametophyte by guided pollen tube growth. Although the female gametophyte-secreted peptides have been identified to be the chemotactic attractant to the pollen tube, the male receptor(s) is still unknown. Here we identify a cell-surface receptor heteromer, MDIS1–MIK, on the pollen tube that perceives female attractant LURE1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. MDIS1, MIK1 and MIK2 are plasma-membrane-localized receptor-like kinases with extracellular leucine-rich repeats and an intracellular kinase domain. LURE1 specifically binds the extracellular domains of MDIS1, MIK1 and MIK2, whereas mdis1 and mik1 mik2 mutant pollen tubes respond less sensitively to LURE1. Furthermore, LURE1 triggers dimerization of the receptors and activates the kinase activity of MIK1. Importantly, transformation of AtMDIS1 to the sister species Capsella rubella can partially break down the reproductive isolation barrier. Our findings reveal a new mechanism of the male perception of the female attracting signals.
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Yeast as a Heterologous Model System to Uncover Type III Effector Function

Type III effectors (T3E) are key virulence proteins that are injected by bacterial pathogens inside the cells of their host to subvert cellular processes and contribute to disease. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an important heterologous system for the functional characterisation of T3E proteins in a eukaryotic environment. Importantly, yeast contains eukaryotic processes with low redundancy and are devoid of immunity mechanisms that counteract T3Es and mask their function. Expression in yeast of effectors from both plant and animal pathogens that perturb conserved cellular processes often resulted in robust phenotypes that were exploited to elucidate effector functions, biochemical properties, and host targets. The genetic tractability of yeast and its amenability for high-throughput functional studies contributed to the success of this system that, in recent years, has been used to study over 100 effectors. Here, we provide a critical view on this body of work and describe advantages and limitations inherent to the use of yeast in T3E research. “Favourite” targets of T3Es in yeast are cytoskeleton components and small GTPases of the Rho family. We describe how mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling, vesicle trafficking, membrane structures, and programmed cell death are also often altered by T3Es in yeast and how this reflects their function in the natural host. We describe how effector structure–function studies and analysis of candidate targeted processes or pathways can be carried out in yeast. We critically analyse technologies that have been used in yeast to assign biochemical functions to T3Es, including transcriptomics and proteomics, as well as suppressor, gain-of-function, or synthetic lethality screens. We also describe how yeast can be used to select for molecules that block T3E function in search of new antibacterial drugs with medical applications. Finally, we provide our opinion on the limitations of S . cerevisiae as a model system and its most promising future applications.
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Yeast-based study of type III effectors

 

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Using decoys to expand the recognition specificity of a plant disease resistance protein

Using decoys to expand the recognition specificity of a plant disease resistance protein | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
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Modifying RPS5 R protein to expand disease resistance

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Making the cut

Making the cut | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
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Scientific breakthroughs of 2015 according to Science

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A multiplex CRISPR/Cas9 platform for fast and efficient editing of multiple genes in Arabidopsis - Online First - Springer

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Targeting multiple genes by CRISPR in Arabidopsis

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bioRxiv: Cell re-entry assays do not support models of pathogen-independent translocation of AvrM and AVR3a effectors into plant cells (2016)

bioRxiv: Cell re-entry assays do not support models of pathogen-independent translocation of AvrM and AVR3a effectors into plant cells (2016) | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it

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From our friends at TSL...

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The cell re-entry assay is widely used to evaluate pathogen effector protein uptake into plant cells. The assay is based on the premise that effector proteins secreted out of a leaf cell would translocate back into the cytosol of the same cell via a yet unknown host-derived uptake mechanism. Here, we critically assess this assay by expressing domains of the effector proteins AvrM-A of Melampsora lini and AVR3a of Phytophthora infestans fused to a signal peptide and fluorescent proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. We found that the secreted fusion proteins do not re-enter plant cells from the apoplast and that the assay is prone to false-positives. We therefore emit a cautionary note on the use of the cell re-entry assay for protein trafficking studies.

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PLoS Biology: Microbial Hub Taxa Link Host and ...

PLoS Biology: Microbial Hub Taxa Link Host and ... | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it

Plant-associated microorganisms have been shown to critically affect host physiology and performance, suggesting that evolution and ecology of plants and animals can only be understood in a holobiont (host and its associated organisms) context.

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Thought the microbiome people would find this interesting!

 

Bethany

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Dual RNA-seq unveils noncoding RNA functions in host–pathogen interactions : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

Dual RNA-seq unveils noncoding RNA functions in host–pathogen interactions : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
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dual RNAseq in host-pathogen

 

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Jasmonic acid promotes degreening via MYC2/3/4- and ANAC019/055/072-mediated regulation of major chlorophyll catabolic genes - Zhu - 2015 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library

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JA promotes chlorophyll degradation via the MYC2/3/4 and ANAC019/055/072 signaling pathway.

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