Plant and their microbe symbionts
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Rescooped by Pietro Spanu from Fungal-plant interactions
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The Ustilago maydis repetitive effector Rsp3 blocks the antifungal activity of mannose-binding maize proteins

The Ustilago maydis repetitive effector Rsp3 blocks the antifungal activity of mannose-binding maize proteins | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it

To cause disease in maize, the biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis secretes a large arsenal of effector proteins. Here, we functionally characterize the repetitive effector Rsp3 (repetitive secreted protein 3), which shows length polymorphisms in field isolates and is highly expressed during biotrophic stages. Rsp3 is required for virulence and anthocyanin accumulation. During biotrophic growth, Rsp3 decorates the hyphal surface and interacts with at least two secreted maize DUF26-domain family proteins (designated AFP1 and AFP2). AFP1 binds mannose and displays antifungal activity against the rsp3 mutant but not against a strain constitutively expressing rsp3. Maize plants silenced for AFP1 and AFP2 partially rescue the virulence defect of rsp3 mutants, suggesting that blocking the antifungal activity of AFP1 and AFP2 by the Rsp3 effector is an important virulence function. Rsp3 orthologs are present in all sequenced smut fungi, and the ortholog from Sporisorium reilianum can complement the rsp3 mutant of U. maydis, suggesting a novel widespread fungal protection mechanism.


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Root exudates of stressed plants stimulate and attract Trichoderma soil fungi

Root exudates of stressed plants stimulate and attract Trichoderma soil fungi | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it
Plant roots release complex mixtures of bioactive molecules including compounds that affect the activity and modify the composition of the rhizosphere microbiome. In this work, we investigated the initial phase of the interaction between tomato and an effective biocontrol strain of Trichoderma harzianum (T22). We found that root exudates (RE), obtained from plants grown in a split root system and exposed to a choice of biotic and abiotic stress factors (wounding, salt, pathogen attack), stimulate the growth and act as chemoattractants of the biocontrol fungus. On the other hand, some of the treatments did not result in an enhanced chemotropism on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, indicating a mechanism that may be selective for non-pathogenic microbes. The involvement of peroxidases and oxylipins, both known to be released by roots in response to stress, was demonstrated by using RE fractions containing these molecules and their commercial purified analogues, testing the effect of a specific inhibitor, and characterizing the complex pattern of these metabolites released by tomato roots both locally and systemically.

Via Giannis Stringlis, Steve Marek
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Molecular Biology and Evolution: Diversification of Plant NBS-LRR Defense Genes Directs the Evolution of MicroRNAs That Target Them (2016)

Molecular Biology and Evolution: Diversification of Plant  NBS-LRR  Defense Genes Directs the Evolution of MicroRNAs That Target Them (2016) | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it

High expression of plant nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) defense genes is often lethal to plant cells, a phenotype perhaps associated with fitness costs. Plants implement several mechanisms to control the transcript level of NBS-LRR defense genes. As negative transcriptional regulators, diverse miRNAs target NBS-LRRs in eudicots and gymnosperms. To understand the evolutionary benefits of this miRNA-NBS-LRR regulatory system, we investigated the NBS-LRRs of 70 land plants, coupling this analysis with extensive small RNA data. A tight association between the diversity of NBS-LRRs and miRNAs was found. The miRNAs typically target highly duplicated NBS-LRRs. In comparison, families of heterogeneous NBS-LRRs were rarely targeted by miRNAs in Poaceae and Brassicaceae genomes. We observed that duplicated NBS-LRRs from different gene families periodically gave birth to new miRNAs. Most of these newly emerged miRNAs target the same conserved, encoded protein motif of NBS-LRRs, consistent with a model of convergent evolution for these miRNAs. By assessing the interactions between miRNAs and NBS-LRRs, we found nucleotide diversity in the wobble position of the codons in the target site drives the diversification of miRNAs. Taken together, we propose a co-evolutionary model of plant NBS-LRRs and miRNAs hypothesizing how plants balance the benefits and costs of NBS-LRR defense genes.


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Jonathan Lapleau's curator insight, February 1, 6:04 AM
NLR are known to be defense gene since long time, and are very important to fight pests. Having a better knowledge about downstream and upstream signaling event is very important to enhance crop resistance to pests (thus increasing global food security).
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Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis broad-spectrum resistance gene RPW8.2 improves the resistance to powdery mildew in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) - ScienceDirect

Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis broad-spectrum resistance gene RPW8.2 improves the resistance to powdery mildew in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) - ScienceDirect | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it

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Ralph Hückelhoven's curator insight, January 5, 5:54 AM

Conserved function of Arabidopsis RPW8 in grapevine.

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MicroRNAs from the parasitic plant Cuscuta campestris target host messenger RNAs

MicroRNAs from the parasitic plant Cuscuta campestris target host messenger RNAs | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it
Dodders (Cuscuta spp.) are obligate parasitic plants that obtain water and nutrients from the stems of host plants via specialized feeding structures called haustoria. Dodder haustoria facilitate bidirectional movement of viruses, proteins and mRNAs between host and parasite1, but the functional effects of these movements are not known. Here we show that Cuscuta campestris haustoria accumulate high levels of many novel microRNAs (miRNAs) while parasitizing Arabidopsis thaliana. Many of these miRNAs are 22 nucleotides in length. Plant miRNAs of this length are uncommon, and are associated with amplification of target silencing through secondary short interfering RNA (siRNA) production2. Several A. thaliana mRNAs are targeted by 22-nucleotide C. campestris miRNAs during parasitism, resulting in mRNA cleavage, secondary siRNA production, and decreased mRNA accumulation. Hosts with mutations in two of the loci that encode target mRNAs supported significantly higher growth of C. campestris. The same miRNAs that are expressed and active when C. campestris parasitizes A. thaliana are also expressed and active when it infects Nicotiana benthamiana. Homologues of target mRNAs from many other plant species also contain the predicted target sites for the induced C. campestris miRNAs. These data show that C. campestris miRNAs act as trans-species regulators of host-gene expression, and suggest that they may act as virulence factors during parasitism.

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Fusarium graminearum: pathogen or endophyte of North American grasses? - New Phytologist

Fusarium graminearum: pathogen or endophyte of North American grasses? - New Phytologist | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it
Mycotoxin-producing Fusarium graminearum and related species cause Fusarium head blight on cultivated grasses, such as wheat and barley. However, these Fusarium species may have had a longer evolutionary history with North American grasses than with cultivated crops and may interact with the ancestral hosts in ways which are biochemically distinct.
We assayed 25 species of asymptomatic native grasses for the presence of Fusarium species and confirmed infected grasses as hosts using re-inoculation tests. We examined seed from native grasses for the presence of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species and evaluated the ability of these fungi to produce mycotoxins in both native grass and wheat hosts using biochemical analysis.
Mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species were shown to be prevalent in phylogenetically diverse native grasses, colonizing multiple tissue types, including seeds, leaves and inflorescence structures. Artificially inoculated grasses accumulated trichothecenes to a much lesser extent than wheat, and naturally infected grasses showed little to no accumulation.
Native North American grasses are commonly inhabited by Fusarium species, but appear to accommodate these toxigenic fungi differently from cultivated crops. This finding highlights how host identity and evolutionary history may influence the outcome of plant–fungal interactions and may inform future efforts in crop improvement.

Via Ronny Kellner, Steve Marek
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Trends in Plant Science: Dancing with the Stars: An Asterid NLR Family (2017)

Trends in Plant Science: Dancing with the Stars: An Asterid NLR Family (2017) | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it

Wu and co-workers show how a network of sensor and helper NOD-like receptor proteins (NLRs) act together to confer robust resistance to diverse plant pathogens.

Plants engage with a plethora of potential pathogens but only some of these microbial overtures lead to disease. This is due to a highly successful system of innate immune receptors that quickly identify the invader and halt its progress. Wu et al. [1] now describe new insights into the molecular choreography of plant immune receptors.

 

Our understanding of these dances began with a simple two-step. There are two partners involved: a Resistance (R) gene in the host and an Avirulence (Avr) gene in the pathogen. They dance a dance according to the gene-for-gene model and resistance is manifest only if both partners are present [2]. The simplest interpretation of the gene-for-gene model is that the R gene encodes a receptor for the product of the Avr gene [3]. In fact, most R genes encode NOD-like receptors (NLRs) that pair a central nucleotide binding domain with C-terminal leucine rich repeats (NB-LRR proteins) [4]. On the other side, most Avr genes encode effectors that are secreted by pathogens to maintain virulence by strategic manipulation of host targets. As LRRs are receptor moieties in other proteins, early models posited them as receptor domains for effectors in a direct interaction, and this simple model holds true for some resistances [5].

 

Along the way, it transpired that more sophisticated models groove to a different beat. For instance, many NLRs recognise changes induced in another host target protein that is modified enzymatically by pathogen effector (Avr) proteins [6]. Examples are also known in which decoy proteins mimic such host target proteins and facilitate recognition by NLRs [7]. Effector decoys can also be provided in cis as a fusion with the NB-LRR moieties [8]. Some NLRs dance solo, but others need two to tango. In this molecular pas-de-deux, one NLR partner is the sensor that interacts with an effector, and the other is a helper that stimulates downstream signal transduction events. These pairs interact physically, and strikingly, are typically co-located genomically in a tail-to-tail arrangement (Figure 1) [9].
 
Sensor-helper relationships also occur between non-linked NLR genes. A widespread class of NLRs called CCR proteins typified by the Nicotiana benthamiana N-required gene 1 (NRG1) and Arabidopsis activated disease resistance gene 1 (ADR1) proteins are needed for a number of sensor NLRs that recognise diverse pathogens [10]. However in this case no contact between sensor and helper has been reported. An analogous situation exists in the Solanaceae, the nightshade family, which includes tomato, eggplant and tobacco. Here a family of NLRs called NRCs (NLR required for cell death), are essential for the function of a range of sensor NLRs [11, 12]. Wu and colleagues now flesh out the details of a network of sensors and helpers in Solanaceae that may enhance the robustness of immunity signalling pathways [1].


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Transposons passively and actively contribute to evolution of the two-speed genome of a fungal pathogen

An international, peer-reviewed genome sciences journal featuring outstanding original research that offers novel insights into the biology of all organisms
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Yet another case of transposons playing useful roles in (plant) pathogen evolution
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Current Biology: Pathogen Tactics to Manipulate Plant Cell Death (2016)

Current Biology: Pathogen Tactics to Manipulate Plant Cell Death (2016) | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it

Programmed cell death (PCD) is a conserved process among eukaryotes that serves a multitude of functional roles during an organism’s natural life cycle. PCD involves the tightly regulated process of cell death cued by specific spatiotemporal stimuli, which confer survival benefits. In eukaryotes, PCD is an essential process involved in senescence, aging, embryo development, cell differentiation, and immunity. In animal systems, morphologically distinct forms of PCD have been described (Figure 1) [1, 2]. Type I, or apoptotic cell death, is the best understood form of PCD and is defined by cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation and fragmentation, and eventual disintegration of the cell into apoptotic bodies that are digested by phagocytes. Type II cell death is an autophagic process that is induced during nutrient deprivation and chronic stress. Autophagic cell death is characterized by the rupture of the lysosome and subsequent release of toxic chemicals that degrade the cell contents. Unlike type I and type II, type III PCD is distinguished by the swelling of organelles and subsequent rupture of the plasma membrane. A programmed necrosis or necroptosis was initially believed to be an uncontrolled process of necrosis, but has been recently reclassified as type III form of cell death. Finally, pyroptosis is another recently categorized form of cell death that is mediated by caspase-1 activity. Morphologically, pyroptotic cells share characteristics of both apoptosis and necrosis [1]. Noteworthy, necroptosis and pyroptosis are pro-inflammatory forms of PCD activated by microbial infections and diverse environmental stimuli.

 

In plants, PCD is less rigorously classified (Figure 1). One difficulty in distinguishing the forms of PCD in plants and animals comes as a result of the different cellular morphology in plant cells — most notably the presence of the cell wall and chloroplasts. Unlike the plasma membrane, the degradation of the cell wall is not a universal feature of PCD in plants. Additionally, the formation of apoptotic bodies is not observed in plant cells, as there are no circulating phagocytes to engulf them [3]. Instead, plant cells committed to PCD release autolytic compounds stored in the vacuole that degrade cell contents. In these cases, the cell wall may develop perforations for the absorption and recycling of cellular components by neighboring cells. Although not as well characterized as the mitochondria, the chloroplasts have been shown to induce light-dependent PCD through singlet oxygen species (1O2) that may function in parallel to mitochondrial-mediated PCD at an early step in initiating the rupture of the vacuole [3].

 

A specialized form of plant cell death called hypersensitive response (HR) is initiated as a defense response to pathogen infection. HR shares morphological features and molecular mechanisms reminiscent of both pyroptosis and necroptosis [4]. Moreover, HR is unique in that it induces a signaling cascade to propagate immunity in neighboring cells as well as priming distal tissues for potential pathogen challenge, a phenomenon known as systemic acquired resistance [5]. Here we will briefly describe diverse plant disease resistance pathways, early molecular events during pathogen perception, and downstream signaling components. We will thoroughly discuss how pathogens have evolved strategies to circumvent and/or suppress diverse immune responses, in particular plant cell death. While many of these mechanisms involve indirect disabling of upstream immune responses to avoid cell death, direct manipulation of PCD regulators by pathogen effectors has not been extensively explored in the literature, and will be the focal point of this article.


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Rakesh Yashroy's curator insight, July 27, 2016 10:06 PM
Good description of APOPTOSIS in animal and plant cells. Gram negative pathogens like Salmonella use their outer membrane vesicles to signal hijacking and apoptosis in defense macrophages in animal body @ http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/33932139/1211.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ56TQJRTWSMTNPEA&Expires=1469674971&Signature=0HXlHa3eNfInsWTE0YqGOgD6HTA%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DYashRoy_R_C_2007_Mechanism_of_infection.pdf
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Annu Rev Phytopathology: Plant Pathogen Effectors: Cellular Probes Interfering with Plant Defenses in Spatial and Temporal Manners (2016)

Annu Rev Phytopathology: Plant Pathogen Effectors: Cellular Probes Interfering with Plant Defenses in Spatial and Temporal Manners (2016) | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it

Plants possess large arsenals of immune receptors capable of recognizing all pathogen classes. To cause disease, pathogenic organisms must be able to overcome physical barriers, suppress or evade immune perception, and derive nutrients from host tissues. Consequently, to facilitate some of these processes, pathogens secrete effector proteins that promote colonization. This review covers recent advances in the field of effector biology, focusing on conserved cellular processes targeted by effectors from diverse pathogens. The ability of effectors to facilitate pathogen entry into the host interior, suppress plant immune perception, and alter host physiology for pathogen benefit is discussed. Pathogens also deploy effectors in a spatial and temporal manner, depending on infection stage. Recent advances have also enhanced our understanding of effectors acting in specific plant organs and tissues. Effectors are excellent cellular probes that facilitate insight into biological processes as well as key points of vulnerability in plant immune signaling networks.


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bioRxiv: Tomato I2 immune receptor can be engineered to confer partial resistance to the oomycete Phytophthora infestans in addition to the fungus Fusarium oxysporum (2015)

bioRxiv: Tomato I2 immune receptor can be engineered to confer partial resistance to the oomycete Phytophthora infestans in addition to the fungus Fusarium oxysporum (2015) | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it

Plants and animals rely on immune receptors, known as nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing proteins (NB-LRR or NLR), to defend against invading pathogens and activate immune responses. How NLR receptors respond to pathogens is inadequately understood. We previously reported single-residue mutations that expand the response of the potato immune receptor R3a to AVR3aEM, a stealthy effector from the late blight oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. I2, another NLR that mediates resistance to the wilt causing fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, is the tomato ortholog of R3a. We transferred previously identified R3a mutations to I2 to assess the degree to which the resulting I2 mutants have an altered response. We discovered that wild-type I2 protein responds weakly to AVR3a. One mutant in the N-terminal coiled-coil domain, I2I141N, appeared sensitized and displayed markedly increased response to AVR3a. Remarkably, I2I141N conferred partial resistance to P. infestans. Further, I2I141N has an expanded response spectrum to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici effectors compared to the wild-type I2 protein. Our results suggest that synthetic immune receptors can be engineered to confer resistance to phylogenetically divergent pathogens and indicate that knowledge gathered for one NLR could be exploited to improve NLRs from other plant species.


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TaEDS1 genes positively regulate resistance to powdery mildew in wheat

TaEDS1 genes positively regulate resistance to powdery mildew in wheat | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it
Key message Three EDS1 genes were cloned from common wheat and were demonstrated to positively regulate resistance to powdery mildew in wheat.

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Ralph Hückelhoven's curator insight, April 4, 2:42 AM
Wheat EDS1 homeologs are functional in powdery mildew resistance.
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Convergent and Divergent Signaling in PAMP-Triggered Immunity and Effector-Triggered Immunity | Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions

Convergent and Divergent Signaling in PAMP-Triggered Immunity and Effector-Triggered Immunity | Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it
Plants use diverse immune receptors to sense pathogen attacks. Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors localized on the plasma membrane leads to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Detection of pathogen effectors by intracellular or plasma membrane–localized immune receptors results in effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Despite the large variations in the magnitude and duration of immune responses triggered by different PAMPs or pathogen effectors during PTI and ETI, plasma membrane–localized immune receptors activate similar downstream molecular events such as mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, oxidative burst, ion influx, and increased biosynthesis of plant defense hormones, indicating that defense signals initiated at the plasma membrane converge at later points. On the other hand, activation of ETI by immune receptors localized to the nucleus appears to be more directly associated with transcriptional regulation of defense gene expression. Here, we review recent progress in signal transductions downstream of different groups of plant immune receptors, highlighting the converging and diverging molecular events.

Via Giannis Stringlis
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How to make a tumour: cell type specific dissection of Ustilago maydis-induced tumour development in maize leaves

How to make a tumour: cell type specific dissection of Ustilago maydis-induced tumour development in maize leaves | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it
The biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis causes smut disease on maize (Zea mays), which is characterized by immense plant tumours. To establish disease and reprogram organ primordia to tumours, U. maydis deploys effector proteins in an organ-specific manner. However, the cellular contribution to leaf tumours remains unknown. We investigated leaf tumour formation at the tissue- and cell type-specific levels. Cytology and metabolite analysis were deployed to understand the cellular basis for tumourigenesis. Laser-capture microdissection was performed to gain a cell type-specific transcriptome of U. maydis during tumour formation. In vivo visualization of plant DNA synthesis identified bundle sheath cells as the origin of hyperplasic tumour cells, while mesophyll cells become hypertrophic tumour cells. Cell type-specific transcriptome profiling of U. maydis revealed tailored expression of fungal effector genes. Moreover, U. maydis See1 was identified as the first cell type-specific fungal effector, being required for induction of cell cycle reactivation in bundle sheath cells. Identification of distinct cellular mechanisms in two different leaf cell types and of See1 as an effector for induction of proliferation of bundle sheath cells are major steps in understanding U. maydis-induced tumour formation. Moreover, the cell type-specific U. maydis transcriptome data are a valuable resource to the scientific community.

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Rapid turnover of effectors in grass powdery mildew ( Blumeria graminis )

Rapid turnover of effectors in grass powdery mildew ( Blumeria graminis ) | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it
Grass powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, Ascomycota) is a major pathogen of cereal crops and has become a model organism for obligate biotrophic fungal pathogens of plants. The sequenced genomes of two formae speciales (ff.spp.), B.g. hordei and B.g. tritici (pathogens of barley and wheat), were found to be enriched in candidate effector genes (CEGs). Similar to other filamentous pathogens, CEGs in B. graminis are under positive selection. Additionally, effectors are more likely to have presence-absence polymorphisms than other genes among different strains. Here we identified effectors in the genomes of three additional host-specific lineages of B. graminis (B.g. poae, B.g. avenae and B.g. infecting Lolium) which diverged between 24 and 5 million years ago (Mya). We found that most CEGs in B. graminis are clustered in families and that most families are present in both reference genomes (B.g. hordei and B.g. tritici) and in the genomes of all three newly annotated lineages. We identified conserved protein domains including a novel lipid binding domain. The phylogenetic analysis showed that frequent gene duplications and losses shaped the diversity of the effector repertoires of the different lineages through their evolutionary history. We observed several lineage-specific expansions where large clades of CEGs originated in only one lineage from a single gene through repeated gene duplications. When we applied a birth-death model we found that the turnover rate (the rate at which genes are deleted and duplicated) of CEG families is much higher than for non-CEG families. The analysis of genomic context revealed that the immediate surroundings of CEGs are enriched in transposable elements (TE) which could play a role in the duplication and deletion of CEGs. The CEG repertoires of related pathogens diverged dramatically in short evolutionary times because of rapid turnover and of positive selection fixing non-synonymous mutations. While signatures of positive selection on effector sequences are the expected outcome of the evolutionary “arms race” between pathogen and plant immune system, it is more difficult to infer the mechanisms and evolutionary forces that maintained an extreme turnover rate in CEG families of B. graminis for several millions of years.
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Dynamics of powdery mildew effectors: at last some quantitative data on duplication, losses etc...

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MPMI Special Issue: Focus on Effector-Triggered Susceptibility (2017)

MPMI Special Issue: Focus on Effector-Triggered Susceptibility (2017) | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it

Focus on Effector-Triggered Susceptibility

Wenbo Ma, Yuanchao Wang, and John McDowell

 

Trick or Treat: Microbial Pathogens Evolved Apoplastic Effectors Modulating Plant Susceptibility to Infection

Yan Wang and Yuanchao Wang

 

Altering Plant Defenses: Herbivore-Associated Molecular Patterns and Effector Arsenal of Chewing Herbivores

Saumik Basu, Suresh Varsani, and Joe Louis

 

Effector Biology in Focus: A Primer for Computational Prediction and Functional Characterization

Ronaldo J. D. Dalio, John Herlihy, Tiago S. Oliveira, John M. McDowell, and Marcos Machado

 

Lessons in Effector and NLR Biology of Plant-Microbe Systems

Aleksandra Białas, Erin K. Zess, Juan Carlos De la Concepcion, Marina Franceschetti, Helen G. Pennington, Kentaro Yoshida, Jessica L. Upson, Emilie Chanclud, Chih-Hang Wu, Thorsten Langner, Abbas Maqbool, Freya A. Varden, Lida Derevnina, Khaoula Belhaj, Koki Fujisaki, Hiromasa Saitoh, Ryohei Terauchi, Mark J. Banfield, and Sophien Kamoun

 

The Elicitor Protein AsES Induces a Systemic Acquired Resistance Response Accompanied by Systemic Microbursts and Micro–Hypersensitive Responses in Fragaria ananassa

Verónica Hael-Conrad, Silvia Marisa Perato, Marta Eugenia Arias, Martín Gustavo Martínez-Zamora, Pía de los Ángeles Di Peto, Gustavo Gabriel Martos, Atilio Pedro Castagnaro, Juan Carlos Díaz-Ricci, and Nadia Regina Chalfoun

 

The Type III Secretion Chaperone HpaB Controls the Translocation of Effector and Noneffector Proteins From Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria

Felix Scheibner, Nadine Hartmann, Jens Hausner, Christian Lorenz, Anne-Katrin Hoffmeister, and Daniela Büttner

 

The Bacterial Effector AvrPto Targets the Regulatory Coreceptor SOBIR1 and Suppresses Defense Signaling Mediated by the Receptor-Like Protein Cf-4

Jinbin Wu, Aranka M. van der Burgh, Guozhi Bi, Lisha Zhang, James R. Alfano, Gregory B. Martin, and Matthieu H. A. J. Joosten

 

Potyviral Gene-Silencing Suppressor HCPro Interacts with Salicylic Acid (SA)-Binding Protein 3 to Weaken SA-Mediated Defense Responses

Sylvain Poque, Hui-Wen Wu, Chung-Hao Huang, Hao-Wen Cheng, Wen-Chi Hu, Jun-Yi Yang, David Wang, and Shyi-Dong Yeh

 

Inappropriate Expression of an NLP Effector in Colletotrichum orbiculare Impairs Infection on Cucurbitaceae Cultivars via Plant Recognition of the C-Terminal Region

Nur Sabrina Ahmad Azmi, Suthitar Singkaravanit-Ogawa, Kyoko Ikeda, Saeko Kitakura, Yoshihiro Inoue, Yoshihiro Narusaka, Ken Shirasu, Masanori Kaido, Kazuyuki Mise, and Yoshitaka Takano

 

A Gene Family Coding for Salivary Proteins (SHOT) of the Polyphagous Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae Exhibits Fast Host-Dependent Transcriptional Plasticity

Wim Jonckheere, Wannes Dermauw, Mousaalreza Khalighi, Nena Pavlidi, Wim Reubens, Geert Baggerman, Luc Tirry, Gerben Menschaert, Merijn R. Kant, Bartel Vanholme, and Thomas Van Leeuwen

 

Revisiting the Roles of Tobamovirus Replicase Complex Proteins in Viral Replication and Silencing Suppression

Nachelli Malpica-López, Rajendran Rajeswaran, Daria Beknazariants, Jonathan Seguin, Victor Golyaev, Laurent Farinelli, and Mikhail M. Pooggin

 

Specific Hypersensitive Response–Associated Recognition of New Apoplastic Effectors from Cladosporium fulvum in Wild Tomato

Carl H. Mesarich, Bilal Ӧkmen, Hanna Rovenich, Scott A. Griffiths, Changchun Wang, Mansoor Karimi Jashni, Aleksandar Mihajlovski, Jérôme Collemare, Lukas Hunziker, Cecilia H. Deng, Ate van der Burgt, Henriek G. Beenen, Matthew D. Templeton, Rosie E. Bradshaw, and Pierre J. G. M. de Wit

 

Suppression or Activation of Immune Responses by Predicted Secreted Proteins of the Soybean Rust Pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi

Mingsheng Qi, James P. Grayczyk, Janina M. Seitz, Youngsill Lee, Tobias I. Link, Doil Choi, Kerry F. Pedley, Ralf T. Voegele, Thomas J. Baum, and Steven A. Whitham

 

Type III Secretion–Dependent and –Independent Phenotypes Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in Arabidopsis Roots

Haibin Lu, Saul Lema A, Marc Planas-Marquès, Alejandro Alonso-Díaz, Marc Valls, and Núria S. Coll


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New Phytologist: Multiple strategies for pathogen perception by plant immune receptors (2017)

New Phytologist: Multiple strategies for pathogen perception by plant immune receptors (2017) | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it

Plants have evolved a complex immune system to protect themselves against phytopathogens. A major class of plant immune receptors called nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins (NLRs) is ubiquitous in plants and is widely used for crop disease protection, making these proteins critical contributors to global food security. Until recently, NLRs were thought to be conserved in their modular architecture and functional features. Investigation of their biochemical, functional and structural properties has revealed fascinating mechanisms that enable these proteins to perceive a wide range of pathogens. Here, I review recent insights demonstrating that NLRs are more mechanistically and structurally diverse than previously thought. I also discuss how these findings provide exciting future prospects to improve plant disease resistance.


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Bridget Barker's curator insight, November 21, 2017 9:22 AM
Always thinking about links between animal and plant pathogens
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Allelic barley MLA immune receptors recognize sequence-unrelated avirulence effectors of the powdery mildew pathogen

National Academy of Sciences
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Here is  a SEMINAL paper on powdery mildew AVR proteins: well worth digesting in its entirety
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Unconventional protein secretion in plants: a critical assessment

Unconventional protein secretion in plants: a critical assessment | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it
Unconventional protein secretion (UPS) is a collective term for mechanisms by which cytosolic proteins that lack a signal peptide (“leaderless secretory proteins” (LSPs)) can gain access to the cell e
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PLOS Pathogens: Escaping Host Immunity: New Tricks for Plant Pathogens (2016)

PLOS Pathogens: Escaping Host Immunity: New Tricks for Plant Pathogens (2016) | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it

Fungal and oomycete plant pathogens cause destructive diseases in crops and pose real economic and food security threats [1]. These filamentous, eukaryotic organisms can also upset natural ecosystems when they spread invasively [2]. The capability of plant immune systems to detect and respond to pathogen effector proteins is a major determinant of disease susceptibility. Plant pathogen effector proteins that trigger host immunity are often encoded by conditionally detrimental genes that are under strong and contrasting selective pressures [3,4]. Pathogen effectors evolved to play a positive role in virulence by enabling growth and reproduction on host plants [5,6]. Nonetheless, effectors can meet their match with host immune receptors that recognize their presence, a result that ends badly for the pathogen. Such immunity-triggering proteins are known as avirulence (Avr) effectors, encoded by Avrgenes.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Using decoys to expand the recognition specificity of a plant disease resistance protein

Using decoys to expand the recognition specificity of a plant disease resistance protein | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it

Science Vol 351, Issue 6274 12 February 2016

Pietro Spanu's insight:

Cool decoys...

 

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BMC Genomics

BMC Genomics | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it
BMC Genomics is an open access journal publishing original peer-reviewed research articles in all aspects of genome-scale analysis, functional genomics, and proteomics. BMC Genomics is part of the BMC series which publishes subject-specific journals focused on the needs of individual research communities across all areas of biology and medicine. We offer an efficient, fair and friendly peer review service, and are committed to publishing all sound science, provided that there is some advance in knowledge presented by the work. BMC series - open, inclusive and trusted.
Pietro Spanu's insight:

Copy number variation: another mechanism in the armory of pathogenic fungi to evolve resistance to things we throw at them

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How eukaryotic filamentous pathogens evade plant recognition

How eukaryotic filamentous pathogens evade plant recognition | Plant and their microbe symbionts | Scoop.it
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