Plant hormones and signaling peptides
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The Arabidopsis Ethylene/Jasmonic Acid-NRT Signaling Module Coordinates Nitrate Reallocation and the Trade-Off between Growth and Environmental Adaptation

The Arabidopsis Ethylene/Jasmonic Acid-NRT Signaling Module Coordinates Nitrate Reallocation and the Trade-Off between Growth and Environmental Adaptation | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
Stresses decouple nitrate assimilation and photosynthesis through stress-initiated nitrate allocation to roots (SINAR), which is mediated by the nitrate transporters NRT1.8 and NRT1.5 and functions to promote stress tolerance. However, how SINAR communicates with the environment remains unknown. Here, we present biochemical and genetic evidence demonstrating that in Arabidopsis thaliana, ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) affect the crosstalk between SINAR and the environment. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that ethylene response factors (ERFs), including OCTADECANOID-RESPONSIVE ARABIDOPSIS AP2/ERF59, bind to the GCC boxes in the NRT1.8 promoter region, while ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) binds to the EIN3 binding site motifs in the NRT1.5 promoter. Genetic assays showed that cadmium and sodium stresses initiated ET/JA signaling, which converged at EIN3/EIN3-Like1 (EIL1) to modulate ERF expression and hence to upregulate NRT1.8. By contrast, ET and JA signaling mediated the downregulation of NRT1.5 via EIN3/EIL1 and other, unknown component(s). SINAR enhanced stress tolerance and decreased plant growth under nonstressed conditions through the ET/JA-NRT1.5/NRT1.8 signaling module. Interestingly, when nitrate reductase was impaired, SINAR failed to affect either stress tolerance or plant growth. These data suggest that SINAR responds to environmental conditions through the ET/JA-NRT signaling module, which further modulates stress tolerance and plant growth in a nitrate reductase-dependent manner.
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Frontiers | 14-3-3 Proteins in Plant Hormone Signaling: Doing Several Things at Once | Plant Science

Frontiers | 14-3-3 Proteins in Plant Hormone Signaling: Doing Several Things at Once | Plant Science | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
In this review we highlight the advances achieved in the investigation of the role of 14-3-3 proteins in hormone signaling, biosynthesis, and transport. 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved molecules that target a number of protein clients through their ability to recognize well-defined phosphorylated motifs. As a result, they regulate several cellular processes, ranging from metabolism to transport, growth, development, and stress response. High-throughput proteomic data and two-hybrid screen demonstrate that 14-3-3 proteins physically interact with many protein clients involved in the biosynthesis or signaling pathways of the main plant hormones, while increasing functional evidence indicates that 14-3-3-target interactions play pivotal regulatory roles. These advances provide a framework of our understanding of plant hormone action, suggesting that 14-3-3 proteins act as hubs of a cellular web encompassing different signaling pathways, transducing and integrating diverse hormone signals in the regulation of physiological processes.
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Mechanistic basis for the activation of plant membrane receptor kinases by SERK-family coreceptors

Mechanistic basis for the activation of plant membrane receptor kinases by SERK-family coreceptors | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
Plant-unique membrane receptor kinases with leucine-rich repeat ectodomains (LRR-RKs) can sense small molecule, peptide, and protein ligands. Many LRR-RKs require SERK-family coreceptor kinases for high-affinity ligand binding and receptor activation. How one coreceptor can contribute to the specific binding of distinct ligands and activation of different LRR-RKs is poorly understood. Here we quantitatively analyze the contribution of SERK3 to ligand binding and activation of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 and the peptide hormone receptor HAESA. We show that while the isolated receptors sense their respective ligands with drastically different binding affinities, the SERK3 ectodomain binds the ligand-associated receptors with very similar binding kinetics. We identify residues in the SERK3 N-terminal capping domain, which allow for selective steroid and peptide hormone recognition. In contrast, residues in the SERK3 LRR core form a second, constitutive receptor–coreceptor interface. Genetic analyses of protein chimera between BRI1 and SERK3 define that signaling-competent complexes are formed by receptor–coreceptor heteromerization in planta. A functional BRI1–HAESA chimera suggests that the receptor activation mechanism is conserved among different LRR-RKs, and that their signaling specificity is encoded in the kinase domain of the receptor. Our work pinpoints the relative contributions of receptor, ligand, and coreceptor to the formation and activation of SERK-dependent LRR-RK signaling complexes regulating plant growth and development.
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Gibberellin antagonizes jasmonate‐induced defense against Meloidogyne graminicola in rice - Yimer - 2018 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

Gibberellin antagonizes jasmonate‐induced defense against Meloidogyne graminicola in rice - Yimer - 2018 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
Gibberellin (GA) regulates various plant growth and developmental processes, but its role in pathogen attack, and especially nematode–plant interactions, still remains to be elucidated.
An in‐depth characterization of the role of GA in nematode infection was conducted using mutant lines of rice, chemical inhibitors, and phytohormone measurements.
Our results showed that GA influences rice–Meloidogyne graminicola interactions in a concentration‐dependent manner. Foliar spray of plants with a low concentration of gibberellic acid enhanced nematode infection. Biosynthetic and signaling mutants confirmed the importance of gibberellin for rice susceptibility to M. graminicola infection. Our study also demonstrates that GA signaling suppresses jasmonate (JA)‐mediated defense against M. graminicola, and likewise the JA‐induced defense against M. graminicola requires SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1)‐mediated repression of the GA pathway. In contrast to observations from other plant–pathogen interactions, GA plays a dominant role over JA in determining susceptibility to M. graminicola in rice. This GA‐induced nematode susceptibility was largely independent of auxin biosynthesis, but relied on auxin transport.
In conclusion, we showed that GA–JA antagonistic crosstalk is at the forefront of the interaction between rice and M. graminicola, and SLR1 plays a central role in the JA‐mediated defense response in rice against this nematode.
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Same tune, different song—cytokinins as virulence factors in plant–pathogen interactions?

Same tune, different song—cytokinins as virulence factors in plant–pathogen interactions? | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
Virulence factors are molecules that enable plant pathogens to infect and colonize host tissues successfully. These molecules co-evolve with host genes to ensure functionality and to avoid recognition by the host immune system. Some pathogens also produce the plant growth hormone cytokinin (CK) and other plant hormones that contribute to virulence without being subjected to the molecular arms race. Here, we summarize recent findings regarding the role of CKs during infection and the establishment of plant diseases. We discuss commonalities and differences in CK biosynthesis, perception, and activity in infections by different phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi, nematodes and parasitic plants. Finally, we attempt to answer the question if CKs can be classified as bona fide virulence factors.
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Frontiers | Antagonistic Regulation of ABA and GA in Metabolism and Signaling Pathways | Plant Science

Frontiers | Antagonistic Regulation of ABA and GA in Metabolism and Signaling Pathways | Plant Science | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
The phytohormones gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) are widely recognized as essential endogenous regulators that mostly play antagonistic roles in plant developmental processes and environmental responses. A variety of both internal and external cues oppositely regulate GA and ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, which directly and indirectly affect their signaling pathways and subsequent responses. Recent discoveries have revealed direct molecular links between GA- and ABA-signaling components, which provide novel insights into their antagonistic regulation. In this review, we mainly focus on these recent reports and the growing understanding of GA and ABA antagonism in metabolic regulation and signaling interactions, and attempt to clarify the problems and challenges involved in exploring the complicated regulatory events associated with these two phytohormones.
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Ethylene Represses Gene Transcription via Histone Deacetylases

Ethylene Represses Gene Transcription via Histone Deacetylases | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it

Approximately half of all ethylene-responsive genes are downregulated in the presence in ethylene, but this repression has received relatively little attention compared with the ethylene-mediated activation of expression. The known positive regulators of ethylene signaling include ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2) and the transcription factor EIN3. Intriguingly, EIN3 binds to promoters of both ethylene-activated and -repressed genes. EIN2, by contrast, affects gene expression via its C terminus, which is cleaved in the presence of ethylene and translocated to the nucleus, where it was recently shown to alter HISTONE3 acetylation levels in a process that involves EIN2 NUCLEAR ASSOCIATED PROTEIN1 (ENAP1; 2017). Now, Zhang et al. (2018) report that two histone deacetylases function with ENAP1 to repress gene expression in the presence of ethylene.

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Ethylene Signaling Modulates Cortical Microtubule Reassembly in Response to Salt Stress

Ethylene Signaling Modulates Cortical Microtubule Reassembly in Response to Salt Stress | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
Regulation of cortical microtubule reorganization is essential for plant cell survival under high salinity conditions. In response to salt stress, microtubules undergo rapid depolymerization followed by reassembly to form a new microtubule network that promotes cell survival; however, the upstream regulatory mechanisms for this recovery response are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that ethylene signaling facilitates salt stress-induced reassembly of cortical microtubules in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Microtubule depolymerization was not affected under salt stress following the suppression of ethylene signaling with Ag+ or in ethylene-insensitive mutants, whereas microtubule reassembly was significantly inhibited. ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3, a key transcription factor in the ethylene signaling pathway, was shown to play a central role in microtubule reassembly under salt stress. In addition, we performed functional characterization of the microtubule-stabilizing protein WAVE-DAMPENED2-LIKE5 (WDL5), which was found to promote ethylene-associated microtubule reassembly and plant salt stress tolerance. These findings indicate that ethylene signaling regulates microtubule reassembly by up-regulating WDL5 expression in response to salt stress, thereby implicating ethylene signaling in salt-stress tolerance in plants.
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Membrane protein MHZ3 stabilizes OsEIN2 in rice by interacting with its Nramp-like domain

Membrane protein MHZ3 stabilizes OsEIN2 in rice by interacting with its Nramp-like domain | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
Significance

The ethylene signaling pathway has been extensively investigated in Arabidopsis, and EIN2 is the central component. Rice is a monocotyledonous model plant that exhibits different features in many aspects compared with the dicotyledonous Arabidopsis. Thus, rice provides an alternative system for identification of novel components of ethylene signaling. In this study, we identified a stabilizer of OsEIN2 through analysis of the rice ethylene-insensitive mutant mhz3. We found that MHZ3 stabilizes OsEIN2 likely by binding to its Nramp-like transmembrane domain and impeding protein ubiquitination, blocking proteasome-mediated protein degradation. This study reveals that MHZ3 is required for ethylene signaling and identifies how MHZ3 binds to OsEIN2 via the OsEIN2 N-terminal Nramp-like domain.
Abstract

The phytohormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. EIN2 is the central regulator of ethylene signaling, and its turnover is crucial for triggering ethylene responses. Here, we identified a stabilizer of OsEIN2 through analysis of the rice ethylene-response mutant mhz3. Loss-of-function mutations lead to ethylene insensitivity in etiolated rice seedlings. MHZ3 encodes a previously uncharacterized membrane protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. Ethylene induces MHZ3 gene and protein expression. Genetically, MHZ3 acts at the OsEIN2 level in the signaling pathway. MHZ3 physically interacts with OsEIN2, and both the N- and C-termini of MHZ3 specifically associate with the OsEIN2 Nramp-like domain. Loss of mhz3 function reduces OsEIN2 abundance and attenuates ethylene-induced OsEIN2 accumulation, whereas MHZ3 overexpression elevates the abundance of both wild-type and mutated OsEIN2 proteins, suggesting that MHZ3 is required for proper accumulation of OsEIN2 protein. The association of MHZ3 with the Nramp-like domain is crucial for OsEIN2 accumulation, demonstrating the significance of the OsEIN2 transmembrane domains in ethylene signaling. Moreover, MHZ3 negatively modulates OsEIN2 ubiquitination, protecting OsEIN2 from proteasome-mediated degradation. Together, these results suggest that ethylene-induced MHZ3 stabilizes OsEIN2 likely by binding to its Nramp-like domain and impeding protein ubiquitination to facilitate ethylene signal transduction. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of ethylene signaling.
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Control of auxin-induced callus formation by bZIP59–LBD complex in Arabidopsis regeneration

Control of auxin-induced callus formation by bZIP59–LBD complex in Arabidopsis regeneration | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
Induction of pluripotent cells termed callus by auxin represents a typical cell fate change required for plant in vitro regeneration; however, the molecular control of auxin-induced callus formation is largely elusive. We previously identified four Arabidopsis auxin-inducible Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain (LBD) transcription factors that govern callus formation. Here, we report that Arabidopsis basic region/leucine zipper motif 59 (AtbZIP59) transcription factor forms complexes with LBDs to direct auxin-induced callus formation. We show that auxin stabilizes AtbZIP59 and enhances its interaction with LBD, and that disruption of AtbZIP59 dampens auxin-induced callus formation whereas overexpression of AtbZIP59 triggers autonomous callus formation. AtbZIP59–LBD16 directly targets a FAD-binding Berberine (FAD-BD) gene and promotes its transcription, which contributes to callus formation. These findings define the AtbZIP59–LBD complex as a critical regulator of auxin-induced cell fate change during callus formation, which provides a new insight into the molecular regulation of plant regeneration and possible developmental programs.
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Cytokinin signaling: from the ER or from the PM? That is the question! - Romanov - 2018 - New Phytologist -

Cytokinin signaling: from the ER or from the PM? That is the question! - Romanov - 2018 - New Phytologist - | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
Cytokinin signaling plays an important role in plant growth and development, and therefore its molecular characteristics are under extensive study. One characteristic is the subcellular localization of cytokinin signal initiation. This localization determines both the pathway for hormone delivery to the receptor, as well as molecular aspects of signal transfer to the primary cellular targets. Subcellular sites for the onset of cytokinin signaling are still uncertain and experimental data are in part controversial. A few years ago, cytokinin receptors were shown to be localized predominantly in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and to possess some features, such as their pH activity profile, typical for intracellular proteins. Very recently, new data corroborating the functionality of ER-located cytokinin receptors were reported. However, other work argued for cytokinin perception to occur at the plasma membrane (PM). Here, we discuss in detail these partially conflicting data and present an integrative model for cytokinin perception and signaling. In our opinion, the prevailing evidence argues for the ER being the predominant site of cytokinin signal perception but also that signal initiation at the PM might be relevant in some circumstances as well. The roles of these pathways in long-distance, paracrine and autocrine cytokinin signaling are discussed.
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Control of auxin-induced callus formation by bZIP59–LBD complex in Arabidopsis regeneration

Control of auxin-induced callus formation by bZIP59–LBD complex in Arabidopsis regeneration | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
Induction of pluripotent cells termed callus by auxin represents a typical cell fate change required for plant in vitro regeneration; however, the molecular control of auxin-induced callus formation is largely elusive. We previously identified four Arabidopsis auxin-inducible Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain (LBD) transcription factors that govern callus formation. Here, we report that Arabidopsis basic region/leucine zipper motif 59 (AtbZIP59) transcription factor forms complexes with LBDs to direct auxin-induced callus formation. We show that auxin stabilizes AtbZIP59 and enhances its interaction with LBD, and that disruption of AtbZIP59 dampens auxin-induced callus formation whereas overexpression of AtbZIP59 triggers autonomous callus formation. AtbZIP59–LBD16 directly targets a FAD-binding Berberine (FAD-BD) gene and promotes its transcription, which contributes to callus formation. These findings define the AtbZIP59–LBD complex as a critical regulator of auxin-induced cell fate change during callus formation, which provides a new insight into the molecular regulation of plant regeneration and possible developmental programs.
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Regulation of Hormonal Control, Cell Reprogramming, and Patterning during De Novo Root Organogenesis

Regulation of Hormonal Control, Cell Reprogramming, and Patterning during De Novo Root Organogenesis | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
Body regeneration through formation of new organs is a major question in developmental biology. We investigated de novo root formation using whole leaves of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Our results show that local cytokinin biosynthesis and auxin biosynthesis in the leaf blade followed by auxin long-distance transport to the petiole leads to proliferation of J0121-marked xylem-associated tissues and others through signaling of INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE28 (IAA28), CRANE (IAA18), WOODEN LEG, and ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORS1 (ARR1), ARR10, and ARR12. Vasculature proliferation also involves the cell cycle regulator KIP-RELATED PROTEIN2 and ABERRANT LATERAL ROOT FORMATION4, resulting in a mass of cells with rooting competence that resembles callus formation. Endogenous callus formation precedes specification of postembryonic root founder cells, from which roots are initiated through the activity of SHORT-ROOT, PLETHORA1 (PLT1), and PLT2. Primordia initiation is blocked in shr plt1 plt2 mutant. Stem cell regulators SCHIZORIZA, JACKDAW, BLUEJAY, and SCARECROW also participate in root initiation and are required to pattern the new organ, as mutants show disorganized and reduced number of layers and tissue initials resulting in reduced rooting. Our work provides an organ regeneration model through de novo root formation, stating key stages and the primary pathways involved.
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Arabidopsis Pollen Fertility Requires the Transcription Factors CITF1 and SPL7 That Regulate Copper Delivery to Anthers and Jasmonic Acid Synthesis

Arabidopsis Pollen Fertility Requires the Transcription Factors CITF1 and SPL7 That Regulate Copper Delivery to Anthers and Jasmonic Acid Synthesis | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
A deficiency of the micronutrient copper (Cu) leads to infertility and grain/seed yield reduction in plants. How Cu affects fertility, which reproductive structures require Cu, and which transcriptional networks coordinate Cu delivery to reproductive organs is poorly understood. Using RNA-seq analysis, we showed that the expression of a gene encoding a novel transcription factor, CITF1 (Cu-DEFICIENCY INDUCED TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1), was strongly upregulated in Arabidopsis thaliana flowers subjected to Cu deficiency. We demonstrated that CITF1 regulates Cu uptake into roots and delivery to flowers and is required for normal plant growth under Cu deficiency. CITF1 acts together with a master regulator of copper homeostasis, SPL7 (SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE7), and the function of both is required for Cu delivery to anthers and pollen fertility. We also found that Cu deficiency upregulates the expression of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic genes in flowers and increases endogenous JA accumulation in leaves. These effects are controlled in part by CITF1 and SPL7. Finally, we show that JA regulates CITF1 expression and that the JA biosynthetic mutant lacking the CITF1- and SPL7-regulated genes, LOX3 and LOX4, is sensitive to Cu deficiency. Together, our data show that CITF1 and SPL7 regulate Cu uptake and delivery to anthers, thereby influencing fertility, and highlight the relationship between Cu homeostasis, CITF1, SPL7, and the JA metabolic pathway.
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Suppression of DELLA signaling induces procambial cell formation in culture - Yamazaki - 2018 - The Plant Journal -

Suppression of DELLA signaling induces procambial cell formation in culture - Yamazaki - 2018 - The Plant Journal - | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
The post‐embryonic growth of plants requires the activities of apical meristems and lateral meristems. In the meristems, self‐proliferation and differentiation of stem cells is tightly modulated by plant hormone signaling networks and specific transcription factors. Despite extensive studies on stem cell maintenance in plants, the mechanism by which stem cells are initially established is largely unknown. Vascular stem cells consisting of procambial/cambial cells give rise to xylem and phloem cells. In this study, we analyzed the establishment of procambial cells using the in vitro culture system VISUAL, in which mesophyll cells rapidly differentiate into xylem tracheary elements and phloem sieve elements via procambial cells. We found that procambial cell formation in VISUAL is initiated by light, which can be replaced by application of gibberellin (GA). Gibberellin was able to promote procambial cell formation through degradation of DELLA, whereas light did not elevate the endogenous GA content. Indeed, light in combination with bikinin reduced the accumulation of DELLA protein in VISUAL. Consistently, overexpression of a constitutively active DELLA protein repressed vascular cell differentiation even under light. These combined results suggest that DELLA signaling suppresses procambial cell formation during vascular development in VISUAL.
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A Bypass in Jasmonate Biosynthesis – the OPR3-independent Formation

A Bypass in Jasmonate Biosynthesis – the OPR3-independent Formation | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
For the first time in 25 years, a new pathway for biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) has been identified. JA production takes place via 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) including reduction by OPDA reductases (OPRs). A loss-of-function allele, opr3-3, revealed an OPR3-independent pathway converting OPDA to JA.
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Frontiers | Strigolactone Levels in Dicot Roots Are Determined by an Ancestral Symbiosis-Regulated Clade of the PHYTOENE SYNTHASE Gene Family | Plant Science

Frontiers | Strigolactone Levels in Dicot Roots Are Determined by an Ancestral Symbiosis-Regulated Clade of the PHYTOENE SYNTHASE Gene Family | Plant Science | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
Strigolactones (SLs) are apocarotenoid phytohormones synthesized from carotenoid precursors. They are produced most abundantly in roots for exudation into the rhizosphere to cope with mineral nutrient starvation through support of root symbionts. Abscisic acid (ABA) is another apocarotenoid phytohormone synthesized in roots, which is involved in responses to abiotic stress. Typically low carotenoid levels in roots raise the issue of precursor supply for the biosynthesis of these two apocarotenoids in this organ. Increased ABA levels upon abiotic stress in Poaceae roots are known to be supported by a particular isoform of phytoene synthase (PSY), catalyzing the rate-limiting step in carotenogenesis. Here we report on novel PSY3 isogenes from Medicago truncatula (MtPSY3) and Solanum lycopersicum (SlPSY3) strongly expressed exclusively upon root interaction with symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and moderately in response to phosphate starvation. They belong to a widespread clade of conserved PSYs restricted to dicots (dPSY3) distinct from the Poaceae-PSY3s involved in ABA formation. An ancient origin of dPSY3s and a potential co-evolution with the AM symbiosis is discussed in the context of PSY evolution. Knockdown of MtPSY3 in hairy roots of M. truncatula strongly reduced SL and AM-induced C13 α-ionol/C14 mycorradicin apocarotenoids. Inhibition of the reaction subsequent to phytoene synthesis revealed strongly elevated levels of phytoene indicating induced flux through the carotenoid pathway in roots upon mycorrhization. dPSY3 isogenes are coregulated with upstream isogenes and downstream carotenoid cleavage steps toward SLs (D27, CCD7, CCD8) suggesting a combined carotenoid/apocarotenoid pathway, which provides “just in time”-delivery of precursors for apocarotenoid formation.
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Frontiers | Ethylene and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) in Plant–Bacterial Interactions | Plant Science

Frontiers | Ethylene and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) in Plant–Bacterial Interactions | Plant Science | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
Ethylene and its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) actively participate in plant developmental, defense and symbiotic programs. In this sense, ethylene and ACC play a central role in the regulation of bacterial colonization (rhizospheric, endophytic, and phyllospheric) by the modulation of plant immune responses and symbiotic programs, as well as by modulating several developmental processes, such as root elongation. Plant-associated bacterial communities impact plant growth and development, both negatively (pathogens) and positively (plant-growth promoting and symbiotic bacteria). Some members of the plant-associated bacterial community possess the ability to modulate plant ACC and ethylene levels and, subsequently, modify plant defense responses, symbiotic programs and overall plant development. In this work, we review and discuss the role of ethylene and ACC in several aspects of plant-bacterial interactions. Understanding the impact of ethylene and ACC in both the plant host and its associated bacterial community is key to the development of new strategies aimed at increased plant growth and protection.
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AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 Regulates Floral Meristem Determinacy by Repressing Cytokinin Biosynthesis and Signaling

AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 Regulates Floral Meristem Determinacy by Repressing Cytokinin Biosynthesis and Signaling | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
Successful floral meristem (FM) determinacy is critical for subsequent reproductive development and the plant life cycle. Although the phytohormones cytokinin and auxin interact to coregulate many aspects of plant development, whether and how cytokinin and auxin function in FM determinacy remain unclear. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, cytokinin homeostasis is critical for FM determinacy. In this developmental context, auxin promotes the expression of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ARF3) to repress cytokinin activity. ARF3 directly represses the expression of ISOPENTENYLTRANSFERASE (IPT) family genes and indirectly represses LONELY GUY (LOG) family genes, both of which encode enzymes required for cytokinin biosynthesis. ARF3 also directly inhibits the expression of ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE4, a cytokinin receptor gene, resulting in reduced cytokinin activity. Consequently, ARF3 controls cell division by regulating cell cycle gene expression through cytokinin. In flowers, we show that AGAMOUS (AG) dynamically regulates the expression of ARF3 and IPTs, resulting in coordinated regulation of FM maintenance and termination through cell division. Moreover, genome-wide transcriptional profiling revealed both repressive and active roles for ARF3 in early flower development. Our findings establish a molecular link between AG and auxin/cytokinin and shed light on the mechanisms of stem cell maintenance and termination in the FM.
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Gibberellin Localization and Transport in Plants

Gibberellin Localization and Transport in Plants | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
Distribution patterns and finely-tuned concentration gradients of plant hormones govern plant growth and development. Gibberellin (GA) is a plant hormone regulating key processes in plants; many of them are of significant agricultural importance, such as seed germination, root and shoot elongation, flowering, and fruit patterning. Although studies have demonstrated that GA movement is essential for multiple developmental aspects, how GAs are transported throughout the plant and where exactly they accumulate remain largely unknown. Here, we summarize recent findings from studies of GA movement and localization, and discuss the importance of GA intermediates in long- and short-distance movement. We further review recently identified Arabidopsis GA transporters and highlight their complex specialization and robust functional redundancy in GA transport activity.

Via Kevin Garcia, Rey Thomas
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The Cytokinin Oxidase/Dehydrogenase CKX1 Is a Membrane-Bound Protein Requiring Homooligomerization in the Endoplasmic Reticulum for Its Cellular Activity

The Cytokinin Oxidase/Dehydrogenase CKX1 Is a Membrane-Bound Protein Requiring Homooligomerization in the Endoplasmic Reticulum for Its Cellular Activity | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
Degradation of the plant hormone cytokinin is controlled by cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX) enzymes. The molecular and cellular behavior of these proteins is still largely unknown. In this study, we show that CKX1 is a type II single-pass membrane protein that localizes predominantly to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). This indicates that this CKX isoform is a bona fide ER protein directly controlling the cytokinin, which triggers the signaling from the ER. By using various approaches, we demonstrate that CKX1 forms homodimers and homooligomers in vivo. The amino-terminal part of CKX1 was necessary and sufficient for the protein oligomerization as well as for targeting and retention in the ER. Moreover, we show that protein-protein interaction is largely facilitated by transmembrane helices and depends on a functional GxxxG-like interaction motif. Importantly, mutations rendering CKX1 monomeric interfere with its steady-state localization in the ER and cause a loss of the CKX1 biological activity by increasing its ER-associated degradation. Therefore, our study provides evidence that oligomerization is a crucial parameter regulating CKX1 biological activity and the cytokinin concentration in the ER. The work also lends strong support for the cytokinin signaling from the ER and for the functional relevance of the cytokinin pool in this compartment.
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An apoplastic peptide activates salicylic acid signalling in maize

An apoplastic peptide activates salicylic acid signalling in maize | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
Localized control of cell death is crucial for the resistance of plants to pathogens. Papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) regulate plant defence to drive cell death and protection against biotrophic pathogens. In maize (Zea mays), PLCPs are crucial in the orchestration of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defence signalling. Despite this central role in immunity, it remains unknown how PLCPs are activated, and which downstream signals they induce to trigger plant immunity. Here, we discover an immune signalling peptide, Z. mays immune signalling peptide 1 (Zip1), which is produced after salicylic acid (SA) treatment. In vitro studies demonstrate that PLCPs are required to release bioactive Zip1 from its propeptide precursor. Conversely, Zip1 treatment strongly elicits SA accumulation in leaves. Moreover, transcriptome analyses revealed that Zip1 and SA induce highly overlapping transcriptional changes. Consequently, Zip1 promotes the infection of the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea, while it reduces virulence of the biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis. Thus, Zip1 represents the previously missing signal that is released by PLCPs to activate SA defence signalling.
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Silencing of Putative Cytokinin Receptor Histidine Kinase1 Inhibits Both Inception and Differentiation of Root Nodules in Arachis hypogaea | Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions

Silencing of Putative Cytokinin Receptor Histidine Kinase1 Inhibits Both Inception and Differentiation of Root Nodules in Arachis hypogaea | Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
Rhizobia–legume interaction activates the SYM pathway that recruits cytokinin signaling for induction of nodule primordia in the cortex. In Arachis hypogaea, bradyrhizobia invade through natural cracks developed in the lateral root base and are directly endocytosed in the cortical cells to generate the nodule primordia. To unravel the role of cytokinin signaling in A. hypogaea, RNA-interference (RNAi) of cytokinin receptor histidine-kinase1 (AhHK1) was done. AhHK1-RNAi downregulated the expression of type-A response regulators such as AhRR5 and AhRR3 along with several symbiotic genes, indicating that both cytokinin signaling and the SYM pathway were affected. Accordingly, there was a drastic downregulation of nodulation in AhHK1-RNAi roots and the nodules that developed were ineffective. These nodules were densely packed, with infected cells having a higher nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio and distinctively high mitotic index, where the rod-shaped rhizobia failed to differentiate into bacteroids within spherical symbiosomes. In accordance with the proliferating state, expression of a mitotic-cyclin AhCycB2.1 was higher in AhHK1-RNAi nodules, whereas expression of a retinoblastoma-related (AhRBR) nodule that restrains proliferation was lower. Also, higher expression of the meristem maintenance factor WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX5 correlated with the undifferentiated state of AhHK1-RNAi nodules. Our results suggest that AhHK1-mediated cytokinin signaling is important for both inception and differentiation during nodule development in A. hypogaea.
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The plant hormone salicylic acid interacts with the mechanism of anti-herbivory conferred by fungal endophytes in grasses - Bastías - 2018 - Plant, Cell & Environment -

The plant hormone salicylic acid interacts with the mechanism of anti-herbivory conferred by fungal endophytes in grasses - Bastías - 2018 - Plant, Cell & Environment - | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) is recognized as an effective defence against biotrophic pathogens, but its role as regulator of beneficial plant symbionts has received little attention. We studied the relationship between the SA hormone and leaf fungal endophytes on herbivore defences in symbiotic grasses. We hypothesize that the SA exposure suppresses the endophyte reducing the fungal-produced alkaloids. Because of the role that alkaloids play in anti-herbivore defences, any reduction in their production should make host plants more susceptible to herbivores. Lolium multiflorum plants symbiotic and nonsymbiotic with the endophyte Epichloë occultans were exposed to SA followed by a challenge with the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi. We measured the level of plant resistance to aphids, and the defences conferred by endophytes and host plants. Symbiotic plants had lower concentrations of SA than did the nonsymbiotic counterparts. Consistent with our prediction, the hormonal treatment reduced the concentration of loline alkaloids (i.e., N-formyllolines and N-acetylnorlolines) and consequently decreased the endophyte-conferred resistance against aphids. Our study highlights the importance of the interaction between the plant immune system and endophytes for the stability of the defensive mutualism. Our results indicate that the SA plays a critical role in regulating the endophyte-conferred resistance against herbivores.
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Frontiers | Auxin-to-Gibberellin Ratio as a Signal for Light Intensity and Quality in Regulating Soybean Growth and Matter Partitioning | Plant Science

Frontiers | Auxin-to-Gibberellin Ratio as a Signal for Light Intensity and Quality in Regulating Soybean Growth and Matter Partitioning | Plant Science | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
The intensity and quality (red to far-red (R/Fr) ratio) of light directly affect growth of plant under shading. Gibberellins (GAs) and auxin [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)] play important roles in mediating the shading adaptive responses of plants. Thus, the intensity and quality of the uncoupling light from shading were assessed to identify the influence of each component on the morphology and matter distribution of the leaf, stem, and petiole. This assessment was based on the changes in endogenous Gibberellin 1 (GA1) and IAA levels. Soybean plants were grown in a growth chamber with four treatments [normal (N), N+Fr, low (L), and L+Fr light]. Results revealed that the reductions in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and R/Fr ratio equally increased height and stem mass fractions (SMFs) of the soybean seedling. The light intensity significantly influenced the dry mass per unit area and mass fraction of soybean leaves, whereas the light quality regulated the petiole elongation and mass fraction. Low R/Fr ratio (high Fr light) increased the soybean biomass by improving the photosynthetic assimilation rate and quantum yield of photosystem II. In addition, the IAA and GA1 levels in the leaf, stem, and petiole did not reflect the growth response trends of each tissue toward light intensity and quality; however, trends of the IAA-to-GA1 content ratios were similar to those of the growth and matter allocation of each soybean tissue under different light environments. Therefore, the response of growth and matter allocation of soybean to light intensity and quality may be regulated by the IAA-to-GA1 content ratio in the tissues of the soybean plant.
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EIN3 and PIF3 Form an Interdependent Module That Represses Chloroplast Development in Buried Seedlings

EIN3 and PIF3 Form an Interdependent Module That Represses Chloroplast Development in Buried Seedlings | Plant hormones and  signaling peptides | Scoop.it
In buried seedlings, chloroplasts are arrested at the etioplast stage, but they rapidly mature upon emergence of the seedling. Etioplast-chloroplast differentiation is halted through the integration of soil-induced signals, including pressure and the absence of light, although the details on how this information converges to regulate cellular decisions remain unclear. Here, we identify an interdependent transcription module that integrates the mechanical pressure and darkness signals to control chloroplast development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutations of ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3), the primary transcription factor in the ethylene signaling pathway that is activated in response to mechanical pressure, cause early development of etioplasts in the dark and severe photobleaching upon light exposure. Genetic studies demonstrate that repression of etioplast differentiation by EIN3 requires PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3), a darkness-stabilized bHLH transcription factor. EIN3 and PIF3 directly interact and form an interdependent module to repress the expression of most LIGHT HARVESTING COMPLEX (LHC) genes; overexpressing even one LHC could cause premature development of etioplasts. The EIN3-PIF3 transcription module synergistically halts chloroplast development by interdependently co-occupying the promoters of LHC genes. Thus, our results define a transcriptional regulatory module and provide mechanistic insight on the concerted regulation of chloroplast development by multiple soil-induced signals.
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