Plant Metabolomics
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Differential metabolomic responses of PAMP-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis suspension cells - Springer

Differential metabolomic responses of PAMP-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis suspension cells - Springer | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
Abstract
Introduction

The rhizobacterial tomato pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato str. DC3000 (PstDC3000), like many plant pathogenic bacteria, can elicit hypersensitive response in non-host plant cells. PstDC3000 uses a type III protein secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins.
Objectives

We compared metabolomic responses of Arabidopsis suspension cells to a wild-type PstDC3000, a T3SS deletion mutant PstDC3000D28E, and a pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flagellin’s N-terminal domain’s 22-aa peptide (flg22) to obtain metabolomics insights into the plant cell PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI).
Methods

Using targeted HPLC-MRM-MS and untargeted GC-MS approaches, we monitored qualitative and quantitative changes of 312 metabolites in central and specialized metabolic pathways in a time-course study.
Results

The overall metabolomic changes induced by the three treatments included phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and phytohormone biosynthetic pathways, as well as primary metabolism in amino acid and sugar biosynthesis. In addition to shared metabolites, flg22, PstDC3000D28E and PstDC3000 each caused unique metabolite changes in the course of the development of PTI and ETI.
Conclusion

PstDC3000D28E triggered PTI responses were different from those of flg22. This study has not only revealed the discernible metabolomics features associated with the flg22, PstDC3000D28E and PstDC3000 treatments, but also laid a foundation toward further understanding of metabolic regulation and responses underlying plant PTI and ETI.
Biswapriya B Misra's insight:
Abstract Introduction The rhizobacterial tomato pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato str. DC3000 (PstDC3000), like many plant pathogenic bacteria, can elicit hypersensitive response in non-host plant cells. PstDC3000 uses a type III protein secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins. Objectives We compared metabolomic responses of Arabidopsis suspension cells to a wild-type PstDC3000, a T3SS deletion mutant PstDC3000D28E, and a pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flagellin’s N-terminal domain’s 22-aa peptide (flg22) to obtain metabolomics insights into the plant cell PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Methods Using targeted HPLC-MRM-MS and untargeted GC-MS approaches, we monitored qualitative and quantitative changes of 312 metabolites in central and specialized metabolic pathways in a time-course study. Results The overall metabolomic changes induced by the three treatments included phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and phytohormone biosynthetic pathways, as well as primary metabolism in amino acid and sugar biosynthesis. In addition to shared metabolites, flg22, PstDC3000D28E and PstDC3000 each caused unique metabolite changes in the course of the development of PTI and ETI. Conclusion PstDC3000D28E triggered PTI responses were different from those of flg22. This study has not only revealed the discernible metabolomics features associated with the flg22, PstDC3000D28E and PstDC3000 treatments, but also laid a foundation toward further understanding of metabolic regulation and responses underlying plant PTI and ETI.
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Monitoring storage induced changes in the platelet proteome employing label free quantitative mass spectrometry

Monitoring storage induced changes in the platelet proteome employing label free quantitative mass spectrometry | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
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A conifer UDP-sugar dependent glycosyltransferase contributes to acetophenone metabolism and defense against insects

A conifer UDP-sugar dependent glycosyltransferase contributes to acetophenone metabolism and defense against insects | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
Acetophenones are phenolic compounds involved in resistance of white spruce (Picea glauca) against spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferiana), a major forest pest in North America. The acetophenones pungenol and piceol commonly accumulate in spruce foliage in the form of the corresponding glycosides, pungenin and picein. These glycosides appear to be inactive against the insect, but can be cleaved by a spruce β-glucosidase, PgβGlu1, which releases the active aglycons. The reverse glycosylation reaction was hypothesized to involve a family-1 UDP-sugar dependent glycosyltransferase (UGT) to facilitate acetophenone accumulation in the plant. Metabolite and transcriptome profiling over a developmental time course of white spruce bud burst and shoot growth revealed two UGTs, PgUGT5 and PgUGT5b, which glycosylate pungenol. Recombinant PgUGT5b enzyme produced mostly pungenin, while PgUGT5 produced mostly isopungenin. Both UGTs were also active in vitro on select flavonoids. However, the context of transcript and metabolite accumulation did not support a biological role in flavonoid metabolism but correlated with the formation of pungenin in growing shoots. Transcript levels of PgUGT5b were higher than those of PgUGT5 in needles across different genotypes of white spruce. The results support a role of PgUGT5b in the biosynthesis of the glycosylated acetophenone pungenin in white spruce.
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Salt tolerance response revealed by RNA-Seq in a diploid halophytic wild relative of sweet potato

Salt tolerance response revealed by RNA-Seq in a diploid halophytic wild relative of sweet potato | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
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Analysis and comparison of the wolf microbiome under different environmental factors using three different data of Next Generation Sequencing

Analysis and comparison of the wolf microbiome under different environmental factors using three different data of Next Generation Sequencing | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
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Early gestational maternal low-protein diet diminishes hepatic response to fasting in young adult male mice

Early gestational maternal low-protein diet diminishes hepatic response to fasting in young adult male mice | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
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Identification of butenolide regulatory system controlling secondary metabolism in Streptomyces albus J1074

Identification of butenolide regulatory system controlling secondary metabolism in Streptomyces albus J1074 | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
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Unique aspects of the perinatal immune system : Nature Reviews Immunology : Nature Research

Unique aspects of the perinatal immune system : Nature Reviews Immunology : Nature Research | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
The early stages of life are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, which is in part due to an ineffective immune system. In the context of infection, the immune system must be stimulated to provide efficient protection while avoiding insufficient or excessive activation. Yet, in
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Serum and Liver Tissue Metabonomic Study on Fatty Liver in Rats Induced by High-Fat Diet and Intervention Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine Qushi Huayu Decoction

Serum and Liver Tissue Metabonomic Study on Fatty Liver in Rats Induced by High-Fat Diet and Intervention Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine Qushi Huayu Decoction | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
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Metabolic Profiling in Association with Vascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction Following Non-Toxic Cadmium Exposure

Metabolic Profiling in Association with Vascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction Following Non-Toxic Cadmium Exposure | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
This study aimed to determine the metabolic profile of non-toxic cadmium (Cd)-induced dysfunctional endothelial cells using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs (n = 6 per group) were treated with 0, 1, 5, or 10 μM cadmium chloride (CdCl2) for 48 h. Cell phenotypes, including nitric oxide (NO) production, the inflammatory response, and oxidative stress, were evaluated in Cd-exposed and control HUVECs. Cd-exposed and control HUVECs were analysed using gas chromatography time-of-flight/mass spectrometry. Compared to control HUVECs, Cd-exposed HUVECs were dysfunctional, exhibiting decreased NO production, a proinflammatory state, and non-significant oxidative stress. Further metabolic profiling revealed 24 significantly-altered metabolites in the dysfunctional endothelial cells. The significantly-altered metabolites were involved in the impaired tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, activated pyruvate metabolism, up-regulated glucogenic amino acid metabolism, and increased pyrimidine metabolism. The current metabolic findings further suggest that the metabolic changes linked to TCA cycle dysfunction, glycosylation of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), and compensatory responses to genomic instability and energy deficiency may be generally associated with dysfunctional phenotypes, characterized by decreased NO production, a proinflammatory state, and non-significant oxidative stress, in endothelial cells following non-toxic Cd exposure.
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Bioenergetics of Monoterpenoid Essential Oil Biosynthesis in Non-Photosynthetic Glandular Trichomes

Bioenergetics of Monoterpenoid Essential Oil Biosynthesis in Non-Photosynthetic Glandular Trichomes | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
The commercially important essential oils of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) and its relatives in the mint family (Lamiaceae) are accumulated in specialized anatomical structures called glandular trichomes (GTs). A genome-scale stoichiometric model of secretory phase metabolism in peppermint GTs was constructed based on current biochemical and physiological knowledge. Fluxes through the network were predicted based on metabolomic and transcriptomic data. Using simulated reaction deletions, this model predicted that two processes, the regeneration of ATP and ferredoxin (in its reduced form), exert substantial control over flux toward monoterpenes. Follow-up biochemical assays with isolated GTs indicated that oxidative phosphorylation and ethanolic fermentation were active, and that cooperation to provide ATP depended on the concentration of the carbon source. We also report that GTs with high flux toward monoterpenes express, at very high levels, genes coding for a unique pair of ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase isoforms. This study provides the first evidence how bioenergetic processes determine flux through monoterpene biosynthesis in GTs.
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Non-Polar Natural Products from Bromelia laciniosa, Neoglaziovia variegata and Encholirium spectabile (Bromeliaceae)

Non-Polar Natural Products from Bromelia laciniosa, Neoglaziovia variegata and Encholirium spectabile (Bromeliaceae) | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
Extensive regional droughts are already a major problem on all inhabited continents and severe regional droughts are expected to become an increasing and extended problem in the future. Consequently, extended use of available drought resistant food plants should be encouraged. Bromelia laciniosa, Neoglaziovia variegata and Encholirium spectabile are excellent candidates in that respect because they are established drought resistant edible plants from the semi-arid Caatinga region. From a food safety perspective, increased utilization of these plants would necessitate detailed knowledge about their chemical constituents. However, their chemical compositions have previously not been determined. For the first time, the non-polar constituents of B. laciniosa, N. variegata and E. spectabile have been identified. This is the first thorough report on natural products from N. variegata, E. spectabile, and B. laciniosa. Altogether, 20 non-polar natural products were characterized. The identifications were based on hyphenated gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) and supported by 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) plant metabolomics.
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Acute interaction between hydrocortisone and insulin alters the plasma metabolome in humans

Acute interaction between hydrocortisone and insulin alters the plasma metabolome in humans | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
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Transcriptional analysis of genes involved in competitive nodulation in Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens at the presence of soybean root exudates

Transcriptional analysis of genes involved in competitive nodulation in Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens at the presence of soybean root exudates | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
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Genome-wide association study Identified multiple Genetic Loci on Chilling Resistance During Germination in Maize

Genome-wide association study Identified multiple Genetic Loci on Chilling Resistance During Germination in Maize | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
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Detection of Intra-Varietal Diversity Based on Differences in the Accumulation of Secondary Metabolites for Winemaking Management of High-Quality Red Wines

Detection of Intra-Varietal Diversity Based on Differences in the Accumulation of Secondary Metabolites for Winemaking Management of High-Quality Red Wines | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
The goal of biodiversity preservation is the conservation and enhancement of diversity, which is often stored in different clones of the same grape variety. Fourteen different autochthonous accessions of Aglianico grown in the same area (Vulture, Italy) have been investigated to evaluate the possible significant differences in terms of secondary metabolites belonging to the polyphenolic class, compounds which show a number of beneficial health related properties. During winemaking, grape polyphenols are extracted into wine, therefore the knowledge of the polyphenolic composition of grape is important for the appropriate design of the winemaking process, especially in winemaking management of high-quality red wines. The results of this study are useful tools for the individuation of the most promising candidates in the perspective of Aglianico del Vulture clonal selections from a winemaking point of view.
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Crosstalk between the tricarboxylic acid cycle and peptidoglycan synthesis in Caulobacter crescentus through the homeostatic control of α-ketoglutarate

Crosstalk between the tricarboxylic acid cycle and peptidoglycan synthesis in Caulobacter crescentus through the homeostatic control of α-ketoglutarate | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
Author summary Bacteria are well-known for their remarkable ability to multiply, a property that we often aim to control. To successfully self-replicate, bacterial cells must generate energy and building blocks through central metabolism and synthesize cell wall material to reproduce their shape and size. How cellular metabolism and cell wall growth are integrated during cellular replication remains poorly understood. In this work, we demonstrate the importance of the global regulator Hfq for maintaining the homeostasis of central metabolites in Caulobacter crescentus. Specifically, we show that accumulation of central metabolite α-ketoglutarate caused by the loss of Hfq inhibits an enzymatic reaction needed to produce cell wall building blocks. This metabolism-dependent perturbation of cell wall synthesis results in cell morphological defects and renders the cell more susceptible to cell wall-targeting antibiotics. Given that central metabolism and cell wall biosynthesis are broadly conserved, our findings suggest a new approach for combinatorial drug design.
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Early life factors that affect allergy development : Nature Reviews Immunology : Nature Research

Early life factors that affect allergy development : Nature Reviews Immunology : Nature Research | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
The incidence of allergic disease continues to rise in industrialized countries. The rapid increase in the incidence of allergic disease throughout the past half century suggests that recently altered environmental factors are driving allergy development. Accumulating evidence suggests that environmental experiences that occur during the
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Development and assessment of a lysophospholipid-based deep learning model to discriminate geographical origins of white rice

Development and assessment of a lysophospholipid-based deep learning model to discriminate geographical origins of white rice | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
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An LC-MS Approach to Quantitative Measurement of Ammonia Isotopologues

An LC-MS Approach to Quantitative Measurement of Ammonia Isotopologues | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
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Abnormalities of signal transduction networks in chronic schizophrenia

Abnormalities of signal transduction networks in chronic schizophrenia | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
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SG2-type R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB15 controls defense-induced lignification and basal immunity in Arabidopsis

SG2-type R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB15 controls defense-induced lignification and basal immunity in Arabidopsis | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
Lignification of cell wall appositions is a conserved basal defense mechanism in the plant innate immune response. However, the genetic pathway controlling defense-induced lignification remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate the Arabidopsis thaliana SG2-type R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB15 as a regulator of defense-induced lignification and basal immunity. Loss of MYB15 reduces the content but not the composition of defense-induced lignin, whereas constitutive expression of MYB15 increases lignin content independently of immune activation. Comparative transcriptional and metabolomics analyses implicate MYB15 as necessary for the defense-induced synthesis of guaiacyl lignin and the basal synthesis of the coumarin metabolite scopoletin. MYB15 directly binds to the secondary wall MYB-responsive element consensus sequence, which encompasses the AC elements, to drive lignification. The myb15 and lignin biosynthetic mutants show increased susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, consistent with defense-induced lignin having a major role in basal immunity. A scopoletin biosynthetic mutant also shows increased susceptibility independently of immune activation, consistent with a role in preformed defense. Our results support a role for phenylalanine-derived small molecules in preformed and inducible Arabidopsis defense, a role previously dominated by tryptophan-derived small molecules. Understanding the regulatory network linking lignin biosynthesis to plant growth and defense will help lignin engineering efforts to improve the production of biofuels and aromatic industrial products as well as increase disease resistance in energy and agricultural crops.
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Applying generalized additive models to unravel dynamic changes in anthocyanin biosynthesis in methyl jasmonate elicited grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay) cell cultures

Applying generalized additive models to unravel dynamic changes in anthocyanin biosynthesis in methyl jasmonate elicited grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay) cell cultures | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
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Early Embryogenesis of Brown Alga Fucus vesiculosus L. is Characterized by Significant Changes in Carbon and Energy Metabolism

Early Embryogenesis of Brown Alga Fucus vesiculosus L. is Characterized by Significant Changes in Carbon and Energy Metabolism | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
Brown algae have an important role in marine environments. With respect to their broad distribution and importance for the environment and human use, brown algae of the order Fucales in particular became a model system for physiological and ecological studies. Thus, several fucoids have been extensively studied for their composition on the molecular level. However, research of fucoid physiology and biochemistry so far mostly focused on the adult algae, so a holistic view on the development of these organisms, including the crucial first life stages, is still missing. Therefore, we employed non-targeted metabolite profiling by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to create a non-biased picture of the early development of the fucoid alga Fucus vesiculosus. We found that embryogenic physiology was mainly dominated by a tight regulation of carbon and energy metabolism. The first dramatic changes of zygote metabolism started within 1 h after fertilization, while metabolism of 6–9 days old embryos appeared already close to that of an adult alga, indicated by the intensive production of secondary metabolites and accumulation of mannitol and citric acid. Given the comprehensive description and analysis we obtained in our experiments, our results exhibit an invaluable resource for the design of further experiments related to physiology of early algal development.
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A Metabolomics-Based Strategy for the Mechanism Exploration of Traditional Chinese Medicine: Descurainia sophia Seeds Extract and Fractions as a Case Study

A Metabolomics-Based Strategy for the Mechanism Exploration of Traditional Chinese Medicine: Descurainia sophia Seeds Extract and Fractions as a Case Study | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
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Comparison of Chemical Profiles, Anti-Inflammatory Activity, and UPLC-Q-TOF/MS-Based Metabolomics in Endotoxic Fever Rats between Synthetic Borneol and Natural Borneol

Comparison of Chemical Profiles, Anti-Inflammatory Activity, and UPLC-Q-TOF/MS-Based Metabolomics in Endotoxic Fever Rats between Synthetic Borneol and Natural Borneol | Plant Metabolomics | Scoop.it
Natural borneol (NB, called “Bingpian”) is an important traditional Chinese medicine to restore consciousness, remove heat and relieve pain, all of which are inflammation-related diseases. Recently, due to the limited source of NB, synthetic borneol (SB) is widely used as a substitute for NB in clinics. However, little is known about the effects of SB instead of NB. Herein, the aim of the present study was to compare NB and SB on chemical profiles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis, anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) metabolomic approaches in endotoxic fever induced in rats. Results showed that, in total, 13 volatile components could be identified in NB and SB by GC-MS analysis, in which a significant difference between them still existed. The main constituents in SB were iso-borneol and borneol, while borneol contributes to 98.96% of the amount in NB. Additionally, both NB and SB exhibited remarkable anti-inflammatory effects to reduce the level of inflammatory factors including NO, TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, and lower the high body temperature in rats with endotoxic fever induced by LPS. Moreover, it seems that NB exhibited higher efficacy than SB. The unequal bioactive efficiency between NB and SB was also indicated by means of non-targeting metabolomics. Based on UPLC-Q-TOF/MS technology, 12 biomarkers in the serum of fever rats were identified. Pathway analysis revealed that the anti-fever effect of NB and SB was related to regulating the abnormal glycerophospholipid, linoleic acid and alpha-linoleic acid metabolism pathways in the fever model. Results indicated that there was still a great difference between NB and SB involving chemical constituents, anti-inflammation activity and the ability to regulate the abnormal metabolism pathways of the fever model. Certainly, further studies are warranted to better understand the replacement rationale in medicinal application.
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