Plant and Seed Biology
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Rescooped by Loïc Lepiniec from Plant Sciences
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INRA -Abdelhafid Bendahmane, Lauriers Inra 2018 « Défi scientifique », (IPS2, SPS)

INRA -Abdelhafid Bendahmane, Lauriers Inra 2018 « Défi scientifique », (IPS2, SPS) | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it

Abdelhafid Bendahmane, 
Spécialiste de la génomique et de la sélection des plantes, Abdelhafid Bendahmane est directeur de recherche à l’Institut des sciences des plantes de Paris-Saclay, de l’Inra Île-de-France – Versailles-Grignon. Il reçoit le Laurier Laurier Inra 2018 « Défi scientifique ».


Via Saclay Plant Sciences
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Genome-edited baby claim provokes international outcry

Genome-edited baby claim provokes international outcry | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it

A Chinese scientist claims that he has helped make the world's first genome-edited babies — twin girls who were born this month. The announcement has provoked shock, and some outrage, among scientists around the world.

He Jiankui, a genome-editing researcher from the Southern University of Science and Technology of China in Shenzhen, says that he implanted into a woman an embryo that had been edited to disable the genetic pathway that allows a cell to be infected with HIV.

In a video posted to YouTube, He says the girls are healthy and now at home with their parents. Genome sequencing of their DNA has shown that the editing worked, and only altered the gene they targeted, he says.


Via Life Sciences UPSaclay
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Microbial Interkingdom Interactions in Roots Promote Arabidopsis Survival

Microbial Interkingdom Interactions in Roots Promote Arabidopsis Survival | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it

Roots of healthy plants are inhabited by soil-derived bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes that have evolved independently in distinct kingdoms of life. How these microorganisms interact and to what extent those interactions affect plant health are poorly understood. We examined root-associated microbial communities from three Arabidopsis thaliana populations and detected mostly negative correlations between bacteria and filamentous microbial eukaryotes. We established microbial culture collections for reconstitution experiments using germ-free A. thaliana. In plants inoculated with mono- or multi-kingdom synthetic microbial consortia, we observed a profound impact of the bacterial root microbiota on fungal and oomycetal community structure and diversity. We demonstrate that the bacterial microbiota is essential for plant survival and protection against root-derived filamentous eukaryotes. Deconvolution of 2,862 binary bacterial-fungal interactions ex situ, combined with community perturbation experiments in planta, indicate that biocontrol activity of bacterial root commensals is a redundant trait that maintains microbial interkingdom balance for plant health.

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Organic farming with gene editing: An oxymoron or a tool for sustainable agriculture?

Organic farming with gene editing: An oxymoron or a tool for sustainable agriculture? | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it

I am a plant molecular biologist and appreciate the awesome potential of both CRISPR and genetic engineering technologies. But I don’t believe that pits me against the goals of organic agriculture. In fact, biotechnology can help meet these goals. And while rehashing the arguments about genetic engineering seems counterproductive, genome editing may draw both sides to the table for a healthy conversation. To understand why, it’s worth digging into the differences between genome editing with CRISPR and genetic engineering.

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LEAFY maintains apical stem cell activity during shoot development in the fern Ceratopteris richardii 

During land plant evolution, determinate spore-bearing axes (retained in extant bryophytes such as mosses) were progressively transformed into indeterminate branching shoots with specialized reproductive axes that form flowers. The LEAFY transcription factor, which is required for the first zygotic cell division in mosses and primarily for floral meristem identity in flowering plants, may have facilitated developmental innovations during these transitions. Mapping the LEAFY evolutionary trajectory has been challenging, however, because there is no functional overlap between mosses and flowering plants, and no functional data from intervening lineages. Here, we report a transgenic analysis in the fern Ceratopteris richardii that reveals a role for LEAFY in maintaining cell divisions in the apical stem cells of both haploid and diploid phases of the lifecycle. These results support an evolutionary trajectory in which an ancestral LEAFY module that promotes cell proliferation was progressively co-opted, adapted and specialized as novel shoot developmental contexts emerged.

Via Philip Carella
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Lancement de l’Ecole Universitaire de Recherche en Sciences des Plantes de Saclay | Université Paris Saclay

Lancement de l’Ecole Universitaire de Recherche en Sciences des Plantes de Saclay | Université Paris Saclay | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Les sciences du végétal ont désormais leur école universitaire de recherche (EUR) au cœur de Paris-Saclay. Né dans la continuité du LabEx SPS, réseau de recherche en biologie végétale de Paris-Saclay depuis 2011, ce projet de « Graduate School » à la française a été sélectionné dans le cadre du Programme d’Investissement d’Avenir 2017.


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RNA-binding protein RBP-P is required for glutelin and prolamine mRNA localization in rice endosperm cells

RNA-binding protein RBP-P is required for glutelin and prolamine mRNA localization in rice endosperm cells | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
In developing rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm, mRNAs of the major storage proteins, glutelin and prolamine, are transported and anchored to distinct subdomains of the cortical endoplasmic reticulum. RNA-binding protein RBP-P binds to both glutelin and prolamine mRNAs, suggesting a role in some aspect of their RNA metabolism. Here, we show that rice lines expressing mutant RBP-P mis-localize both glutelin and prolamine mRNAs. Different mutant RBP-P proteins exhibited varying degrees of reduced RNA binding and/or protein-protein interaction properties, which may account for the mis-localization of storage protein RNAs. In addition, partial loss of RBP-P function conferred a broad phenotypic variation ranging from dwarfism, chlorophyll deficiency and sterility to late flowering and low spikelet fertility. Transcriptome analysis highlighted the essential role of RBP-P in regulating storage protein genes and several essential biological processes during grain development. Overall, our data demonstrate the significant roles of RBP-P in glutelin and prolamine mRNA localization and in the regulation of genes important for plant growth and development through its RNA binding activity and cooperative regulation with interacting proteins.
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The opium poppy genome and morphinan production

The opium poppy genome and morphinan production | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Morphinan-based painkillers are derived from opium poppy. We report a draft of the opium poppy genome, with 2.72 Gb assembled into 11 chromosomes with contig N50 and scaffold N50 of 1.77 Mb and 204 Mb, respectively. Synteny analysis suggests a whole genome duplication at approximately 7.8 million years ago (MYA) and ancient segmental or whole genome duplication(s) that occurred before the Papaveraceae-Ranunculaceae divergence 110 MYA. Syntenic blocks representative of phthalideisoquinoline and morphinan components of a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid cluster of 15 genes provides insight into how it evolved. Paralog analysis identified P450 and oxidoreductase genes that combined to form the STORR gene fusion essential for morphinan biosynthesis in opium poppy. Thus gene duplication, rearrangement and fusion events have led to evolution of specialized metabolic products in opium poppy.
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Position for Research Group Leader – Developmental Biology of Plant Seeds, IPK-Gatersleben (Germany)

Position for Research Group Leader – Developmental Biology of Plant Seeds, IPK-Gatersleben (Germany) | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it

The general goal of the research group Seed Development is to understand and influence signalling and regulation mechanisms that govern growth and differentiation processes during seed formation, focusing on genetic and metabolic / hormonal regulation of cell, tissue and organ development. The group has access to the excellent IPK research infrastructure, and closely interacts with other complementary research groups, in particular of the Dept. Molecular Genetics. These groups investigate metabolic processes during seed filling or are experts in plant phenotyping (mainly using non-invasive 2D, 3D, and 4D approaches), in image analysis, in molecular and systems genetics, as well as in network analysis and modelling.

 

What you need to know:

For us, your qualifications and strengths count. Therefore, everyone – independent from gender, origin, age, or possible

disability – is welcome.

As an institution which has been awarded the Certificate for Career and Family (“berufundfamilie”), we offer family-friendly working conditions and flexible working hours. The IPK has set a goal to employ more people with disabilities. Qualified applicants with a disability will be given

preference.

Your application:

They are looking forward to receive your online-application (http://www.ipk-gatersleben.de/en/job-offers/). If you have questions or require more information, please do contact Mr. Danielowski (jobs@ipk-gatersleben.de).
Please indicate the reference number 63/08/18 in your correspondence.

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The plant pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa triggers a DELLA-dependent seed germination arrest in Arabidopsis

The plant pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa triggers a DELLA-dependent seed germination arrest in Arabidopsis | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
To anticipate potential seedling damage, plants block seed germination under unfavorable conditions. Previous studies investigated how seed germination is controlled in response to abiotic stresses through gibberellic and abscisic acid signaling. However, little is known about whether seeds respond to rhizosphere bacterial pathogens. We found that Arabidopsis seed germination is blocked in the vicinity of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We identified L-2-amino-4-methoxy-trans-3-butenoic acid (AMB), released by P. aeruginosa, as a biotic compound triggering germination arrest. We provide genetic evidence that in AMB-treated seeds DELLA factors promote the accumulation of the germination repressor ABI5 in a GA-independent manner. AMB production is controlled by the quorum sensing system IQS. In vitro experiments show that the AMB-dependent germination arrest protects seedlings from damage induced by AMB. We discuss the possibility that this could serve as a protective response to avoid severe seedling damage induced by AMB and exposure to a pathogen.
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RNA-Dependent Epigenetic Silencing Directs Transcriptional Downregulation Caused by Intronic Repeat Expansions 

RNA-Dependent Epigenetic Silencing Directs Transcriptional Downregulation Caused by Intronic Repeat Expansions  | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Summary
Transcriptional downregulation caused by intronic triplet repeat expansions underlies diseases such as Friedreich’s ataxia. This downregulation of gene expression is coupled with epigenetic changes, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that an intronic GAA/TTC triplet expansion within the IIL1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana results in accumulation of 24-nt short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and repressive histone marks at the IIL1 locus, which in turn causes its transcriptional downregulation and an associated phenotype. Knocking down DICER LIKE-3 (DCL3), which produces 24-nt siRNAs, suppressed transcriptional downregulation of IIL1 and the triplet expansion-associated phenotype. Furthermore, knocking down additional components of the RNA-dependent DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway also suppressed both transcriptional downregulation of IIL1 and the repeat expansion-associated phenotype. Thus, our results show that triplet repeat expansions can lead to local siRNA biogenesis, which in turn downregulates transcription through an RdDM-dependent epigenetic modification.
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« Il faut évaluer au cas par cas les organismes obtenus par mutagénèse » (Le Monde, 21/08)

La Cour de justice de l’UE a récemment assimilé à des OGM les organismes dont le génome a été altéré sans y insérer un ADN étranger. Pour l’ex-député Jean-Yves Le Déaut et la sénatrice Catherine Procaccia, il est urgent de clarifier la directive pour bénéficier des nouvelles techniques de mutagénèse.
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Massive crossover elevation via combination of HEI10 and recq4a recq4b during Arabidopsis meiosis

The majority of eukaryotes reproduce sexually, creating genetic variation within populations. Sexual reproduction requires gamete production via meiotic cell division. During meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair and undergo exchange, called crossover. Crossover is vital for crop breeding and remains a major tool to combine useful traits. Despite the importance of crossovers for breeding, their levels are typically low, with one to two forming per chromosome, irrespective of physical chromosome size. Here we genetically engineer superrecombining Arabidopsis , via boosting the major procrossover pathway (using additional copies of the HEI10 E3-ligase gene), and simultaneously removing a major antirecombination pathway (using mutations in RECQ4A and RECQ4B helicase genes). This strategy has the potential to drive massive crossover elevations in crop genomes and accelerate breeding.

Via Herman Höfte
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Medicago AP2-Domain Transcription Factor WRI5a Is a Master Regulator of Lipid Biosynthesis and Transfer during Mycorrhizal Symbiosis

Medicago AP2-Domain Transcription Factor WRI5a Is a Master Regulator of Lipid Biosynthesis and Transfer during Mycorrhizal Symbiosis | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Most land plants have evolved a mutualistic symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi that improve nutrient acquisition from the soil. In return, up to 20% of host plant photosynthate is transferred to the mycorrhizal fungus in the form of lipids and sugar. Nutrient exchange must be regulated by both partners in order to maintain a reliable symbiotic relationship. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of lipid transfer from the plant to the AM fungus remain elusive. Here, we show that the Medicago truncatula AP2/EREBP transcription factor WRI5a, and likely its two homologs WRI5b/Erf1 and WRI5c, are master regulators of AM symbiosis controlling lipid transfer and periarbuscular membrane formation. We found that WRI5a binds AW-box cis-regulatory elements in the promoters of M. truncatula STR, which encodes a periarbuscular membrane-localized ABC transporter required for lipid transfer from the plant to the AM fungus, and MtPT4, which encodes a phosphate transporter required for phosphate transfer from the AM fungus to the plant. The hairy roots of the M. truncatula wri5a mutant and RNAi composite plants displayed impaired arbuscule formation, whereas overexpression of WRI5a resulted in enhanced expression of STR and MtPT4, suggesting that WRI5a regulates bidirectional symbiotic nutrient exchange. Moreover, we found that WRI5a and RAM1 (Required for Arbuscular Mycorrhization symbiosis 1), which encodes a GRAS-domain transcription factor, regulate each other at the transcriptional level, forming a positive feedback loop for regulating AM symbiosis. Collectively, our data suggest a role for WRI5a in controlling bidirectional nutrient exchange and periarbuscular membrane formation via the regulation of genes involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and phosphate uptake in arbuscule-containing cells.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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A Scientific Perspective on the Regulatory Status of Products Derived from Gene Editing and the Implications for the GMO Directive

A Scientific Perspective on the Regulatory Status of Products Derived from Gene Editing and the Implications for the GMO Directive | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it

On 25 July 2018, the Court of Justice of the European Union ('the Court') decided that organisms obtained by the new techniques of directed mutagenesis are genetically modified organisms (GMOs), within the meaning of the Directive 2001/18/EC on the release of genetically modified organisms into the environment ('GMO Directive')1,2, and that they are subject to the obligations laid down by the GMO Directive.

 

New techniques of directed mutagenesis include gene editing such as CRISPR/Cas9 methodologies. The legal status of the products of such techniques was uncertain, because it was unclear whether they fell within the scope of the GMO Directive.

These techniques enable the development of a wide range of agricultural applications and the ethical, legal, social and economic issues of their use arediscussed intensively. The European Commission’s Group of Chief Scientific Advisors (the ‘ChiefScientific Advisors’)3 recognises the complex natureof these debates, which touch upon people’s beliefs,values, and concerns, as well as the underpinning science.

The mandate of the Chief Scientific Advisors is to provide scientific advice to the European Commission. Therefore, following our explanatorynote on ‘New Techniques in Agricultural Biotechnology’ (SAM, 2017a), we have examined the GMO Directive taking into account current knowledge and scientific evidence".

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LMI1 homeodomain protein regulates organ proportions by spatial modulation of endoreduplication

LMI1 homeodomain protein regulates organ proportions by spatial modulation of endoreduplication | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
How the interplay between cell- and tissue-level processes produces correctly proportioned organs is a key problem in biology. In plants, the relative size of leaves compared with their lateral appendages, called stipules, varies tremendously throughout development and evolution, yet relevant mechanisms remain unknown. Here we use genetics, live imaging, and modeling to show that in Arabidopsis leaves, the LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 (LMI1) homeodomain protein regulates stipule proportions via an endoreduplication-dependent trade-off that limits tissue size despite increasing cell growth. LM1 acts through directly activating the conserved mitosis blocker WEE1, which is sufficient to bypass the LMI1 requirement for leaf proportionality.
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Transcriptional regulation of nitrogen-associated metabolism and growth

Transcriptional regulation of nitrogen-associated metabolism and growth | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Nitrogen is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and basic metabolic processes. The application of nitrogen-containing fertilizer increases yield, which has been a substantial factor in the green revolution1. Ecologically, however, excessive application of fertilizer has disastrous effects such as eutrophication2. A better understanding of how plants regulate nitrogen metabolism is critical to increase plant yield and reduce fertilizer overuse. Here we present a transcriptional regulatory network and twenty-one transcription factors that regulate the architecture of root and shoot systems in response to changes in nitrogen availability. Genetic perturbation of a subset of these transcription factors revealed coordinate transcriptional regulation of enzymes involved in nitrogen metabolism. Transcriptional regulators in the network are transcriptionally modified by feedback via genetic perturbation of nitrogen metabolism. The network, genes and gene-regulatory modules identified here will prove critical to increasing agricultural productivity.
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European scientists unite to safeguard precision breeding for sustainable agriculture

European scientists unite to safeguard precision breeding for sustainable agriculture | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
European scientists unite to safeguard precision breeding for sustainable agriculture
24 October 2018
Leading scientists representing more than 85 European plant and life sciences research centers and institutes have endorsed a position paper that urgently calls upon European policy makers to safeguard innovation in plant science and agriculture. The scientists are deeply concerned about a recent European Court of Justice ruling around modern genome editing techniques that could lead to a de facto ban of innovative crop breeding. As a result, European farmers might be deprived of a new generation of more climate resilient and more nutritious crop varieties that are urgently needed to respond to current ecological and societal challenges. Together with the countless statements of European research institutes that appeared online over the last months, this statement is proof of a solid consensus among the academic life science research community in Europe on the negative consequences of this ruling.

Crop improvement has been done for centuries by means of conventional plant breeding techniques, all leading to genetic changes in the plant. Today, innovative techniques represent a next step in plant breeding and allow to make the desired genetic changes with very high efficiency and precision.

Innovative plant breeding methods necessary to meet the challenges of climate change
Agriculture feeds the world. On that account, the breakdown of food systems is one of the biggest risks of climate change. Crops that are more tolerant to rapidly changing and harsher environments, such as the recent period of extreme drought in parts of Europe, will be crucial for the success of tomorrow’s food production approaches. One of the latest breakthroughs in this field is precision breeding, an innovative crop breeding method based on genome editing. Precision breeding can contribute to tailoring crops to a specific area, considering the environmental factors of a certain region. Precision breeding is also used to generate crops with improved nutritional composition, improved digestibility, lower content of anti-nutritional components, reduced allergenicity or requiring less input, which has a direct benefit for our environment.

European plant research institutes jointly call for action.
The implications of a very restrictive regulation of innovative plant breeding methods are far-reaching. European agricultural innovation based on precision breeding will come to a halt because of the high threshold that this EU legislation presents. This will hinder progress in sustainable agriculture and will give a competitive disadvantage to plant breeding industries in Europe.

 

The impacts on our society and economy will be enormous.

To safeguard innovation in agriculture in Europe, the signatories of the position paper ask for a new regulatory framework that evaluates new crop varieties based on science.

Dirk Inzé, Scientific Director at VIB and one of the initiators of the position paper: “The support we received for this initiative from plant scientists all over Europe has been overwhelming from the start. To me, it clearly illustrates the current dichotomy in Europe:  as European leaders in the field of plant sciences we are committed to bringing innovative and sustainable solutions to agriculture, but we are hindered by an outdated regulatory framework that is not in line with recent scientific evidence. With this mission statement we hope to promote evidence-informed policymaking in the EU, which is of crucial importance to us all. “

Support this position paper and add your name to the list of signatories here. ​
Read here the position paper on the ECJ ruling on CRISPR


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Pivotal CRISPR patent battle won by Broad Institute, Team from the University of California, Berkeley, loses appeal over coveted gene-editing technology.

Pivotal CRISPR patent battle won by Broad Institute, Team from the University of California, Berkeley, loses appeal over coveted gene-editing technology. | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
A fierce and unprecedented patent battle between two educational institutions might be nearing a close, after a US appeals court issued a decisive ruling on the rights to CRISPR–Cas9 gene editing.

On 10 September, the US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit awarded the pivotal intellectual property to the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard in Cambridge, Massachusetts, upholding a previous decision by the US Patent and Trademark Office. The decision spells defeat for a team of inventors at the University of California, Berkeley (UC), led by molecular biologist Jennifer Doudna.

The “Board’s underlying factual findings are supported by substantial evidence and the Board did not err”, Judge Kimberly Moore wrote in the latest decision. “We have considered UC’s remaining arguments and find them unpersuasive.”

The dispute centred on the rights to commercialize products developed by using the CRISPR–Cas9 system to make targeted changes to the genomes of eukaryotes — a group of organisms that includes plant and animals. Although many patents have been filed describing various aspects of CRISPR–Cas9 gene editing, the Broad Institute and UC patent applications were considered to be particularly important because they covered such a wide swath of potential CRISPR-Cas9 products.

Investors have watched the case closely, even as they poured millions into companies that aim to develop medicines and crops using CRISPR–Cas9. The zeal with which both institutions defended their patents was unusual, says Jacob Sherkow, a legal scholar at New York Law School in New York City. Normally, he says, such institutions would settle out of court before the case reached this point.

“This has been one of the single most heated disputes between two educational institutions over inventorship,” says Sherkow. “It’s hard for me to imagine the same thing happening again.”

UC could now appeal the decision to the US Supreme Court, but it is unclear whether the court would agree to hear the case.

Since researchers filed the original CRISPR-Cas9 patents, the fast-paced field of CRISPR biology has moved on. Researchers have since discovered new enzymes to replace Cas9, and modified the CRISPR-Cas9 system to manipulate the genome in many ways, from editing individual DNA letters to activating gene expression.

Although CRISPR-Cas9 is still often the preferred CRISPR variety for researchers in both industry and academia, other systems may grow in popularity as scientists gain more experience with them. “This is still an incredibly important case for the present,” says Sherkow. “But it may not be an incredibly important case for the future.”
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Phosphocode-dependent functional dichotomy of a common co-receptor in plant signalling

Phosphocode-dependent functional dichotomy of a common co-receptor in plant signalling | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Multicellular organisms use cell-surface receptor kinases to sense and process extracellular signals. Many plant receptor kinases are activated by the formation of ligand-induced complexes with shape-complementary co-receptors1. The best-characterized co-receptor is BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1), which associates with numerous leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) to control immunity, growth and development2. Here we report key regulatory events that control the function of BAK1 and, more generally, LRR-RKs. Through a combination of phosphoproteomics and targeted mutagenesis, we identified conserved phosphosites that are required for the immune function of BAK1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Notably, these phosphosites are not required for BAK1-dependent brassinosteroid-regulated growth. In addition to revealing a critical role for the phosphorylation of the BAK1 C-terminal tail, we identified a conserved tyrosine phosphosite that may be required for the function of the majority of Arabidopsis LRR-RKs, and which separates them into two distinct functional classes based on the presence or absence of this tyrosine. Our results suggest a phosphocode-based dichotomy of BAK1 function in plant signalling, and provide insights into receptor kinase activation that have broad implications for our understanding of how plants respond to their changing environment.
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Increase in crop losses to insect pests in a warming climate

Increase in crop losses to insect pests in a warming climate | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Insect pests substantially reduce yields of three staple grains—rice, maize, and wheat—but models assessing the agricultural impacts of global warming rarely consider crop losses to insects. We use established relationships between temperature and the population growth and metabolic rates of insects to estimate how and where climate warming will augment losses of rice, maize, and wheat to insects. Global yield losses of these grains are projected to increase by 10 to 25% per degree of global mean surface warming. Crop losses will be most acute in areas where warming increases both population growth and metabolic rates of insects. These conditions are centered primarily in temperate regions, where most grain is produced.
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Impact of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions on global human nutrition

Impact of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions on global human nutrition | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Elevated atmospheric CO2 (550 ppm) could cause an additional 175 million people to be zinc deficient and 122 million protein deficient (assuming 2050 population and CO2 projections) due to the reduced nutritional value of staple food crops.
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L'agroécologie : vers une autre révolution verte - Avec Marion Guillou, spécialiste des sciences de l’alimentation

L'agroécologie : vers une autre révolution verte - Avec Marion Guillou, spécialiste des sciences de l’alimentation | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Quel enjeux pour nourrir 9 milliards d’êtres humains en 2050 ?

9 milliards d’êtres humains à nourrir, en 2050, au milieu de ce siècle. C’est à dire demain.  Le temps presse, les Nations Unies ont fixé des objectifs, il n’est pas certain qu’ils soient atteints. Les vraies questions : de quelle alimentation s’agira-t-il ? Avec quels moyens de production, quelle sécurité, quelle répartition ?  Les fortes pressions exercées sur l’environnement, le réchauffement climatique et la perte de la biodiversité obligeront à penser autrement tout le système agricole et alimentaire de notre planète. Une véritable révolution qui remettra en cause bien des pratiques et soulèvera d’énormes enjeux économiques et politiques. Mais a-t-on le choix ?  

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The proanthocyanidin‐specific transcription factor MdMYBPA1 initiates anthocyanin synthesis under low‐temperature conditions in red‐fleshed apples

The proanthocyanidin‐specific transcription factor MdMYBPA1 initiates anthocyanin synthesis under low‐temperature conditions in red‐fleshed apples | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Summary
In plants, flavonoids play critical roles in resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and contribute substantially to the quality, flavor, and nutritional quality of many fruit crops. In apple (Malus × domestica), inbreeding has resulted in severe decreases in the genetic diversity and flavonoid content. Over the last decade, we have focused on the genetic improvement of apple using wild red‐fleshed apple resources (Malus sieversii f. niedzwetzkyana). Here, we found that the MYB transcription factors (TFs) involved in the synthesis of proanthocyanidins can be classified into TT2 and PA1 types. We characterized a PA1‐type MYB transcription factor, MdMYBPA1, from red‐fleshed apple and identified its role in flavonoid biosynthesis using overexpression and knockdown‐expression transgenes in apple calli. We explored the relationship between TT2‐ and PA1‐type MYB TFs, and found that MdMYB9/11/12 bind the MdMYBPA1 promoter. In addition, MdMYBPA1 responded to low temperature by redirecting the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway from proanthocyanidin to anthocyanin production. In binding analyses, MdbHLH33 directly bound to the low‐temperature‐responsive (LTR) cis‐element of the MdMYBPA1 promoter and promotes its activity. In addition, the calli expressing both MdMYBPA1 and MdbHLH33, which together form a complex, produced more anthocyanin under low temperature. Our findings shed light on the essential roles of PA1‐type TFs in the metabolic network of proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin synthesis in plants. Studies on red‐fleshed wild apple are beneficial for breeding new apple varieties with high flavonoid contents.
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Plant Reproduction Special Issue on Seeds as factories for sustainable agriculture !

Plant Reproduction Special Issue on Seeds as factories for sustainable agriculture ! | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it

Plant Reproduction Volume 31, Issue 3, September 2018
Special issue on Seeds as factories for sustainable agriculture

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