Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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The Arabidopsis Lectin Receptor Kinase LecRK-V.5 Represses Stomatal Immunity Induced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000

The Arabidopsis Lectin Receptor Kinase LecRK-V.5 Represses Stomatal Immunity Induced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
by Marie Desclos-Theveniau, Dominique Arnaud, Ting-Yu Huang, Grace Jui-Chih Lin, Wei-Yen Chen, Yi-Chia Lin, Laurent Zimmerli Stomata play an important role in plant innate immunity by limiting pathogen entry into leaves but molecular...
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Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
Dedicated to the research done on the molecular dialogue between plants and pathogens (but also to any interesting report)
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Bacterial Volatile in Rhizosphere

Bacterial Volatile in Rhizosphere | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Investigation on antagonism, to follow competition between target pathogen and biocontrol agent is the main step to select the effective candidate in vitro and in vivo conditions. Rhizosphere i
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Frontiers | Detection of Bacterial Infection in Melon Plants by Classification Methods Based on Imaging Data | Plant Science

Frontiers | Detection of Bacterial Infection in Melon Plants by Classification Methods Based on Imaging Data | Plant Science | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
The bacterium Dickeya dadantii is responsible of important economic losses in crop yields worldwide. In melon leaves, D. dadantii produced multiple necrotic spots surrounded by a chlorotic halo, followed by necrosis of the whole infiltrated area and chlorosis in the surrounding tissues. The extent of these symptoms, as well as the day of appearance, was dose-dependent. Several imaging techniques (variable chlorophyll fluorescence, multicolor fluorescence and thermography) provided spatial and temporal information about alterations in the primary and secondary metabolism, as well as the stomatal activity in the infected leaves. Detection of diseased leaves was carried out by using machine learning on the numerical data provided by these imaging techniques. Mathematical algorithms based on data from infiltrated areas offered 96.5 to 99.1% accuracy when classifying them as mock vs bacteria-infiltrated. These algorithms also showed a high performance of classification of whole leaves, providing accuracy values of up to 96%. Thus, the detection of disease on whole leaves by a model trained on infiltrated areas appears as a reliable method that could be scaled-up for use in plant breeding programs or precision agriculture.
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Natural Products and Biocontrol’ Congress, Perpignan (France) September 25th to 28th 2018

Natural Products and Biocontrol’ Congress, Perpignan (France) September 25th to 28th 2018 | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
We are pleased to announce that abstract submission for oral and poster presentation is now opened for the ‘Natural Products and Biocontrol’ Congress that will be held in Perpignan (France) from September 25th to 28th 2018. The congress will begin (25th September) by a joint workshop organized by the French network Elicitra. The ‘Natural Products and Biocontrol’ Congress has established itself as a significant forum for European researchers and industry professionals to exchange ideas on biocontrol. Topics covered would concern: • elicitors of plant defense, • biocontrol microorganisms and their mechanisms of actions, • plant and natural products used as biocontrol products, • environmental impacts of biocontrol products • metabolomics methods dedicated to the analysis of biocontrol natural products • environmental integrated pest management approaches. Our Keynote speakers will include: Professor Christoph Keel - University of Lausanne - Switzerland Professor Emilio Montesinos - University of Girona - Spain Professor Uwe Conrath - RWTH Aachen University - Germany Professor Isidro G Collado - University of Cádiz – Spain Professor Jean-Luc Wolfender – University of Geneva - Switzerland Abstract submission for oral or poster presentation must be performed on our website http://biocontrol2018.fr/ before March 30th 2018. The template is given as attached file. The scientific and organizing committees of the Natural Products and Biocontrol international congress will warmly welcome you to Perpignan at 25-28th September 2018.

Via Elsa Ballini
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Critical factors driving Aphanomyces damping-off and root disease in clover revealed and explained using linear and generalized linear models and boosted regression trees - You - 2018 - Plant Patho...

Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) is an important forage legume in Mediterranean regions worldwide. Aphanomyces damping‐off and root disease (Aphanomyces trifolii) poses significant threa
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Natural Infection of C. elegans by an Oomycete Reveals a New Pathogen-Specific Immune Response

Osman et al. expand the list of known eukaryotic pathogens of C. elegans by describing
its natural infection by an oomycete. They find that the immune response mounted by
the nematode against the pathogen includes the specific induction of some previously
uncharacterised chitinase-like proteins.
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The Viscoelastic Properties of the Fungal Cell Wall Allow Traffic of AmBisome as Intact Liposome Vesicles

The fungal cell wall is a critically important structure that represents a permeability barrier and protective shield. We probed Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans with liposomes containing amphotericin B (AmBisome), with or without 15-nm colloidal gold particles. The liposomes have a diameter of 60 to 80 nm, and yet their mode of action requires them to penetrate the fungal cell wall to deliver amphotericin B to the cell membrane, where it binds to ergosterol. Surprisingly, using cryofixation techniques with electron microscopy, we observed that the liposomes remained intact during transit through the cell wall of both yeast species, even though the predicted porosity of the cell wall (pore size, ~5.8 nm) is theoretically too small to allow these liposomes to pass through intact. C. albicans mutants with altered cell wall thickness and composition were similar in both their in vitro AmBisome susceptibility and the ability of liposomes to penetrate the cell wall. AmBisome exposed to ergosterol-deficient C. albicans failed to penetrate beyond the mannoprotein-rich outer cell wall layer. Melanization of C. neoformans and the absence of amphotericin B in the liposomes were also associated with a significant reduction in liposome penetration. Therefore, AmBisome can reach cell membranes intact, implying that fungal cell wall viscoelastic properties are permissive to vesicular structures. The fact that AmBisome can transit through chemically diverse cell wall matrices when these liposomes are larger than the theoretical cell wall porosity suggests that the wall is capable of rapid remodeling, which may also be the mechanism for release of extracellular vesicles.
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Frontiers | Bacterial Seed Endophytes of Domesticated Cucurbits Antagonize Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens Including Powdery Mildew | Microbiology

Frontiers | Bacterial Seed Endophytes of Domesticated Cucurbits Antagonize Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens Including Powdery Mildew | Microbiology | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
The cucurbit vegetables, including cucumbers, melons and pumpkins, have been cultivated for thousands of years without fungicides. However, their seed germination stage is prone to be infected by soil-borne fungal and oomycete pathogens. Endophytes are symbionts that reside inside plant tissues including seeds. Seed endophytes are founders of the juvenile plant microbiome and can promote host defence at seed germination and later stages. We previously isolated 169 bacterial endophytes associated with seeds of diverse cultivated cucurbits. We hypothesized that these endophytes can antagonize major fungal and oomycete pathogens. Here we tested the endophytes for in vitro antagonism (dual culture assays) against important soil-borne pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium aphanideratum). The endophytes were also assayed in planta (leaf disc and detached leaf bioassays) for antagonism against a foliar pathogen of global importance, Podosphaera fuliginea, the causative agent of cucurbit powdery mildew. The endophytes were further tested in vitro for secretion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) known to induce plant defence. Extracellular ribonuclease activity was also tested, as a subset of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins of plant hosts implicated in suppression of fungal pathogens displays ribonuclease activity. An unexpected majority of the endophytes (70%, 118/169) exhibited antagonism to the five phytopathogens, of which 68% (50/73) of in vitro antagonists belong to the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus. All Lactococcus and Pantoea endophytes exhibited anti-oomycete activity. However, amongst the most effective inoculants against Podosphaera fuliginea were Pediococcus and Pantoea endophytes. Interestingly, 67% (113/169) of endophytes emitted host defence inducing VOCs (acetoin/diacetyl) and 62% (104/169) secreted extracellular ribonucleases in vitro, respectively. These results showed that seeds of cultivated cucurbits package microbes with significant disease-suppression potential. As seeds can act as vectors for genetic transmission of endophytes across host generations, it is interesting to hypothesize whether humans, when selecting seeds of healthy hosts, may have inadvertently selected for a disease-suppressing seed endophytes. As the majority of pathogen-suppressing endophytes belonged to Bacillus and Paenabacillus, and since Bacilli are widely used as commercial biocontrol agents of vegetables, we propose that these agents are mimicking the ecological niche established by their endophytic cousins.
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Synthetic microProteins: versatile tools for post-translational regulation of target proteins

Synthetic microProteins: versatile tools for post-translational regulation of target proteins | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
MicroProteins are small, single-domain proteins that can regulate multi-domain proteins by sequestering them into novel, often non-productive complexes. In the past years, several microProteins have been identified in plants and animals, most of which negatively regulate transcription factors. Novel microProtein candidates that potentially target a wide range of different protein classes, were recently identified in a computational approach. Here, we identify and classify all Arabidopsis microProteins and developed a synthetic microProtein approach to target specific protein classes, such as hydrolases, receptors and lyases in a proof-of-concept approach. Our findings reveal that microProteins can be used to influence different physiological processes which makes them useful tools for post-translational regulation in plants.
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LYS12 LysM receptor decelerates Phytophthora palmivora disease progression in Lotus japonicus - Fuechtbauer - 2017 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library

LYS12 LysM receptor decelerates Phytophthora palmivora disease progression in Lotus japonicus - Fuechtbauer - 2017 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Phytophthora palmivora is a devastating oomycete plant pathogen. We found that P. palmivora induces disease in Lotus japonicus and used this interaction to identify cellular and molecular events i
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The coming of age of EvoMPMI: evolutionary molecular plant-microbe interactions across multiple timescales

Plant-microbe interactions are great model systems to study co-evolutionary dynamics across multiple timescales, ranging from multimillion year macroevolution to extremely rapid evolutionary adaptations. However, mechanistic research on plant-microbe interactions has often been conducted with little consideration of the insights that can be gained from evolutionary concepts and methods. Conversely, evolutionary research has rarely integrated the diverse range of molecular mechanisms and models that continue to emerge from the molecular plant-microbe interactions field. These trends are changing. In recent years, the incipient field of evolutionary molecular plant-microbe interactions (EvoMPMI) has emerged to bridge the gap between mechanistic molecular research and evolutionary approaches. Here, we report on recent advances in EvoMPMI. In particular, we highlight new systems to study microbe interactions with early diverging land plants, and new findings from studies of adaptive evolution in pathogens and plants. By linking mechanistic and evolutionary research, EvoMPMI promises to add a new dimension to our understanding of plant-microbe interactions.
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Root rot spreads across all pea-growing regions

Root rot spreads across all pea-growing regions | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Aphanomyces root rot has spread across all pea growing regions of the UK and is not restricted to fields with a history of frequent pea cultivation, according to new research.
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Plant-associated Bacillus modulates the expression of auxin-responsive genes of rice and modifies the root architecture

Plant-associated Bacillus modulates the expression of auxin-responsive genes of rice and modifies the root architecture | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) impact the root morphogenesis and subsequently modify the root system architecture of a plant. This study was conducted to assess the early modifications of rice root architecture by a PGPR strain, Bacillus altitudinis (strain FD48). Rice seedlings grown in culture tubes under gnotobiotic conditions were inoculated with FD48, and root architecture variables of growing roots were measured in a nondestructive manner using 2-dimensional imaging and processing at periodic intervals. Among the twenty root architecture variables pulled out from the image analysis, the variables such as maximum number of roots, number of lateral roots, root thickness, area, volume and bushiness were significantly increased with time course due to PGPR inoculation than uninoculated control. Specific root length, root depth and length distribution were negatively impacted by PGPR. FD48 inoculation regulated the indole-3-acetic acid accumulation in rice root as compared to uninoculated control. To validate the hormonal modulation leading the root phenotypic modification, the expression of auxin-responsive genes (AUX/IAA) of rice were assessed by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR. The time course expression pattern of the genes responsible for shortening of primary roots (OsIAA1 and OsIAA4) and genes for lateral root formation (OsIAA11 and OsIAA13) were modulated by PGPR inoculation. These results demonstrate that PGPR play a major role in controlling endogenous IAA levels in rice roots by regulating the auxin-responsive genes and thereby cause changes in root architecture of rice.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Plant pathogen effector proteins as manipulators of host microbiomes?

Plant pathogen effector proteins as manipulators of host microbiomes? | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
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Pathogen Trojan horse delivers bioactive host protein to alter maize (Zea mays) anther cell behavior in situ

Pathogen Trojan horse delivers bioactive host protein to alter maize (Zea mays) anther cell behavior in situ | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Small proteins are crucial signals during development, host defense, and physiology. Spatiotemporal restricted functions of signaling proteins remain challenging to study in planta. The several month span required to assess transgene expression, particularly in flowers, combined with the uncertainties from transgene position effects and ubiquitous or overexpression, makes monitoring of spatiotemporally restricted signaling proteins lengthy and difficult. This situation could be rectified with a transient assay in which protein deployment is controlled spatially and temporally in planta to assess protein functions, timing, and cellular targets as well as to facilitate rapid mutagenesis to define functional protein domains. In maize (Zea mays), secreted ZmMAC1 (MULTIPLE ARCHESPORIAL CELLS1) was proposed to trigger somatic niche formation during anther development by participating in a ligand-receptor module. We engineered a protein-delivery system that exploits the secretory capabilities of the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis, to allow protein delivery to individual cells in certain cell layers at precise time points. Pathogen-supplied ZmMAC1 cell-autonomously corrected somatic cell division and differentiation defects in mutant Zmmac1-1 anthers. These results suggest that exploiting host-pathogen interactions may become a useful method for targeting host proteins to cell and tissue types to clarify cellular autonomy and to analyze steps in cell responses.
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Stress and sexual reproduction affect the dynamics of the wheat pathogen effector AvrStb6 and strobilurin resistance

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Genetic background affects pathogenicity island function and pathogen emergence in Streptomyces - Zhang - 2018 - Molecular Plant Pathology - Wiley Online Library

Genetic background affects pathogenicity island function and pathogen emergence in Streptomyces - Zhang - 2018 - Molecular Plant Pathology - Wiley Online Library | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
With few exceptions, thaxtomin A (ThxA), a nitrated diketopiperazine, is the pathogenicity determinant for plant pathogenic Streptomyces species. In Streptomyces scabiei (syn. S. scabies), the Thx
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Calcium signaling: decoding mechanism of calcium signatures - Poovaiah - 2018 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

Calcium signaling: decoding mechanism of calcium signatures - Poovaiah - 2018 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
This article is a Commentary on Lenzoni et al., 217: 1598–1609.
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Plant cell wall-mediated immunity: cell wall changes trigger disease resistance responses - Bacete - 2018 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library

Plant cell wall-mediated immunity: cell wall changes trigger disease resistance responses - Bacete - 2018 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Plants have evolved a repertoire of monitoring systems to sense plant morphogenesis and to face environmental changes and threats caused by different attackers. These systems integrate differen
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PRGdb 3.0: a comprehensive platform for prediction and analysis of plant disease resistance genes | Nucleic Acids Research | Oxford Academic

PRGdb 3.0: a comprehensive platform for prediction and analysis of plant disease resistance genes | Nucleic Acids Research | Oxford Academic | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Abstract. The Plant Resistance Genes database (PRGdb; http://prgdb.org) has been redesigned with a new user interface, new sections, new tools and new data for
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The fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae suppresses innate immunity by modulating a host potassium channel

The fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae suppresses innate immunity by modulating a host potassium channel | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Author summary Plant nutritional status can greatly influence plant immunity in response to pathogen invasion. Rice blast, a devastating rice disease caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, causes a significant reduction in yield and affects food security. In this study, we demonstrate that the M. oryzae secreted protein AvrPiz-t interacts with rice OsAKT1, a potassium (K+) channel protein, and suppresses OsAKT1-mediated inward K+ currents, possibly by competing with the OsAKT1 upstream regulator, OsCIPK23. We also show that both OsAKT1 and OsCIPK23 are required for K+ uptake and resistance against M. oryzae infection in rice. This study provides new insights into the molecular basis of pathogen-mediated perturbation of a plant nutrition pathway.
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Suppression of the activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by the soil microbiota

Suppression of the activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by the soil microbiota | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
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Inter- and intracellular colonization of Arabidopsis roots by endophytic actinobacteria and the impact of plant hormones on their antimicrobial activity

Inter- and intracellular colonization of Arabidopsis roots by endophytic actinobacteria and the impact of plant hormones on their antimicrobial activity | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Many actinobacteria live in close association with eukaryotes such as fungi, insects, animals and plants. Plant-associated actinobacteria display (endo)symbiotic, saprophytic or pathogenic life styles
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Systemic signaling in response to wounding and pathogens

Publication date: June 2018
Source:Current Opinion in Plant Biology, Volume 43
Author(s): Richard Hilleary, Simon Gilroy
Plants possess systemic signaling networks that allow the perception of local stresses to be translated into plant-wide responses. Although information can be propagated via a variety of molecules such as hormones and RNAs moving within the bulk flow of the phloem or in the transpiration stream, the vasculature also appears to be a major pathway whereby extremely rapid signals move bi-directionally throughout the plant. In these cases, the movement mechanisms are not dependent on redistribution through bulk flow. For example, self-reinforcing systems based around changes in Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species, coupled to parallel electrical signaling events appear able to generate waves of information that can propagate at hundreds of μm/s. These signals then elicit distant responses that prime the plant for a more effective defense or stress response in unchallenged tissues. Although ion channels, Ca2+, reactive oxygen species and associated molecular machineries, such as the NADPH oxidases, have been identified as likely important players in this propagation system, the precise nature of these signaling networks remains to be defined. Critically, whether different stimuli are using the same rapid, systemic signaling network, or whether multiple, parallel pathways for signal propagation are operating to trigger specific systemic outputs remains a key open question.
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A poly(A) ribonuclease controls the cellotriose-based interaction between Piriformospora indica and its host Arabidopsis

A poly(A) ribonuclease controls the cellotriose-based interaction between Piriformospora indica and its host Arabidopsis | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Piriformospora indica, an endophytic root-colonizing fungus, efficiently promotes plant growth and induces resistance to abiotic stress and biotic diseases. The fungal cell wall extract induces cytoplasmic calcium [Ca2+]cyt elevation in host plant roots. Here, we show that an elici-tor-active cell wall moiety, released by P. indica into the medium, is cellotriose (CT). CT in-duces a mild defense-like response including the production of reactive oxygen species, changes in membrane potentials and the expression of genes involved in growth regulation and root development. CT based [Ca2+]cyt elevation in Arabidopsis roots does not require BAK1 coreceptor, or the putative Ca2+ channels TPC1, GLR3.3, -2.4 and -2.5 and operates synergistically with the elicitor chitin. We identified an ethylmethane-sulfonate-induced mu-tant ([Ca2+]cyt elevation mutant, cycam) impaired in response to CT, cellooligomers (n = 2, 4-7), but not to chitooligomers (n = 4-8) in roots. The mutant contains a single nucleotide ex-change in the gene encoding for a poly(A) ribonuclease (AtPARN, At1g55870) which de-grades poly(A) tails of specific mRNAs. The wild-type PARN cDNA, expressed under the control of a 35S promoter, complements the mutant phenotype. Our finding of cellotriose as a novel chemical mediator might help to understand the complex P. indica-plant mutual rela-tionship in beneficial symbiosis.
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The biotrophic development of Ustilago maydis studied by RNAseq analysis

The biotrophic development of Ustilago maydis studied by RNAseq analysis | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
The corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis is a model organism for elucidating host colonization strategies of biotrophic fungi. Here we performed an in depth transcriptional profiling of the entire plant-associated development of U. maydis wild-type strains. In our analysis we focused on fungal metabolism, nutritional strategies, secreted effectors and regulatory networks. Secreted proteins were enriched in three distinct expression modules corresponding to stages on the plant surface, establishment of biotrophy and induction of tumors. These modules are likely the key determinants for U. maydis virulence. With respect to nutrient utilization, we observed that expression of several nutrient transporters was tied to these virulence modules rather than being controlled by nutrient availability. We show that oligopeptide transporters likely involved in nitrogen assimilation are important virulence factors. By measuring the intramodular connectivity of transcription factors, we identified the potential drivers for the virulence modules. While known components of the b-mating type cascade emerged as inducers for the plant surface and biotrophy module, we identified a set of yet uncharacterized transcription factors as likely responsible for expression of the tumor module. We demonstrate a crucial role for leaf tumor formation and effector gene expression for one of these transcription factors.
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