plant immunity
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YODA MAP3K kinase regulates plant immune responses conferring broad‐spectrum disease resistance - Sopeña‐Torres - 2018 - New Phytologist -

YODA MAP3K kinase regulates plant immune responses conferring broad‐spectrum disease resistance - Sopeña‐Torres - 2018 - New Phytologist - | plant immunity | Scoop.it
Mitogen‐activated protein kinases (MAPKs) cascades play essential roles in plants by transducing developmental cues and environmental signals into cellular responses. Among the latter are microbe‐associated molecular patterns perceived by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which trigger immunity.
We found that YODA (YDA) – a MAPK kinase kinase regulating several Arabidopsis developmental processes, like stomatal patterning – also modulates immune responses. Resistance to pathogens is compromised in yda alleles, whereas plants expressing the constitutively active YDA (CA‐YDA) protein show broad‐spectrum resistance to fungi, bacteria, and oomycetes with different colonization modes. YDA functions in the same pathway as ERECTA (ER) Receptor‐Like Kinase, regulating both immunity and stomatal patterning.
ER‐YDA‐mediated immune responses act in parallel to canonical disease resistance pathways regulated by phytohormones and PRRs. CA‐YDA plants exhibit altered cell‐wall integrity and constitutively express defense‐associated genes, including some encoding putative small secreted peptides and PRRs whose impairment resulted in enhanced susceptibility phenotypes. CA‐YDA plants show strong reprogramming of their phosphoproteome, which contains protein targets distinct from described MAPKs substrates.
Our results suggest that, in addition to stomata development, the ER‐YDA pathway regulates an immune surveillance system conferring broad‐spectrum disease resistance that is distinct from the canonical pathways mediated by described PRRs and defense hormones.
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New Phytologist: Multiple strategies for pathogen perception by plant immune receptors (2017)

New Phytologist: Multiple strategies for pathogen perception by plant immune receptors (2017) | plant immunity | Scoop.it

Plants have evolved a complex immune system to protect themselves against phytopathogens. A major class of plant immune receptors called nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins (NLRs) is ubiquitous in plants and is widely used for crop disease protection, making these proteins critical contributors to global food security. Until recently, NLRs were thought to be conserved in their modular architecture and functional features. Investigation of their biochemical, functional and structural properties has revealed fascinating mechanisms that enable these proteins to perceive a wide range of pathogens. Here, I review recent insights demonstrating that NLRs are more mechanistically and structurally diverse than previously thought. I also discuss how these findings provide exciting future prospects to improve plant disease resistance.


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Bridget Barker's curator insight, November 21, 2017 9:22 AM
Always thinking about links between animal and plant pathogens
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Trends in Plant Science: Dancing with the Stars: An Asterid NLR Family (2017)

Trends in Plant Science: Dancing with the Stars: An Asterid NLR Family (2017) | plant immunity | Scoop.it

Wu and co-workers show how a network of sensor and helper NOD-like receptor proteins (NLRs) act together to confer robust resistance to diverse plant pathogens.

Plants engage with a plethora of potential pathogens but only some of these microbial overtures lead to disease. This is due to a highly successful system of innate immune receptors that quickly identify the invader and halt its progress. Wu et al. [1] now describe new insights into the molecular choreography of plant immune receptors.

 

Our understanding of these dances began with a simple two-step. There are two partners involved: a Resistance (R) gene in the host and an Avirulence (Avr) gene in the pathogen. They dance a dance according to the gene-for-gene model and resistance is manifest only if both partners are present [2]. The simplest interpretation of the gene-for-gene model is that the R gene encodes a receptor for the product of the Avr gene [3]. In fact, most R genes encode NOD-like receptors (NLRs) that pair a central nucleotide binding domain with C-terminal leucine rich repeats (NB-LRR proteins) [4]. On the other side, most Avr genes encode effectors that are secreted by pathogens to maintain virulence by strategic manipulation of host targets. As LRRs are receptor moieties in other proteins, early models posited them as receptor domains for effectors in a direct interaction, and this simple model holds true for some resistances [5].

 

Along the way, it transpired that more sophisticated models groove to a different beat. For instance, many NLRs recognise changes induced in another host target protein that is modified enzymatically by pathogen effector (Avr) proteins [6]. Examples are also known in which decoy proteins mimic such host target proteins and facilitate recognition by NLRs [7]. Effector decoys can also be provided in cis as a fusion with the NB-LRR moieties [8]. Some NLRs dance solo, but others need two to tango. In this molecular pas-de-deux, one NLR partner is the sensor that interacts with an effector, and the other is a helper that stimulates downstream signal transduction events. These pairs interact physically, and strikingly, are typically co-located genomically in a tail-to-tail arrangement (Figure 1) [9].
 
Sensor-helper relationships also occur between non-linked NLR genes. A widespread class of NLRs called CCR proteins typified by the Nicotiana benthamiana N-required gene 1 (NRG1) and Arabidopsis activated disease resistance gene 1 (ADR1) proteins are needed for a number of sensor NLRs that recognise diverse pathogens [10]. However in this case no contact between sensor and helper has been reported. An analogous situation exists in the Solanaceae, the nightshade family, which includes tomato, eggplant and tobacco. Here a family of NLRs called NRCs (NLR required for cell death), are essential for the function of a range of sensor NLRs [11, 12]. Wu and colleagues now flesh out the details of a network of sensors and helpers in Solanaceae that may enhance the robustness of immunity signalling pathways [1].


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Identification of Novel Growth Regulators in Plant Populations Expressing Random Peptides

Identification of Novel Growth Regulators in Plant Populations Expressing Random Peptides | plant immunity | Scoop.it

The use of chemical genomics approaches allows the identification of small molecules that integrate into biological systems, thereby changing discrete processes that influence growth, development, or metabolism. Libraries of chemicals are applied to living systems, and changes in phenotype are observed, potentially leading to the identification of new growth regulators. This work describes an approach that is the nexus of chemical genomics and synthetic biology. Here, each plant in an extensive population synthesizes a unique small peptide arising from a transgene composed of a randomized nucleic acid sequence core flanked by translational start, stop, and cysteine-encoding (for disulfide cyclization) sequences. Ten and 16 amino acid sequences, bearing a core of six and 12 random amino acids, have been synthesized in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) plants. Populations were screened for phenotypes from the seedling stage through senescence. Dozens of phenotypes were observed in over 2,000 plants analyzed. Ten conspicuous phenotypes were verified through separate transformation and analysis of multiple independent lines. The results indicate that these populations contain sequences that often influence discrete aspects of plant biology. Novel peptides that affect photosynthesis, flowering, and red light response are described. The challenge now is to identify the mechanistic integrations of these peptides into biochemical processes. These populations serve as a new tool to identify small molecules that modulate discrete plant functions that could be produced later in transgenic plants or potentially applied exogenously to impart their effects. These findings could usher in a new generation of agricultural growth regulators, herbicides, or defense compounds.


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Plant root-microbe communication in shaping root microbiomes

Plant root-microbe communication in shaping root microbiomes | plant immunity | Scoop.it
A growing body of research is highlighting the impacts root-associated microbial communities can have on plant health and development. These impacts can include changes in yield quantity and quality,
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Current Opinion in Microbiology: The cell biology of late blight disease (2016)

Current Opinion in Microbiology: The cell biology of late blight disease (2016) | plant immunity | Scoop.it

• The Phytophthora haustorium is a major site of secretion during infection.

• The host endocytic cycle contributes to biogenesis of the Extra-Haustorial Membrane.
• RXLR effectors manipulate host processes at diverse subcellular locations.

• They directly manipulate the activity or location of immune proteins.

• They also promote the activity of endogenous negative regulators of immunity.

 

Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is a major global disease of potato and tomato. Cell biology is teaching us much about the developmental stages associated with infection, especially the haustorium, which is a site of intimate interaction and molecular exchange between pathogen and host. Recent observations suggest a role for the plant endocytic cycle in specific recruitment of host proteins to the Extra-Haustorial Membrane, emphasising the unique nature of this membrane compartment. In addition, there has been a strong focus on the activities of RXLR effectors, which are delivered into plant cells to modulate and manipulate host processes. RXLR effectors interact directly with diverse plant proteins at a range of subcellular locations to promote disease.

 


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By switching 'bait,' biologists trick plants' bacterial defense into attacking virus: Single, minor gene alteration method could confer new disease resistance traits to crops

By switching 'bait,' biologists trick plants' bacterial defense into attacking virus: Single, minor gene alteration method could confer new disease resistance traits to crops | plant immunity | Scoop.it
Scientists have modified a plant gene that normally fights bacterial infection to confer resistance to a virus. The method is the first time a plant's innate defense system has been altered to deliver resistance to a new disease.
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New insights into signalling pathway of long-established immune receptor - The Sainsbury Laboratory

New insights into signalling pathway of long-established immune receptor - The Sainsbury Laboratory | plant immunity | Scoop.it
A team of scientists at The Sainsbury Laboratory, led by Professor Silke Robatzek and in collaboration with Dr Matthieu Joosten from Wageningen University, have uncovered one of the mechanisms by which tomato plants can defend against disease-causing pathogens. The perception of pathogens by plants, and how they relay these signals, is crucial to the outcome... Read more »
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Protecting plants from stealthy diseases

Protecting plants from stealthy diseases | plant immunity | Scoop.it
Stealthy diseases sometimes trick plants by hijacking their defense signaling system, which issues an alarm that diverts plant resources for the wrong attack and allows the enemy pathogens to easily overrun plants.
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Nature Plants: Immunity: One receptor, many pathogens (2015)

Nature Plants: Immunity: One receptor, many pathogens (2015) | plant immunity | Scoop.it

Most plant pattern recognition receptors induce immune responses by detecting molecular patterns typical to one group of microbes. A newly identified complex, on the other hand, monitors effector proteins widely distributed among bacteria, fungi and oomycetes, casting a new light on the evolution of pattern recognition in plants.


See also Albert et al. An RLP23–SOBIR1–BAK1 complex mediates NLP-triggered immunity. Nature Plants http://www.nature.com/articles/nplants2015140


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A new cyanogenic metabolite in Arabidopsis required for inducible pathogen defence : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

A new cyanogenic metabolite in Arabidopsis required for inducible pathogen defence : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | plant immunity | Scoop.it
Thousands of putative biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis thaliana have no known function, which suggests that there are numerous molecules contributing to plant fitness that have not yet been discovered. Prime among these uncharacterized genes are cytochromes P450 upregulated in response to pathogens. Here we start with a single pathogen-induced P450 (ref. 5), CYP82C2, and use a combination of untargeted metabolomics and coexpression analysis to uncover the complete biosynthetic pathway to 4-hydroxyindole-3-carbonyl nitrile (4-OH-ICN), a previously unknown Arabidopsis metabolite. This metabolite harbours cyanogenic functionality that is unprecedented in plants and exceedingly rare in nature; furthermore, the aryl cyanohydrin intermediate in the 4-OH-ICN pathway reveals a latent capacity for cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. By expressing 4-OH-ICN biosynthetic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Nicotiana benthamiana, we reconstitute the complete pathway in vitro and in vivo and validate the functions of its enzymes. Arabidopsis 4-OH-ICN pathway mutants show increased susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, consistent with a role in inducible pathogen defence. Arabidopsis has been the pre-eminent model system for studying the role of small molecules in plant innate immunity; our results uncover a new branch of indole metabolism distinct from the canonical camalexin pathway, and support a role for this pathway in the Arabidopsis defence response. These results establish a more complete framework for understanding how the model plant Arabidopsis uses small molecules in pathogen defence.
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The Plasmodesmal Protein PDLP1 Localises to Haustoria-Associated Membranes during Downy Mildew Infection and Regulates Callose Deposition

The Plasmodesmal Protein PDLP1 Localises to Haustoria-Associated Membranes during Downy Mildew Infection and Regulates Callose Deposition | plant immunity | Scoop.it
by Marie-Cécile Caillaud, Lennart Wirthmueller, Jan Sklenar, Kim Findlay, Sophie J. M. Piquerez, Alexandra M. E. Jones, Silke Robatzek, Jonathan D. G.

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Molecular tools for functional genomics in filamentous fungi: Recent advances and new strategies

Molecular tools for functional genomics in filamentous fungi: Recent advances and new strategies | plant immunity | Scoop.it

(Jiang et al, 2013)

In this review, various molecular tools used in filamentous fungi are compared and discussed, including methods for genetic transformation (e.g., protoplast transformation, electroporation, and microinjection), the construction of random mutant libraries (e.g., restriction enzyme mediated integration, transposon arrayed gene knockout, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation), and the analysis of gene function (e.g., RNA interference and transcription activator-like effector nucleases). We also focused on practical strategies that could enhance the efficiency of genetic manipulation in filamentous fungi, such as choosing a proper screening system and marker genes, assembling target-cassettes or vectors effectively, and transforming into strains that are deficient in the nonhomologous end joining pathway.

 

 


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Emerging Microbial Biocontrol Strategies For Plant Pathogens

Emerging Microbial Biocontrol Strategies For Plant Pathogens | plant immunity | Scoop.it
Highlights
• Food Security is at risk by an increasing world population and a growing number of crop pathogens.
• Biological control options emerge as promising alternatives to assist crops to fight pathogens.
• Microbial biocontrol success is inconsistent and depends on a number of environmental, ecological and genetic factors.
• This review provides an overview of existing and new microbial biocontrol strategies and how these can be more stable.
• Emerging strategies include long-term plant colonization, microbiome engineering and breeding of microbe-optimized crops.

To address food security, agricultural yields must increase to match the growing human population in the near future. There is now a strong push to develop low-input and more sustainable agricultural practices that include alternatives to chemicals for controlling pests and diseases, a major factor of heavy losses in agricultural production. Based on the adverse effects of some chemicals on human health, the environment and living organisms, researchers are focusing on potential biological control microbes as viable alternatives for the management of pests and plant pathogens. There is a growing body of evidence that demonstrates the potential of leaf and root-associated microbiomes to increase plant efficiency and yield in cropping systems. It is important to understand the role of these microbes in promoting growth and controlling diseases, and their application as biofertilizers and biopesticides whose success in the field is still inconsistent. This review focusses on how biocontrol microbes modulate plant defense mechanisms, deploy biocontrol actions in plants and offer new strategies to control plant pathogens. Apart from simply applying individual biocontrol microbes, there are now efforts to improve, facilitate and maintain long-term plant colonization. In particular, great hopes are associated with the new approaches of using “plant-optimized microbiomes” (microbiome engineering) and establishing the genetic basis of beneficial plant-microbe interactions to enable breeding of “microbe-optimized crops”.

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Jonathan Lapleau's curator insight, January 23, 9:12 AM
Biocontrol is an emerging and promising field of research and application in order to manage diseases and stresses in crops. Nature is a bio-bank for active compounds, so let's use it !
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bioRxiv: The plant calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK3 phosphorylates REM1.3 to restrict viral infection (2017)

bioRxiv: The plant calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK3 phosphorylates REM1.3 to restrict viral infection (2017) | plant immunity | Scoop.it
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The Sainsbury Lab's curator insight, October 23, 2017 5:16 AM
Plants respond to pathogens through dynamic regulation of plasma membrane-bound signaling pathways. To date, how the plant plasma membrane is involved in responses to viruses is mostly unknown. Here, we show that plant cells sense the Potato virus X (PVX) COAT PROTEIN and TRIPLE GENE BLOCK 1 proteins and subsequently trigger the activation of a membrane-bound calcium-dependent kinase. We show that the Arabidopsis thaliana CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE 3-interacts with group 1 REMORINs in vivo, phosphorylates the intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain of the Group 1 REMORIN REM1.3, and restricts PVX cell-to-cell movement. REM1.3's phospho-status defines its plasma membrane nanodomain organization and is crucial for REM1.3-dependent restriction of PVX cell-to-cell movement by regulation of callose deposition at plasmodesmata. This study unveils plasma membrane nanodomain-associated molecular events underlying the plant immune response to viruses.
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Root microbiota drive direct integration of phosphate stress and immunity

Plants live in biogeochemically diverse soils with diverse microbiota. Plant organs associate intimately with a subset of these microbes, and the structure of the microbial community can be altered by soil nutrient content. Plant-associated microbes can compete with the plant and with each other for nutrients, but may also carry traits that increase the productivity of the plant. It is unknown how the plant immune system coordinates microbial recognition with nutritional cues during microbiome assembly. Here we establish that a genetic network controlling the phosphate stress response influences the structure of the root microbiome community, even under non-stress phosphate conditions. We define a molecular mechanism regulating coordination between nutrition and defence in the presence of a synthetic bacterial community. We further demonstrate that the master transcriptional regulators of phosphate stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana also directly repress defence, consistent with plant prioritization of nutritional stress over defence. Our work will further efforts to define and deploy useful microbes to enhance plant performance.
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A plant's balance of growth and defense – revisited

A plant's balance of growth and defense – revisited | plant immunity | Scoop.it
The sessile lifestyle of plants requires a permanent and efficient adjustment to environmental stresses caused by biotic factors, such as pathogens and herbivores, or abiotic factors, such as drought and salt. Any defense responses, however, are costly, and investment into defense leads to reduced growth. These plant growth–defense tradeoffs, with simultaneous activation of defense and maintenance of growth, are critical for crop breeding. For some stresses, such as wounding by herbivores, the cost–benefit ratio in the growth–defense tradeoff has been tested in native populations; a costly jasmonic acid (JA)-induced defense response has been shown, which is down-regulated when the defense is not required (Baldwin, 1998). JA is the central player in many stress responses: inhibition of root growth, photosynthesis, and leaf growth (Zhang & Turner, 2008), induction of defense proteins, formation of secondary compounds active in defense and defense upon bacterial infection are JA-induced processes with consequences for growth
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Natural alternatives to protect plants inspired by pharmaceutical research

Natural alternatives to protect plants inspired by pharmaceutical research | plant immunity | Scoop.it
The bacteria Streptomyces could be used as an environmentally friendly alternative to pesticides, scientists in France write in an Opinion published Dec. 1 in Trends in Plant Science. In addition to protecting plants from fungal and other threats, Streptomyces has been shown to keep roots healthy and promote plant growth. Streptomyces or their derived metabolites are already being used in six different agricultural products.

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MPMI: Colonization of barley by the broad-host hemibiotrophic pathogen Phytophthora palmivora uncovers a leaf development dependent involvement of MLO (2016)

MPMI: Colonization of barley by the broad-host hemibiotrophic pathogen Phytophthora palmivora uncovers a leaf development dependent involvement of MLO (2016) | plant immunity | Scoop.it

The discovery of barley MLO demonstrated that filamentous pathogens rely on plant genes to achieve entry and lifecycle completion in barley leaves. Whilst having a dramatic effect on foliar pathogens, it is unclear whether overlapping or distinct mechanisms affect filamentous pathogen infection of roots. To remove the bias connected with using different pathogens to understand colonisation mechanisms in different tissues we have utilized the aggressive hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora palmivora. P. palmivora colonises root as well as leaf tissues of barley (Hordeum vulgare). The infection is characterized by a transient biotrophy phase with formation of haustoria. Barley accessions varied in degree of susceptibility, with some accessions fully resistant to leaf infection. Notably, there was no overall correlation between degree of susceptibility in roots compared to leaves suggesting that variation in different genes influences host susceptibility above- and belowground. In addition, a developmental gradient influenced infection, with more extensive colonisation observed in mature leaf sectors. Only in young leaf tissues, the mlo5 mutation attenuates P. palmivora infection. The barley - P. palmivora interaction represents a simple system to identify and compare genetic components governing quantitative colonisation in diverse types of barley tissues.


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Plant Immunity | The Scientist Magazine®

Plant Immunity | The Scientist Magazine® | plant immunity | Scoop.it
How plants fight off pathogens
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Genomic and Post-Translational Modification Analysis of Leucine-Rich-Repeat Receptor-Like Kinases in Brassica rapa. - PubMed - NCBI

Genomic and Post-Translational Modification Analysis of Leucine-Rich-Repeat Receptor-Like Kinases in Brassica rapa. - PubMed - NCBI | plant immunity | Scoop.it
PLoS One. 2015 Nov 20;10(11):e0142255. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142255.
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Engineering Virus-Resistant Plants | The Scientist Magazine®

Engineering Virus-Resistant Plants | The Scientist Magazine® | plant immunity | Scoop.it
Researchers use CRISPR to create plants that resist infection by DNA viruses.
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Cell Host Microbe: The Decoy Substrate of a Pathogen Effector and a Pseudokinase Specify Pathogen-Induced Modified-Self Recognition and Immunity in Plants (2015)

Cell Host Microbe: The Decoy Substrate of a Pathogen Effector and a Pseudokinase Specify Pathogen-Induced Modified-Self Recognition and Immunity in Plants (2015) | plant immunity | Scoop.it

In plants, host response to pathogenic microbes is driven both by microbial perception and detection of modified-self. The Xanthomonas campestris effector protein AvrAC/XopAC uridylylates the Arabidopsis BIK1 kinase to dampen basal resistance and thereby promotes bacterial virulence. Here we show that PBL2, a paralog of BIK1, is similarly uridylylated by AvrAC. However, in contrast to BIK1, PBL2 uridylylation is specifically required for host recognition of AvrAC to trigger immunity, but not AvrAC virulence. PBL2 thus acts as a decoy and enables AvrAC detection. AvrAC recognition also requires the RKS1 pseudokinase of the ZRK family and the NOD-like receptor ZAR1, which is known to recognize the Pseudomonas syringae effector HopZ1a. ZAR1 forms a stable complex with RKS1, which specifically recruits PBL2 when the latter is uridylylated by AvrAC, triggering ZAR1-mediated immunity. The results illustrate how decoy substrates and pseudokinases can specify and expand the capacity of the plant immune system.


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Underground Immunity | The Scientist Magazine®

Underground Immunity | The Scientist Magazine® | plant immunity | Scoop.it
Arabidopsis thaliana defense hormones shape the plant’s root microbiome.
Joseph Charlton's insight:

Additional exploration area in the quest to understand the plants immune system!

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Frontiers in Plant-Microbe Interaction | Research Topics: Plant Immunity: From model systems to crops species (2014)

Frontiers in Plant-Microbe Interaction | Research Topics: Plant Immunity: From model systems to crops species (2014) | plant immunity | Scoop.it

Plants posses an intricate innate immune system that enables them to fight off most invading pathogens. Around the world, agriculture relies on robust disease resistance to ensure adequate food and feed production. Researchers and breeders are constantly generating new resistant crop varieties mostly employing the lengthy process of conventional breeding. Nonetheless, crop losses due to plant pathogens are estimated to be over 15% every year - the main cause of such losses is rapid evolution of new virulent races. In order to keep up with emerging pathogens, we need to gain a deeper and more systematic understanding of the immune system of our crops. During the past two decades, molecular understanding of plant innate immune signaling has been greatly expanded using dicotyledonous model systems such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Now, it is time to connect this volume of knowledge with the immune system of the crop species.

 

In this Research Topic we aim to collect manuscripts covering the current knowledge of the immune systems of major crop species. Specifically, we encourage the submission of manuscripts (Original Research, Hypothesis & Theory, Methods, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Perspective and Opinion) covering the following topics:

 

a. Manuscripts describing our current understanding of the plant immune system with a focus on crop species or comparative analyses between model systems and crops.

b. Manuscripts exploring how to best exploit our insight into genomes of plant pathogens and molecular understanding of effector function.
c. Manuscripts debating (novel) strategies of how to generate more resistant crop varieties. These might include biotechnological, social and economical aspects of crop improvement.

 

We anticipate that this Research Topic will become an important resource for plant immunologists especially those interested in comparative studies of plant innate immune systems of model systems and crop species.

 

Topic Editors

 

Benjamin Schwessinger
UC Davis
Davis, USA

 

Rebecca Bart
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
St. Louis, USA

 

Gitta Coaker
University of California, Davis
Davis, USA

 

Ksenia V Krasileva
University of California Davis
Davis, USA


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