Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
Dedicated to the research done on the molecular dialogue between plants and pathogens (but also to any interesting report)
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Flavin Monooxygenase-Generated N-Hydroxypipecolic Acid Is a Critical Element of Plant Systemic Immunity

Flavin Monooxygenase-Generated N-Hydroxypipecolic Acid Is a Critical Element of Plant Systemic Immunity | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
A pathogen-inducible L-Lys catabolic pathway in plants generates N-hydroxypipecolic
acid as a critical regulator of systemic acquired resistance to pathogen infection.
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High-yield production of herbicidal thaxtomins and analogs in a nonpathogenic Streptomyces strain

Thaxtomins are virulence factors of most plant pathogenic Streptomyces strains. Due to their potent herbicidal activity, attractive environmental compatibility and inherent biodegradability, thaxtomins are key active ingredients of bioherbicides approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, the low yield of thaxtomins in native Streptomyces producers limits their wide agricultural applications. Here, we describe the high-yield production of thaxtomins in a heterologous host. The thaxtomin gene cluster from S. scabiei 87.22 was cloned and expressed in S. albus J1074 after chromosomal integration. The production of thaxtomins and nitro-tryptophan analogs were observed using LC-MS analysis. When culturing the engineered S. albus J1074 in the minimal medium TMDc, the yield of the most abundant and herbicidal analog, thaxtomin A, was 10 times higher than S. scabiei 87.22, and optimization of the medium resulted in the highest yield of thaxtomin analogs at about 222 mg/L. Further engineering of the thaxtomin biosynthetic gene cluster through gene deletion led to the production of multiple biosynthetic intermediates important to the chemical synthesis of new analogs. Additionally, the versatility of the thaxtomin biosynthetic system in S. albus J1074 was capitalized to produce one unnatural fluorinated analog 5-F-thaxtomin A, whose structure was elucidated by a combination of MS and 1D and 2D NMR analyses. Natural and unnatural thaxtomins demonstrated potent herbicidal activity in radish seedling assays. These results indicated that S. albus J1074 has the potential to produce thaxtomins and thereof with high yield, fostering their agricultural applications.
IMPORTANCE Thaxtomins are agriculturally valuable herbicidal natural products but the productivity of native producers is limiting. Heterologous expression of thaxtomin gene cluster in S. albus J1074 resulted in the highest yield of thaxtomins ever reported, representing a significant leap forward in its wide agricultural use. Furthermore, current synthetic routes to thaxtomins and analogs are lengthy, and two thaxtomin biosynthetic intermediates produced at high yields in this work can provide precursors and building blocks to advanced synthetic routes. Importantly, the production of 5-F-thaxtomin A in engineered S. albus J1074 demonstrated a viable alternative to chemical methods in the synthesis of new thaxtomin analogs. Moreover, our work presents an attractive synthetic biology strategy to improve the supply of herbicidal thaxtomins, likely finding general applications in the discovery and production of many other bioactive natural products.
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Assessing scientists for hiring, promotion, and tenure

Assessment of researchers is necessary for decisions of hiring, promotion, and tenure. A burgeoning number of scientific leaders believe the current system of faculty incentives and rewards is misaligned with the needs of society and disconnected from the evidence about the causes of the reproducibility crisis and suboptimal quality of the scientific publication record. To address this issue, particularly for the clinical and life sciences, we convened a 22-member expert panel workshop in Washington, DC, in January 2017. Twenty-two academic leaders, funders, and scientists participated in the meeting. As background for the meeting, we completed a selective literature review of 22 key documents critiquing the current incentive system. From each document, we extracted how the authors perceived the problems of assessing science and scientists, the unintended consequences of maintaining the status quo for assessing scientists, and details of their proposed solutions. The resulting table was used as a seed for participant discussion. This resulted in six principles for assessing scientists and associated research and policy implications. We hope the content of this paper will serve as a basis for establishing best practices and redesigning the current approaches to assessing scientists by the many players involved in that process.
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The Tripod for Bacterial Natural Product Discovery: Genome Mining, Silent Pathway Induction, and Mass Spectrometry-Based Molecular Networking

Natural products are the richest source of chemical compounds for drug discovery. Particularly, bacterial secondary metabolites are in the spotlight due to advances in genome sequencing and mining, as well as for the potential of biosynthetic pathway manipulation to awake silent (cryptic) gene clusters under laboratory cultivation. Further progress in compound detection, such as the development of the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) molecular networking approach, has contributed to the discovery of novel bacterial natural products. The latter can be applied directly to bacterial crude extracts for identifying and dereplicating known compounds, therefore assisting the prioritization of extracts containing novel natural products, for example. In our opinion, these three approaches—genome mining, silent pathway induction, and MS-based molecular networking—compose the tripod for modern bacterial natural product discovery and will be discussed in this perspective.

mSystems® vol. 3, no. 2, is a special issue sponsored by Janssen Human Microbiome Institute (JHMI) .
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The stripe rust fungal effector PEC6 suppresses pattern‐triggered immunity in a host species‐independent manner and interacts with adenosine kinases - Liu - - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

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Comparison of the Impact of Two Molecules on Plant Defense and on Efficacy against Botrytis cinerea in the Vineyard: A Plant Defense Inducer (Benzothiadiazole) and a Fungicide (Pyrimethanil) - Jour...

Grapevine is subject to diseases that affect yield and wine quality caused by various pathogens including Botrytis cinerea. To limit the use of fungicides, an alternative is to use plant elicitors such as benzothiadiazole (BTH). We investigated the effect of a fungicide (Pyrimethanil) and an elicitor (benzothiadiazole) on plant defenses. Applications for two consecutive years in the vineyard significantly reduced gray mold. Two and seven days after treatments, the expressions of 48 genes involved in defenses showed differential modulation (up- or down-regulation) depending on treatment. Some genes were identified as potential markers of protection and were linked to an increase in total polyphenols (TP) in leaves. Surprisingly, the fungicide also induced the expression of defense genes and increased the polyphenol content. This suggests that BTH acts as an efficient elicitor in the vineyard and that Pyrimethanil may act, in part, as a defense-inducing agent on the vine.
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Host‐ and stage‐dependent secretome of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis - Zeng - - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library

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A single fungal MAP kinase controls plant cell-to-cell invasion by the rice blast fungus

A single fungal MAP kinase controls plant cell-to-cell invasion by the rice blast fungus | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
When the rice blast fungus enters a rice cell, the plasma membrane stays intact, so the rice cell remains viable. The fungus then moves to adjacent cells via plasmodesmata, the plant's intercellular channels. Sakulkoo et al. used a chemical genetic approach to selectively inhibit a single MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase, Pmk1, in the blast fungus. Inhibition of Pmk1 trapped the fungus within a rice cell. Pmk1 regulated the expression of a suite of effector genes involved in suppression of host immunity, allowing the fungus to manipulate plasmodesmal conductance. At the same time, Pmk1 regulated the fungus's hyphal constriction, which allows movement into new host cells.

Science , this issue p. [1399][1]

[1]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.aaq0892
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IJMS | Free Full-Text | Plant Growth Promoting and Biocontrol Activity of Streptomyces spp. as Endophytes

IJMS | Free Full-Text | Plant Growth Promoting and Biocontrol Activity of Streptomyces spp. as Endophytes | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
There has been many recent studies on the use of microbial antagonists to control diseases incited by soilborne and airborne plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi, in an attempt to replace existing methods of chemical control and avoid extensive use of fungicides, which often lead to resistance in plant pathogens. In agriculture, plant growth-promoting and biocontrol microorganisms have emerged as safe alternatives to chemical pesticides. Streptomyces spp. and their metabolites may have great potential as excellent agents for controlling various fungal and bacterial phytopathogens. Streptomycetes belong to the rhizosoil microbial communities and are efficient colonizers of plant tissues, from roots to the aerial parts. They are active producers of antibiotics and volatile organic compounds, both in soil and in planta, and this feature is helpful for identifying active antagonists of plant pathogens and can be used in several cropping systems as biocontrol agents. Additionally, their ability to promote plant growth has been demonstrated in a number of crops, thus inspiring the wide application of streptomycetes as biofertilizers to increase plant productivity. The present review highlights Streptomyces spp.-mediated functional traits, such as enhancement of plant growth and biocontrol of phytopathogens.
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davidemms/OrthoFinder: Accurate inference of orthologous gene groups made easy. "OrthoFinder: solving fundamental biases in whole genome comparisons dramatically improves orthologous gene group inf...

davidemms/OrthoFinder: Accurate inference of orthologous gene groups made easy. "OrthoFinder: solving fundamental biases in whole genome comparisons dramatically improves orthologous gene group inf... | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
GitHub is where people build software. More than 27 million people use GitHub to discover, fork, and contribute to over 80 million projects.

Via Jesper Svedberg, Niklaus Grunwald
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Current Opinion in Plant Biology - Symbiosis genes for immunity and vice versa

Current Opinion in Plant Biology - Symbiosis genes for immunity and vice versa | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Highlights 
• Several LysM receptor proteins have a dual function in symbiosis and immunity. 
• Symbiotic transcription factors can also control pathogen infection. • Genes of hormonal pathways regulate both pathogen and symbiont colonisation. 
• Crosstalk between symbiosis and immunity also occurs within the flavonoid pathway. 

Basic molecular knowledge on plant–pathogen interactions has largely been gained from reverse and forward genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, as this model plant is unable to establish endosymbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi or rhizobia, plant responses to mutualistic symbionts have been studied in parallel in other plant species, mainly legumes. The resulting analyses led to the identification of gene networks involved in various functions, from microbe recognition to signalling and plant responses, thereafter assigned to either mutualistic symbiosis or immunity, according to the nature of the initially inoculated microbe. The increasing development of new pathosystems and genetic resources in model legumes and the implementation of reverse genetics in plants such as rice and tomato that interact with both mycorrhizal fungi and pathogens, have highlighted the dual role of plant genes previously thought to be specific to mutualistic or pathogenic interactions. The next challenges will be to determine whether such genes have similar functions in both types of interaction and if not, whether the perception of microbial compounds or the involvement of specific plant signalling components is responsible for the appropriate plant responses to the encountered microorganisms.

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Pentapeptide Protection of Botrytis-Infected Tomato by Phytosulfokine

Pentapeptide Protection of Botrytis-Infected Tomato by Phytosulfokine | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Published March 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.18.00215 This is a PDF-only article. The first page of the PDF of this article appears below. Previous Share Jump to section In this issue The Plant Cell Vol.
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Why did filamentous plant pathogens evolve the potential to secrete hundreds of effectors to enable disease? 

During the past decade, many genomes have been sequenced from fungal and oomycete pathogens that interact biotrophically with plants, i.e. they thrive at least initially on living plant tissue. This has revealed genomes that often encode hundreds of proteins predicted to be secreted on the basis of N-terminal signal peptides. Most of these proteins are unique or found only within restricted phylogenetic clades (Franceschetti et al., 2017). They are predicted to be ‘effectors’, i.e. proteins which, in some way, contribute to the virulence of the pathogen (see below). The fact that these filamentous microbes have hundreds of candidate effector genes is in stark contrast with bacterial pathogens, which typically have an order of magnitude fewer effector candidate genes. Although most of these hundreds of effectors currently lack evidence for significant roles in virulence, it is still striking that many of them appear to contribute measurably to virulence and that several of them seem to physically interact with numerous host proteins. In this Opinion Piece, we discuss these observations and attempt to address the apparent need for hundreds of effector candidate genes in these species. We suggest that this requirement reflects, in part, the need for effectors to target defence-unrelated susceptibility components. Many of these, in turn, may be monitored (‘guarded’) by resistance-triggering immune sensors. Potentially, pathogen success depends on additional sets of effectors dedicated to suppress this kind of surveillance.

Via Francis Martin
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Interplay between carbon, nitrogen and phosphate utilization in the control of secondary metabolite production in Streptomyces

Interplay between carbon, nitrogen and phosphate utilization in the control of secondary metabolite production in Streptomyces | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Streptomycesspecies are a wide and diverse source of many therapeutic agents (antimicrobials, antineoplastic and antioxidants, to name a few) and represent an important source of compound
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Extracellular Vesicle RNA: A Universal Mediator of Microbial Communication?

Extracellular Vesicle RNA: A Universal Mediator of Microbial Communication? | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Both extracellular RNAs and extracellular vesicles (EVs) have recently garnered attention as novel mediators of intercellular communication in eukaryotes and prokaryotes alike. EVs not only permit export of RNA, but also facilitate delivery and trans-kingdom exchange of these and other biomolecules, for instance between microbes and their hosts. In this Opinion article, we propose that EV-mediated export of RNA represents a universal mechanism for interkingdom and intrakingdom communication that is conserved among bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic microbes. We speculate how microbes might use EV RNA to influence target cell gene expression or manipulate host immune responses.

Via Jonathan Plett, Francis Martin
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CRISPR-based genomic tools for the manipulation of genetically intractable microorganisms

CRISPR-based genomic tools for the manipulation of genetically intractable microorganisms | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Progress
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Microbial interactions within the plant holobiont | Microbiome | Full Text

Microbial interactions within the plant holobiont | Microbiome | Full Text | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Since the colonization of land by ancestral plant lineages 450 million years ago, plants and their associated microbes have been interacting with each other, forming an assemblage of species that is often referred to as a “holobiont.” Selective pressure acting on holobiont components has likely shaped plant-associated microbial communities and selected for host-adapted microorganisms that impact plant fitness. However, the high microbial densities detected on plant tissues, together with the fast generation time of microbes and their more ancient origin compared to their host, suggest that microbe-microbe interactions are also important selective forces sculpting complex microbial assemblages in the phyllosphere, rhizosphere, and plant endosphere compartments. Reductionist approaches conducted under laboratory conditions have been critical to decipher the strategies used by specific microbes to cooperate and compete within or outside plant tissues. Nonetheless, our understanding of these microbial interactions in shaping more complex plant-associated microbial communities, along with their relevance for host health in a more natural context, remains sparse. Using examples obtained from reductionist and community-level approaches, we discuss the fundamental role of microbe-microbe interactions (prokaryotes and micro-eukaryotes) for microbial community structure and plant health. We provide a conceptual framework illustrating that interactions among microbiota members are critical for the establishment and the maintenance of host-microbial homeostasis.
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Potato MAP3K StVIK is required for Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effector Pi17316 to promote disease

Potato MAP3K StVIK is required for Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effector Pi17316 to promote disease | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Plant pathogens deliver effectors to manipulate processes in their hosts, creating a suitable environment for invasion and proliferation. Yet, little is known about the host proteins that are targeted by effectors from filamentous pathogens. Here, we show that stable transgenic expression in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana of the Arg-any amino acid-Leu-Arg (RXLR) effector Pi17316 enhances leaf colonization by the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Expression of Pi17316 also attenuates cell death triggered by the pathogen-associated molecular pattern Infestin 1 (INF1), indicating that the effector suppresses pattern-triggered immunity. However, this effector does not attenuate cell death triggered by a range of resistance proteins, showing that it specifically suppresses INF1-triggered cell death (ICD). In yeast two-hybrid assays, Pi17316 interacts directly with the potato orthologue of VASCULAR HIGHWAY 1 (VH1)-interacting kinase (StVIK), encoding a predicted mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K). Interaction in planta was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and occurs at the plant plasma membrane. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of VIK in N. benthamiana attenuated P. infestans colonization, whereas transient overexpression of StVIK enhanced colonization, indicating that this host protein acts as a susceptibility (S) factor. Moreover, VIK overexpression specifically attenuated ICD, indicating it is a negative regulator of immunity. The abilities of Pi17316 to enhance P. infestans colonization or suppress ICD were significantly compromised in NbVIK-silenced plants, demonstrating that the effector activity of Pi17316 is mediated by this MAP3K. Thus, StVIK is exploited by P. infestans as an S factor to promote late blight disease.
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Frontiers | The Novel Secreted Meloidogyne incognita Effector MiISE6 Targets the Host Nucleus and Facilitates Parasitism in Arabidopsis | Plant Science

Frontiers | The Novel Secreted Meloidogyne incognita Effector MiISE6 Targets the Host Nucleus and Facilitates Parasitism in Arabidopsis | Plant Science | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Meloidogyne incognita is highly specialized parasite that interacts with host plants using a range of strategies. The effectors are synthesized in the esophageal glands and secreted into plant cells through a needle-like stylet during parasitism. In this study, based on RNA-seq and bioinformatics analysis, we predicted 110 putative Meloidogyne incognita effectors that contain nuclear localization signals (NLSs). Combining the Burkholderia glumae–pEDV based screening system with subcellular localization, from 20 randomly selected NLS effector candidates, we identified an effector MiISE6 that can effectively suppress B. glumae-induced cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana, targets to the nuclei of plant cells, and is highly expressed in early parasitic J2 stage. Sequence analysis showed that MiISE6 is a 157-amino acid peptide, with an OGFr_N domain and two NLS motifs. Hybridization in situ verified that MiISE6 is expressed in the subventral esophageal glands. Yeast invertase secretion assay validated the function of the signal peptide harbored in MiISE6. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing MiISE6 become more susceptible to M. incognita. Inversely, the host-derived RNAi of MiISE6 of the nematode can decrease its parasitism on host. Based on transcriptome analysis of the MiISE6 transgenic Arabidopsis samples and the wild-type samples, we obtained 895 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Integrating Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome
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High intraspecific genome diversity in the model arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiont Rhizophagus irregularis - Chen - - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

High intraspecific genome diversity in the model arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiont Rhizophagus irregularis - Chen - - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
New Phytologist, Ahead of Print.
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Evaluation of Trichoderma spp., Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis for biological control of Ralstonia wilt of tomato - F1000Research

Background: Ralstonia spp. is a major pathogenic microbe for tomato, which invades the roots of diverse plant hosts and colonizes xylem vessels causing wilt, especially in tropical, subtropical and warm-temperate regions. Ralstonia spp. produces several virulence factors helping it to invade the plant’s natural defense mechanism. Native isolates of Trichoderma spp., Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis can be used as biocontrol agents to control the bacterial wilt and combined application of these beneficial microbes can give better results.
Methods: Bacterial wilt infection in the field was identified by field experts and the infected plant part was used to isolate Ralstonia spp. in CPG media and was positively identified. Subsequently, the efficacy of the biocontrol agents was tested and documented using agar well diffusion technique and digital microscopy. 2ml of the microbial concentrate (109 cells/ml) was mixed in one liter of water and was applied in the plant root at the rate of 100 ml per plant as a treatment method.
Results: It was observed that the isolated Trichoderma spp. AA2 and Pseudomonas fluorescens PFS were most potent in inhibiting the growth of Ralstonia spp., showing ZOI 20.67 mm and 22.33 mm, respectively. Digital microscopy showed distinct inhibitory effect on the growth and survival of Ralstonia spp. The results from the field data indicated that Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens alone were able to prevent 92% and 96% of the infection and combination of both were more effective, preventing 97% of infection. Chemical control methods prevented 94% of infection. Bacillus subtilis could only prevent 84 % of the infection.
Conclusions: Antagonistic effect against Ralstonia spp. shown by native isolates of Trichoderma spp. and P. fluorescens manifested the promising potential as biocontrol agents. Combined application gave better results. Results shown by Bacillus subtilis were not significant.
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Evaluation of Trichoderma spp., Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis for biological control of Ralstonia wilt of tomato - F1000Research

Background: Ralstonia spp. is a major pathogenic microbe for tomato, which invades the roots of diverse plant hosts and colonizes xylem vessels causing wilt, especially in tropical, subtropical and warm-temperate regions. Ralstonia spp. produces several virulence factors helping it to invade the plant’s natural defense mechanism. Native isolates of Trichoderma spp., Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis can be used as biocontrol agents to control the bacterial wilt and combined application of these beneficial microbes can give better results.
Methods: Bacterial wilt infection in the field was identified by field experts and the infected plant part was used to isolate Ralstonia spp. in CPG media and was positively identified. Subsequently, the efficacy of the biocontrol agents was tested and documented using agar well diffusion technique and digital microscopy. 2ml of the microbial concentrate (109 cells/ml) was mixed in one liter of water and was applied in the plant root a
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Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria associated with avocado display antagonistic activity against Phytophthora cinnamomi through volatile emissions

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria associated with avocado display antagonistic activity against Phytophthora cinnamomi through volatile emissions | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Rhizobacteria associated with crops constitute an important source of potentially beneficial microorganisms with plant growth promoting activity or antagonistic effects against phytopathogens. In this study, we evaluated the plant growth promoting activity of 11 bacterial isolates that were obtained from the rhizosphere of healthy avocado trees and from that of avocado trees having survived root rot infestations. Seven bacterial isolates, belonging to the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter, promoted in vitro growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. These isolates were then tested for antagonistic activity against Phytophthora cinnamomi, in direct dual culture assays. Two of those rhizobacterial isolates, obtained from symptomatic-declining trees, displayed antagonistic activity. Isolate A8a, which is closely related to Bacillus acidiceler, was also able to inhibit P. cinnamomi growth in vitro by 76% through the production of volatile compounds. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and analysis by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) allowed to tentatively identify the main volatiles emitted by isolate A8a as 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, 6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-one and 3-amino-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one. These volatile compounds have been reported to show antifungal activity when produced by other bacterial isolates. These results confirm the significance of rhizobacteria and suggest that these bacteria could be used for biocontrol of soil borne oomycetes through their volatiles emissions.
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The Cell Wall of the Human Fungal Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus: Biosynthesis, Organization, Immune Response, and Virulence | Annual Review of Microbiology

More than 90% of the cell wall of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus comprises polysaccharides. Biosynthesis of the cell wall polysaccharides is under the control of three types of enzymes: transmembrane synthases, which are anchored to the plasma membrane and use nucleotide sugars as substrates, and cell wall–associated transglycosidases and glycosyl hydrolases, which are responsible for remodeling the de novo synthesized polysaccharides and establishing the three-dimensional structure of the cell wall. For years, the cell wall was considered an inert exoskeleton of the fungal cell. The cell wall is now recognized as a living organelle, since the composition and cellular localization of the different constitutive cell wall components (especially of the outer layers) vary when the fungus senses changes in the external environment. The cell wall plays a major role during infection. The recognition of the fungal cell wall by the host is essential in the initiation of the immune response. The interactions between the different pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and cell wall pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) orientate the host response toward either fungal death or growth, which would then lead to disease development. Understanding the molecular determinants of the interplay between the cell wall and host immunity is fundamental to combatting Aspergillus diseases.
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A multi-layered mechanistic modelling approach to understand how effector genes extend beyond phytoplasma to modulate plant hosts, insect vectors and the environment

Highlights



Phytoplasma effectors modulate plant host and insect vector processes.


Effector SAP11 destabilizes plant TCPs inducing witch's broom and suppressing JA.


Effector SAP54 degrades MADS-box transcription factors altering flower development.


Both effectors promote insect vector colonization of plants.


A multi-layered approach enables us to model the long reach of these effector genes.
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