plant bacteria interactions
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Microbial Biotechnology: The potential of effector-target genes in breeding for plant innate immunity (2013)

Microbial Biotechnology: The potential of effector-target genes in breeding for plant innate immunity (2013) | plant bacteria interactions | Scoop.it
Increasing numbers of infectious crop diseases that are caused by fungi and oomycetes urge the need to develop alternative strategies for resistance breeding. As an alternative for the use of resistance (R) genes, the application of mutant susceptibility (S) genes has been proposed as a potentially more durable type of resistance. Identification of S genes is hampered by their recessive nature. Here we explore the use of pathogen-derived effectors as molecular probes to identify S genes. Effectors manipulate specific host processes thereby contributing to disease. Effector targets might therefore represent S genes. Indeed, the Pseudomonas syringae effector HopZ2 was found to target MLO2, an Arabidopsis thaliana homologue of the barley S gene Mlo. Unfortunately, most effector targets identified so far are not applicable as S genes due to detrimental effects they have on other traits. However, some effector targets such as Mlo are successfully used, and with the increase in numbers of effector targets being identified, the numbers of S genes that can be used in resistance breeding will rise as well.
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BMC Plant Biology | Abstract | QTL meta-analysis provides a comprehensive view of loci controlling partial resistance to Aphanomyces euteiches in four sources of resistance in pea

Background

Development of durable plant genetic resistance to pathogens through strategies of QTL pyramiding and diversification requires in depth knowledge of polygenic resistance within the available germplasm. Polygenic partial resistance to Aphanomyces root rot, caused by Aphanomyces euteiches, one of the most damaging pathogens of pea worldwide, was previously dissected in individual mapping populations. However, there were no data available regarding the diversity of the resistance QTL across a broader collection of pea germplasm. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of Aphanomyces root rot resistance QTL in the four main sources of resistance in pea and compared their genomic localization with genes/QTL controlling morphological or phenological traits and with putative candidate genes.

Results

Meta-analysis, conducted using 244 individual QTL reported previously in three mapping populations (Puget x 90--2079, Baccara x PI180693 and Baccara x 552) and in a fourth mapping population in this study (DSP x 90--2131), resulted in the identification of 27 meta-QTL for resistance to A. euteiches. Confidence intervals of meta-QTL were, on average, reduced four-fold compared to mean confidence intervals of individual QTL. Eleven consistent meta-QTL, which highlight seven highly consistent genomic regions, were identified. Few meta-QTL specificities were observed among mapping populations, suggesting that sources of resistance are not independent. Seven resistance meta-QTL, including six of the highly consistent genomic regions, co-localized with six of the meta-QTL identified in this study for earliness and plant height and with three morphological genes (Af, A, R). Alleles contributing to the resistance were often associated with undesirable alleles for dry pea breeding. Candidate genes underlying six main meta-QTL regions were identified using colinearity between the pea and Medicago truncatula genomes.

Conclusions

QTL meta-analysis provided an overview of the moderately low diversity of loci controlling partial resistance to A. euteiches in four main sources of resistance in pea. Seven highly consistent genomic regions with potential use in marker-assisted-selection were identified. Confidence intervals at several main QTL regions were reduced and co-segregation among resistance and morphological/phenological alleles was identified. Further work will be required to identify the best combinations of QTL for durably increasing partial resistance to A. euteiches.


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Monsato debate takes root over genetic modification of seeds - News-Herald.com

Monsato debate takes root over genetic modification of seeds - News-Herald.com | plant bacteria interactions | Scoop.it
Monsato debate takes root over genetic modification of seeds News-Herald.com One reason cited by opponents to the section is Roy Blunt, R-Mo., who helped draft the section, which was added as part of a series of last minute amendments to the bill.
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Auxin promotes susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae via a mechanism independent of suppression of salicylic acid-mediated defenses

Auxin promotes susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae via a mechanism independent of suppression of salicylic acid-mediated defenses | plant bacteria interactions | Scoop.it

Auxin is a key plant growth regulator that also impacts plant–pathogen interactions. Several lines of evidence suggest that the bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae manipulates auxin physiology in Arabidopsis thaliana to promote pathogenesis. Pseudomonas syringae strategies to alter host auxin biology include synthesis of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and production of virulence factors that alter auxin responses in host cells. The application of exogenous auxin enhances disease caused by P. syringae strain DC3000. This is hypothesized to result from antagonism between auxin and salicylic acid (SA), a major regulator of plant defenses, but this hypothesis has not been tested in the context of infected plants. We further investigated the role of auxin during pathogenesis by examining the interaction of auxin and SA in the context of infection in plants with elevated endogenous levels of auxin. We demonstrated that elevated IAA biosynthesis in transgenic plants overexpressing the YUCCA 1 (YUC1) auxin biosynthesis gene led to enhanced susceptibility to DC3000. Elevated IAA levels did not interfere significantly with host defenses, as effector-triggered immunity was active in YUC1-overexpressing plants, and we observed only minor effects on SA levels and SA-mediated responses. Furthermore, a plant line carrying both the YUC1-overexpression transgene and the salicylic acid induction deficient 2 (sid2) mutation, which impairs SA synthesis, exhibited additive effects of enhanced susceptibility from both elevated auxin levels and impaired SA-mediated defenses. Thus, in IAA overproducing plants, the promotion of pathogen growth occurs independently of suppression of SA-mediated defenses.

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