Plant immunity
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Rescooped by Manos Domazakis from Plant pathology
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New Phytologist: Multiple strategies for pathogen perception by plant immune receptors (2017)

New Phytologist: Multiple strategies for pathogen perception by plant immune receptors (2017) | Plant immunity | Scoop.it

Plants have evolved a complex immune system to protect themselves against phytopathogens. A major class of plant immune receptors called nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins (NLRs) is ubiquitous in plants and is widely used for crop disease protection, making these proteins critical contributors to global food security. Until recently, NLRs were thought to be conserved in their modular architecture and functional features. Investigation of their biochemical, functional and structural properties has revealed fascinating mechanisms that enable these proteins to perceive a wide range of pathogens. Here, I review recent insights demonstrating that NLRs are more mechanistically and structurally diverse than previously thought. I also discuss how these findings provide exciting future prospects to improve plant disease resistance.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL, fundoshi
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Bridget Barker's curator insight, November 21, 2017 9:22 AM
Always thinking about links between animal and plant pathogens
Rescooped by Manos Domazakis from Plant-microbe interaction
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The proteasome acts as a hub for plant immunity and is targeted by Pseudomonas type-III effectors

The proteasome acts as a hub for plant immunity and is targeted by Pseudomonas type-III effectors | Plant immunity | Scoop.it
Recent evidence suggests that the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is involved in several aspects of plant immunity and a range of plant pathogens subvert the UPS to enhance their virulence. Here we show that proteasome activity is strongly induced during basal defense in Arabidopsis. Mutant lines of the proteasome subunits RPT2a and RPN12a support increased bacterial growth of virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326. Both proteasome subunits are required for Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) responses. Analysis of bacterial growth after a secondary infection of systemic leaves revealed that the establishment of systemic-acquired resistance (SAR) is impaired in proteasome mutants, suggesting that the proteasome also plays an important role in defense priming and SAR. In addition, we show that Pst inhibits proteasome activity in a type-III secretion dependent manner. A screen for type-III effector proteins from Pst for their ability to interfere with proteasome activity revealed HopM1, HopAO1, HopA1 and HopG1 as putative proteasome inhibitors. Biochemical characterization of HopM1 by mass-spectrometry indicates that HopM1 interacts with several E3 ubiquitin ligases and proteasome subunits. This supports the hypothesis that HopM1 associates with the proteasome leading to its inhibition. Thus, the proteasome is an essential component of PTI and SAR, which is targeted by multiple bacterial effectors.

Via Suayib Üstün
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Rescooped by Manos Domazakis from Publications from The Sainsbury Laboratory
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Nat Rev Immun: Regulation of pattern recognition receptor signalling in plants (2016)

Nat Rev Immun: Regulation of pattern recognition receptor signalling in plants (2016) | Plant immunity | Scoop.it

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The Sainsbury Lab's curator insight, August 1, 2016 7:34 AM
Recognition of pathogen-derived molecules by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is a common feature of both animal and plant innate immune systems. In plants, PRR signalling is initiated at the cell surface by kinase complexes, resulting in the activation of immune responses that ward off microorganisms. However, the activation and amplitude of innate immune responses must be tightly controlled. In this Review, we summarize our knowledge of the early signalling events that follow PRR activation and describe the mechanisms that fine-tune immune signalling to maintain immune homeostasis. We also illustrate the mechanisms used by pathogens to inhibit innate immune signalling and discuss how the innate ability of plant cells to monitor the integrity of key immune components can lead to autoimmune phenotypes following genetic or pathogen-induced perturbations of these components.
Rescooped by Manos Domazakis from Plant Pathogenomics
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Frontiers: Diversifying selection in the wheat stem rust fungus acts predominantly on pathogen-associated gene families and reveals candidate effectors (2014)

Frontiers: Diversifying selection in the wheat stem rust fungus acts predominantly on pathogen-associated gene families and reveals candidate effectors (2014) | Plant immunity | Scoop.it

Plant pathogens cause severe losses to crop plants and threaten global food production. One striking example is the wheat stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, which can rapidly evolve new virulent pathotypes in response to resistant host lines. Like several other filamentous fungal and oomycete plant pathogens, its genome features expanded gene families that have been implicated in host-pathogen interactions, possibly encoding effector proteins that interact directly with target host defense proteins. Previous efforts to understand virulence largely relied on the prediction of secreted, small and cysteine-rich proteins as candidate effectors and thus delivered an overwhelming number of candidates. Here, we implement an alternative analysis strategy that uses the signal of adaptive evolution as a line of evidence for effector function, combined with comparative information and expression data. We demonstrate that in planta up-regulated genes that are rapidly evolving are found almost exclusively in pathogen-associated gene families, affirming the impact of host-pathogen co-evolution on genome structure and the adaptive diversification of specialized gene families. In particular, we predict 42 effector candidates that are conserved only across pathogens, induced during infection and rapidly evolving. One of our top candidates has recently been shown to induce genotype-specific hypersensitive cell death in wheat. This shows that comparative genomics incorporating the evolutionary signal of adaptation is powerful for predicting effector candidates for laboratory verification. Our system can be applied to a wide range of pathogens and will give insight into host-pathogen dynamics, ultimately leading to progress in strategies for disease control.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Manos Domazakis from Plant Pathogenomics
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BMC Genomics: Secretome analysis reveals effector candidates associated with broad host range necrotrophy in the fungal plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (2014)

BMC Genomics: Secretome analysis reveals effector candidates associated with broad host range necrotrophy in the fungal plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (2014) | Plant immunity | Scoop.it

Background - The white mold fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a devastating necrotrophic plant pathogen with a remarkably broad host range. The interaction of necrotrophs with their hosts is more complex than initially thought, and still poorly understood.

Results - We combined bioinformatics approaches to determine the repertoire of S. sclerotiorum effector candidates and conducted detailed sequence and expression analyses on selected candidates. We identified 486 S. sclerotiorum secreted protein genes expressed in planta, many of which have no predicted enzymatic activity and may be involved in the interaction between the fungus and its hosts. We focused on those showing (i) protein domains and motifs found in known fungal effectors, (ii) signatures of positive selection, (iii) recent gene duplication, or (iv) being S. sclerotiorum-specific. We identified 78 effector candidates based on these properties. We analyzed the expression pattern of 16 representative effector candidate genes on four host plants and revealed diverse expression patterns.

Conclusions - These results reveal diverse predicted functions and expression patterns in the repertoire of S. sclerotiorum effector candidates. They will facilitate the functional analysis of fungal pathogenicity determinants and should prove useful in the search for plant quantitative disease resistance components active against the white mold.


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Rescooped by Manos Domazakis from Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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The small phytoplasma virulence effector SAP11 contains distinct domains required for nuclear targeting and CIN-TCP binding and destabilization

The small phytoplasma virulence effector SAP11 contains distinct domains required for nuclear targeting and CIN-TCP binding and destabilization | Plant immunity | Scoop.it
Summary
Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted bacterial phytopathogens that secrete virulence effectors and induce changes in the architecture and defense response of their plant hosts.

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Rescooped by Manos Domazakis from Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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PLOS ONE: Phytophthora Have Distinct Endogenous Small RNA Populations That Include Short Interfering and microRNAs

PLOS ONE: Phytophthora Have Distinct Endogenous Small RNA Populations That Include Short Interfering and microRNAs | Plant immunity | Scoop.it

In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. 


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Annual Review of Phytopathology: Communication Between Filamentous Pathogens and Plants at the Biotrophic Interface (2013)

Annual Review of Phytopathology: Communication Between Filamentous Pathogens and Plants at the Biotrophic Interface (2013) | Plant immunity | Scoop.it

Fungi and oomycetes that colonize living plant tissue form extensive interfaces with plant cells in which the cytoplasm of the microorganism is closely aligned with the host cytoplasm for an extended distance. In all cases, specialized biotrophic hyphae function to hijack host cellular processes across an interfacial zone consisting of a hyphal plasma membrane, a specialized interfacial matrix, and a plant-derived membrane. The interface is the site for active secretion by both players. This cross talk at the interface determines the winner in adversarial relationships and establishes the partnership in mutualistic relationships. Fungi and oomycetes secrete many specialized effector proteins for controlling the host, and they can stimulate remarkable cellular reorganization even in distant plant cells. Breakthroughs in live-cell imaging of fungal and oomycete encounter sites, including live-cell imaging of pathogens secreting fluorescently labeled effector proteins, have led to recent progress in understanding communication across the interface.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL, fundoshi
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fundoshi's curator insight, June 20, 2013 4:07 AM

エンドソームに偽装してってはなしはどうなったんだろ。

Rescooped by Manos Domazakis from Plants and Microbes
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PLOS ONE: Interfamily Transfer of Dual NB-LRR Genes Confers Resistance to Multiple Pathogens (2013)

PLOS ONE: Interfamily Transfer of Dual NB-LRR Genes Confers Resistance to Multiple Pathogens (2013) | Plant immunity | Scoop.it

A major class of disease resistance (R) genes which encode nucleotide binding and leucinerich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins have been used in traditional breeding programs for crop protection. However, it has been difficult to functionally transfer NB-LRR-type R genes in taxonomically distinct families. Here we demonstrate that a pair of Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae) NB-LRR-type R genes, RPS4 and RRS1, properly function in two other Brassicaceae, Brassica rapa and Brassica napus, but also in two Solanaceae, Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The solanaceous plants transformed with RPS4/RRS1 confer bacterial effector-specific immunity responses. Furthermore, RPS4 and RRS1, which confer resistance to a fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum in Brassicaceae, also protect against Colletotrichum orbiculare in cucumber (Cucurbitaceae). Importantly, RPS4/RRS1transgenic plants show no autoimmune phenotypes, indicating that the NB-LRR proteins are tightly regulated. The successful transfer of two R genes at the family level implies that the downstream components of R genes are highly conserved. The functional interfamily transfer of R genes can be a powerful strategy for providing resistance to a broad range of pathogens.


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Rescooped by Manos Domazakis from Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science
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Plant Cell: The Receptor-Like Protein ReMAX of Arabidopsis Detects the Microbe-Associated Molecular Pattern eMax from Xanthomonas (2013)

Plant Cell: The Receptor-Like Protein ReMAX of Arabidopsis Detects the Microbe-Associated Molecular Pattern eMax from Xanthomonas (2013) | Plant immunity | Scoop.it

As part of their immune system, plants have pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that can detect a broad range of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Here, we identified a PRR of Arabidopsis thaliana with specificity for the bacterialMAMP eMax from xanthomonads. Response to eMax seems to be restricted to theBrassicaceae family and also varied among different accessions of Arabidopsis. In crosses between sensitive accessions and the insensitive accession Shakhdara, eMax perception mapped to RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN1 (RLP1). Functional complementation of rlp1 mutants required gene constructs that code for a longer version of RLP1 that we termed ReMAX (for receptor of eMax). ReMAX/RLP1 is a typical RLP with structural similarity to the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RLP Eix2, which detects fungal xylanase as a MAMP. Attempts to demonstrate receptor function by interfamily transfer of ReMAX to Nicotiana benthamiana were successful after using hybrid receptors with the C-terminal part of ReMAX replaced by that of Eix2. These results show that ReMAX determines specificity for eMax. They also demonstrate hybrid receptor technology as a promising tool to overcome problems that impede interfamily transfer of PRRs to enhance pathogen detection in crop plants.


Via Suayib Üstün, Nicolas Denancé
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Rescooped by Manos Domazakis from Plant-microbe interaction
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The Arabidopsis Malectin-Like/LRR-RLK IOS1 is Critical for BAK1-Dependent and BAK1-Independent Pattern-Triggered Immunity

Plasma membrane-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2), EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR) and CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (CERK1) recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) to activate pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). A reverse genetics approach on genes responsive to the priming agent beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA) revealed IMPAIRED OOMYCETE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (IOS1) as a critical PTI player. Arabidopsis thaliana ios1 mutants were hyper-susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae bacteria. Accordingly, ios1 mutants showed defective PTI responses, notably delayed up-regulation of the PTI-marker gene FLG22-INDUCED RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1 (FRK1), reduced callose deposition and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation upon MAMP treatment. Moreover, Arabidopsis lines over-expressing IOS1 were more resistant to bacteria and showed a primed PTI response. In vitro pull-down, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, co-immunoprecipitation, and mass spectrometry analyses supported the existence of complexes between the membrane-localized IOS1 and BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1)-dependent PRRs FLS2 and EFR, as well as with the BAK1-independent PRR CERK1. IOS1 also associated with BAK1 in a ligand-independent manner, and positively regulated FLS2-BAK1 complex formation upon MAMP treatment. In addition, IOS1 was critical for chitin-mediated PTI. Finally, ios1 mutants were defective in BABA-induced resistance and priming. This work reveals IOS1 as a novel regulatory protein of FLS2-, EFR- and CERK1-mediated signaling pathways that primes PTI activation.

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Jim Alfano's curator insight, June 18, 2016 7:31 AM
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Rescooped by Manos Domazakis from Plants and Microbes
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New Phytologist: Nine things to know about elicitins (2016)

New Phytologist: Nine things to know about elicitins (2016) | Plant immunity | Scoop.it

Elicitins are structurally conserved extracellular proteins in Phytophthora and Pythium oomycete pathogen species. They were first described in the late 1980s as abundant proteins in Phytophthora culture filtrates that have the capacity to elicit hypersensitive (HR) cell death and disease resistance in tobacco. Later, they became well-established as having features of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and to elicit defences in a variety of plant species. Research on elicitins culminated in the recent cloning of the elicitin response (ELR) cell surface receptor-like protein, from the wild potato Solanum microdontum, which mediates response to a broad range of elicitins. In this review, we provide an overview on elicitins and the plant responses they elicit. We summarize the state of the art by describing what we consider to be the nine most important features of elicitin biology.


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Rescooped by Manos Domazakis from Plant pathology
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News: How plant sensors detect pathogens (2015)

News: How plant sensors detect pathogens (2015) | Plant immunity | Scoop.it

In the mid-20th century, an American scientist named Harold Henry Flor helped explain how certain varieties of plants can fight off some plant killers (pathogens), but not others, with a model called the “gene-for-gene” hypothesis. Seventy years later, an international team of scientists describes precisely how a plant senses a pathogen, bringing an unprecedented level of detail to Flor’s model.

 

“We know that plants have sensors to detect pathogens but we knew little about how they work,” says Professor Banfield from the John Innes Centre (UK).

 

In a study published in eLife, the team led by Professor Mark Banfield, in collaboration with the Iwate Biotechnology Research Centre (Japan) and The Sainsbury Laboratory (UK), investigated how one sensor protein from rice called Pik binds AVR-Pik, a protein from the rice blast pathogen. This fungus causes the most devastating disease of rice crops. Using X-ray crystallography facilities at Diamond Light Source in Oxfordshire, the team succeeded in imaging the contact points between the plant and pathogen proteins at the molecular level – the first time this has been done for a pair of plant and pathogen proteins that follow the gene-for-gene model.

 

Dr Abbas Maqbool from the JIC, first author of the study added, “Harold Flor predicted that plant sensors discriminate between different pathogen types, but at the time he had no knowledge of the molecules involved. It is remarkable that his ideas have now crystallized into detailed molecular models.”

 

Dr Maqbool, Professor Banfield and colleagues went on to discover that the strength at which the Pik sensor binds the pathogen AVR-Pik protein correlates with the strength of the plant’s response. This opens up new avenues for engineering better plant responses against pathogens by building sensors with increased strength of binding to pathogen proteins, and therefore conferring enhanced resistance to disease.

 

“Once we understand how these plant sensors detect invading pathogens, we can devise strategies to ‘boost’ the plant immune system and help protect rice and other important food crops from disease,” says Professor Banfield.

 

Maqbool et al. eLife http://elifesciences.org/content/4/e08709


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FOOD SERVICES NO.1 TESTING/CERTIFICATION/INSPEC/ GIREESAN's curator insight, September 22, 2015 9:19 AM

Harold Flor predicted that plant sensors discriminate between different pathogen types, but at the time he had no knowledge of the molecules involved. It is remarkable that his ideas have now crystallized into detailed molecular models.”

Rescooped by Manos Domazakis from Plants and Microbes
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Molecular Plant Pathology: The Top 10 oomycete pathogens in molecular plant pathology (2014)

Molecular Plant Pathology: The Top 10 oomycete pathogens in molecular plant pathology (2014) | Plant immunity | Scoop.it

Oomycetes form a deep lineage of eukaryotic organisms that includes a large number of plant pathogens that threaten natural and managed ecosystems. We undertook a survey to query the community for their ranking of plant pathogenic oomycete species based on scientific and economic importance. In total, we received 263 votes from 62 scientists in 15 countries for a total of 33 species. The Top 10 species and their ranking are: (1) Phytophthora infestans; (2, tied) Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis; (2, tied) Phytophthora ramorum; (4) Phytophthora sojae; (5) Phytophthora capsici; (6) Plasmopara viticola; (7) Phytophthora cinnamomi; (8, tied) Phytophthora parasitica; (8, tied) Pythium ultimum; and (10) Albugo candida. The article provides an introduction to these 10 taxa and a snapshot of current research. We hope that the list will serve as a benchmark for future trends in oomycete research.


See also [link below]:

 

Top 10 plant-parasitic nematodes in molecular plant pathology
Top 10 plant viruses in molecular plant pathology
Top 10 plant pathogenic bacteria in molecular plant pathology
The Top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology

 

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1364-3703/homepage/free_poster.htm


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Rescooped by Manos Domazakis from Plant Pathogenomics
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MPMI: P. syringae CC1557: a highly virulent strain with an unusually small type III effector repertoire that includes a novel effector (2014)

MPMI: P. syringae CC1557: a highly virulent strain with an unusually small type III effector repertoire that includes a novel effector (2014) | Plant immunity | Scoop.it

Both type III effector proteins and non-ribosomal peptide toxins play important roles for Pseudomonas syringae pathogenicity in host plants, but whether and how these pathways interact to promote infection remains unclear. Genomic evidence from one clade of P. syringae suggests a tradeoff between the total number of type III effector proteins and presence of syringomycin, syringopeptin, and syringolin A toxins. Here we report the complete genome sequence from P. syringae CC1557, which contains the lowest number of known type III effectors to date and has also acquired genes similar to sequences encoding syringomycin pathways from other strains. We demonstrate that this strain is pathogenic on Nicotiana benthamiana and that both the type III secretion system and a new type III effector family, hopBJ1, contribute to pathogenicity. We further demonstrate that activity of HopBJ1 is dependent on residues structurally similar to the catalytic site of E. coli CNF1 toxin. Taken together, our results provide additional support for a negative correlation between type III effector repertoires and the potential to produce syringomycin-like toxins while also highlighting how genomic synteny and bioinformatics can be used to identify and characterize novel virulence proteins.


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Rescooped by Manos Domazakis from Plants and Microbes
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Journal of Visualized Experiments: Agroinfiltration and PVX Agroinfection in Potato and Nicotiana benthamiana (2014)

Journal of Visualized Experiments: Agroinfiltration and PVX Agroinfection in Potato and Nicotiana benthamiana (2014) | Plant immunity | Scoop.it

Agroinfiltration and PVX agroinfection are two efficient transient expression assays for functional analysis of candidate genes in plants. The most commonly used agent for agroinfiltration is Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a pathogen of many dicot plant species. This implies that agroinfiltration can be applied to many plant species. Here, we present our protocols and expected results when applying these methods to the potato (Solanum tuberosum), its related wild tuber-bearing Solanum species (Solanum section Petota) and the model plantNicotiana benthamiana. In addition to functional analysis of single genes, such as resistance (R) or avirulence (Avr) genes, the agroinfiltration assay is very suitable for recapitulating the R-AVR interactions associated with specific host pathogen interactions by simply delivering R and Avr transgenes into the same cell. However, some plant genotypes can raise nonspecific defense responses to Agrobacterium, as we observed for example for several potato genotypes. Compared to agroinfiltration, detection of AVR activity with PVX agroinfection is more sensitive, more high-throughput in functional screens and less sensitive to nonspecific defense responses to Agrobacterium. However, nonspecific defense to PVX can occur and there is a risk to miss responses due to virus-induced extreme resistance. Despite such limitations, in our experience, agroinfiltration and PVX agroinfection are both suitable and complementary assays that can be used simultaneously to confirm each other's results.


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benthamiana's curator insight, November 9, 2014 11:24 AM

benthamiana in the Journal of Visualized Experiments

Kamoun Lab @ TSL's comment, November 9, 2014 11:28 AM
Wait! That's a potato leaf!
Rescooped by Manos Domazakis from Plants and Microbes
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Nature Reviews Microbiology: Speak, friend, and enter: signalling systems that promote beneficial symbiotic associations in plants (2013)

Nature Reviews Microbiology: Speak, friend, and enter: signalling systems that promote beneficial symbiotic associations in plants (2013) | Plant immunity | Scoop.it

Plants associate with a wide range of microorganisms, with both detrimental and beneficial outcomes. Central to plant survival is the ability to recognize invading microorganisms and either limit their intrusion, in the case of pathogens, or promote the association, in the case of symbionts. To aid in this recognition process, elaborate communication and counter-communication systems have been established that determine the degree of ingress of the microorganism into the host plant. In this Review, I describe the common signalling processes used by plants during mutualistic interactions with microorganisms as diverse as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobial bacteria.


Via Mary Williams, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Sohini Guha's comment, April 11, 2013 10:07 AM
sohiniguha1985@gmail.com
Jennifer Mach's comment, April 11, 2013 10:54 AM
Dear Sohini, I generally have better luck asking for a reprint directly from the corresponding author. Good luck! I don't have library access either, so I feel your pain!
Sohini Guha's comment, April 11, 2013 1:14 PM
thanx jennifer....
Rescooped by Manos Domazakis from Plants and Microbes
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PNAS: Receptor-like kinase SOBIR1/EVR interacts with receptor-like proteins in plant immunity against fungal infection (2013)

PNAS: Receptor-like kinase SOBIR1/EVR interacts with receptor-like proteins in plant immunity against fungal infection (2013) | Plant immunity | Scoop.it

The plant immune system is activated by microbial patterns that are detected as nonself molecules. Such patterns are recognized by immune receptors that are cytoplasmic or localized at the plasma membrane. Cell surface receptors are represented by receptor-like kinases (RLKs) that frequently contain extracellular leucine-rich repeats and an intracellular kinase domain for activation of downstream signaling, as well as receptor-like proteins (RLPs) that lack this signaling domain. It is therefore hypothesized that RLKs are required for RLPs to activate downstream signaling. The RLPs Cf-4 and Ve1 of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mediate resistance to the fungal pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Verticillium dahliae, respectively. Despite their importance, the mechanism by which these immune receptors mediate downstream signaling upon recognition of their matching ligand, Avr4 and Ave1, remained enigmatic. Here we show that the tomato ortholog of the Arabidopsis thaliana RLK Suppressor Of BIR1-1/Evershed (SOBIR1/EVR) and its close homolog S. lycopersicum (Sl)SOBIR1-like interact in planta with both Cf-4 and Ve1 and are required for the Cf-4– and Ve1-mediated hypersensitive response and immunity. Tomato SOBIR1/EVR interacts with most of the tested RLPs, but not with the RLKs FLS2, SERK1, SERK3a, BAK1, and CLV1. SOBIR1/EVR is required for stability of the Cf-4 and Ve1 receptors, supporting our observation that these RLPs are present in a complex with SOBIR1/EVR in planta. We show that SOBIR1/EVR is essential for RLP-mediated immunity and propose that the protein functions as a regulatory RLK of this type of cell-surface receptors.


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Rescooped by Manos Domazakis from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
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Relocalization of Late Blight Resistance Protein R3a to Endosomal Compartments Is Associated with Effector Recognition and Required for the Immune Response

Relocalization of Late Blight Resistance Protein R3a to Endosomal Compartments Is Associated with Effector Recognition and Required for the Immune Response | Plant immunity | Scoop.it

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) resistance protein R3a relocates from the cytoplasm to endosomal compartments only when coexpressed with recognized Phytophthora infestans effector form AVR3aKI and not unrecognized form AVR3aEM.


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Mary Williams's curator insight, December 16, 2012 3:44 AM

This would be a nice paper to read with students - it's not too busy, and it introduces some important methods and ideas about the cell biology of plant immunity and defense.