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“ Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” Associated With the Psyllid, Bactericera maculipennis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) | Environmental Entomology | Oxford Academic

“ Candidatus  Liberibacter solanacearum” Associated With the Psyllid,  Bactericera maculipennis  (Hemiptera: Triozidae) | Environmental Entomology | Oxford Academic | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it
The psyllid Bactericera maculipennis (Crawford) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) often cohabits field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis, Solanales: Convolvulaceae) and other
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Assessments of Temporal Variations in Haplotypes of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ and Its Vector, the Potato Psyllid, in Potato Fields and Native Vegetation | Environmental Entomology | Ox...

Assessments of Temporal Variations in Haplotypes of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ and Its Vector, the Potato Psyllid, in Potato Fields and Native Vegetation | Environmental Entomology | Ox... | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it
Abstract. The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), had been known for nearly a century to cause psyllid yellows of solanaceous
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Infravec2 - H2020 no-cost vector products

Infravec2 - H2020 no-cost vector products | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it
Infravec2 is an international and interdisciplinary research infrastructure project funded by the European Commission Horizon 2020 Research Infrastructure Program. It provides NO COST access to products and services for research on insect vectors of human and animal disease.
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This is not for plant but can be useful (or better say insect vector or plant disease are also useful to understand animal vectored disease .... )  
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Supergene Evolution Triggered by the Introgression of a Chromosomal Inversion

Supergene Evolution Triggered by the Introgression of a Chromosomal Inversion | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it
Supergenes are genetic architectures underlying complex polymorphisms in many organisms.
Jay et al. show that a supergene controlling mimicry polymorphism in a butterfly was
formed by the introgression of a chromosomal inversion from another species. Their
results emphasize the role of hybridization in the evolution of novel genetic architectures.
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Carrot Pathogen ‘ Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ Haplotype C Detected in Symptomless Potato Plants in Finland

Carrot Pathogen ‘ Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ Haplotype C Detected in Symptomless Potato Plants in Finland | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it
‘ Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (CLso) haplotype C, a bacterial pathogen transmitted by the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis, causes yield losses in carrot production. Due to concerns tha
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A guide to sequence your favorite plant genomes

With the rapid development of sequencing technology and the plummeting cost, assembling whole genomes from non‐model plants will soon become routine for plant systematists and evolutionary biologists. Here we summarize and compare several of the latest genome sequencing and assembly approaches, offering a practical guide on how to approach a genome project. We also highlight certain precautions that need to be taken before investing time and money into a genome project.

Via Pierre-Marc Delaux
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Spanish contingency plan for Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum and its vectors

Spanish contingency plan for Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum and its vectors | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it

The Spanish Ministry of Agriculture recently pusblished a contingency plan against Candidatus liberibacter solanacearum (CaLsol) and its vectors

It includes a protocol for survey, an eradication programme for

Candidatus Lso (haplotypes A and B) and Bactericera cockerelli, as well as a programme on suppression of Candidatus Lso (haplotypes C, D and E) et its vectors, and keys to identify Bactericera trigonica, B. tremblayi and B. nigricornis


PLAN DE CONTINGENCIA DE Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso) y sus vectores 2017

http://www.mapama.gob.es/es/agricultura/temas/sanidad-vegetal/candidatuslso_contingencia_abril2017sincolores_tcm30-379857.pdf


Via Muriel Suffert
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Muriel Suffert's curator insight, March 27, 3:33 PM
Haplotype E was detected on few occasion in potato tubers in Spain http://ec.europa.eu/food/audits-analysis/audit_reports/details.cfm?rep_id=3884
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A Type 3 Prophage of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' Carrying a Restriction-Modification System. - PubMed - NCBI

A Type 3 Prophage of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' Carrying a Restriction-Modification System. - PubMed - NCBI | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it
Phytopathology. 2018 Apr;108(4):454-461. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-08-17-0282-R. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
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Frontiers | LasΔ5315 Effector Induces Extreme Starch Accumulation and Chlorosis as Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus Infection in Nicotiana benthamiana | Plant Science

Frontiers | LasΔ5315 Effector Induces Extreme Starch Accumulation and Chlorosis as Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus Infection in Nicotiana benthamiana | Plant Science | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it
Huanglongbing (HLB), a destructive plant bacterial disease, severely impedes worldwide citrus production. HLB is associated with a phloem-limited α-proteobacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las). Las infection causes yellow shoots and blotchy mottle on leaves and is associated with excessive starch accumulation. However, the mechanisms underlying the starch accumulation remain unknown. We previously showed that the Las5315mp effector induced callose deposition and cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. In this study, we demonstrated that Las can experimentally infect N. benthamiana via dodder transmission. Furthermore, we revealed another key function of the Las5315 effector by demonstrating that transient expression of the truncated form of the effector, LasΔ5315, induced excessive starch accumulation by 6 fold after 8 dpi in N. benthamiana after removal of the chloroplast transit peptide from the Las5315mp. The induction mechanisms of LasΔ5315 in N. benthamiana were attributed to the up-regulation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, granule-bound starch synthase, soluble starch synthase, and starch branching enzyme for increasing starch production, and to the significant down-regulation of the starch degradation enzymes: alpha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase, and glycosyl hydrolase for decreasing starch degradation. This is the first report that Las can infect the model plant N. benthamiana. Using this model plant, we demonstrated that the LasΔ5315 effector caused th
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Rescooped by julien levy from Agriculture & crop technologies
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Emerging Microbial Biocontrol Strategies For Plant Pathogens

Emerging Microbial Biocontrol Strategies For Plant Pathogens | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it
Highlights
• Food Security is at risk by an increasing world population and a growing number of crop pathogens.
• Biological control options emerge as promising alternatives to assist crops to fight pathogens.
• Microbial biocontrol success is inconsistent and depends on a number of environmental, ecological and genetic factors.
• This review provides an overview of existing and new microbial biocontrol strategies and how these can be more stable.
• Emerging strategies include long-term plant colonization, microbiome engineering and breeding of microbe-optimized crops.

To address food security, agricultural yields must increase to match the growing human population in the near future. There is now a strong push to develop low-input and more sustainable agricultural practices that include alternatives to chemicals for controlling pests and diseases, a major factor of heavy losses in agricultural production. Based on the adverse effects of some chemicals on human health, the environment and living organisms, researchers are focusing on potential biological control microbes as viable alternatives for the management of pests and plant pathogens. There is a growing body of evidence that demonstrates the potential of leaf and root-associated microbiomes to increase plant efficiency and yield in cropping systems. It is important to understand the role of these microbes in promoting growth and controlling diseases, and their application as biofertilizers and biopesticides whose success in the field is still inconsistent. This review focusses on how biocontrol microbes modulate plant defense mechanisms, deploy biocontrol actions in plants and offer new strategies to control plant pathogens. Apart from simply applying individual biocontrol microbes, there are now efforts to improve, facilitate and maintain long-term plant colonization. In particular, great hopes are associated with the new approaches of using “plant-optimized microbiomes” (microbiome engineering) and establishing the genetic basis of beneficial plant-microbe interactions to enable breeding of “microbe-optimized crops”.

Via Jonathan Lapleau
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Jonathan Lapleau's curator insight, January 23, 9:12 AM
Biocontrol is an emerging and promising field of research and application in order to manage diseases and stresses in crops. Nature is a bio-bank for active compounds, so let's use it !
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'Game changing' plant disease warning

'Game changing' plant disease warning | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it
A pest that can infect hundreds of plants from lavender to olive trees is of growing concern in the UK.
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Novel ITS1 Fungal Primers for Characterization of the Mycobiome

Novel ITS1 Fungal Primers for Characterization of the Mycobiome | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it
Studies of the human microbiome frequently omit characterization of fungal communities (the mycobiome), which limits our ability to investigate how fungal communities influence human health. The internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the eukaryotic ribosomal cluster has features allowing for wide taxonomic coverage and has been recognized as a suitable barcode region for species-level identification of fungal organisms. We developed custom ITS1 primer sets using iterative alignment refinement. Primer performance was evaluated using in silico testing and experimental testing of fungal cultures and human samples. Using an expanded novel reference database, SIS (18S-ITS1-5.8S), the newly designed primers showed an average in silico taxonomic coverage of 79.9% ± 7.1% compared to a coverage of 44.6% ± 13.2% using previously published primers ( P = 0.05). The newly described primer sets recovered an average of 21,830 ± 225 fungal reads from fungal isolate culture samples, whereas the previously published primers had an average of 3,305 ± 1,621 reads ( P = 0.03). Of note was an increase in the taxonomic coverage of the Candida genus, which went from a mean coverage of 59.5% ± 13% to 100.0% ± 0.0% ( P = 0.0015) comparing the previously described primers to the new primers, respectively. The newly developed ITS1 primer sets significantly improve general taxonomic coverage of fungal communities infecting humans and increased read depth by an order of magnitude over the best-performing published primer set tested. The overall best-performing primer pair in terms of taxonomic coverage and read recovery, ITS1-30F/ITS1-217R, will aid in advancing research in the area of the human mycobiome.

IMPORTANCE The mycobiome constitutes all the fungal organisms within an environment or biological niche. The fungi are eukaryotes, are extremely heterogeneous, and include yeasts and molds that colonize humans as part of the microbiome. In addition, fungi can also infect humans and cause disease. Characterization of the bacterial component of the microbiome was revolutionized by 16S rRNA gene fragment amplification, next-generation sequencing technologies, and bioinformatics pipelines. Characterization of the mycobiome has often not been included in microbiome studies because of limitations in amplification systems. This report revisited the selection of PCR primers that amplify the fungal ITS1 region. We have identified primers with superior identification of fungi present in the database. We have compared the new primer sets against those previously used in the literature and show a significant improvement in read count and taxon identification. These primers should facilitate the study of fungi in human physiology and disease states.

Via Steve Marek
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Steve Marek's curator insight, December 19, 2017 5:45 PM
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Resistance in potato to two haplotypes of ‘ Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’

Resistance in potato to two haplotypes of ‘ Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it
The disease zebra chip (ZC) caused by the bacterium ‘ Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum ’causes important economic losses in potato in New Zealand, the United States, Mexico and Centra
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Plant Immunity: From Signaling to Epigenetic Control of Defense

Plant Immunity: From Signaling to Epigenetic Control of Defense | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it
Pathogen recognition by plants results in the activation of signaling pathways that
induce defense reactions. There is growing evidence indicating that epigenetic mechanisms
directly participate in plant immune memory.
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A Systematic Study of RNAi Effects and dsRNA Stability in Tribolium castaneum and Acyrthosiphon pisum, Following Injection and Ingestion of Analogous dsRNAs

A Systematic Study of RNAi Effects and dsRNA Stability in Tribolium castaneum and Acyrthosiphon pisum, Following Injection and Ingestion of Analogous dsRNAs | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it
Open AccessArticle Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1079; doi:10.3390/ijms19041079 A Systematic Study of RNAi Effects and dsRNA Stability in Tribolium castaneum and Acyrthosiphon pisum, Following Injection and Ingestion of Analogous dsRNAs Min Cao * , John A. Gatehouse and Elaine C. Fitches Department of Biosciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, UK * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018 (This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Entomology of Insects of Economic Importance) View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [10045 KB, uploaded 4 April 2018]   |   Browse Figures Abstract RNA interference (RNAi) effects in insects are highly variable and may be largely dependent upon the stability of introduced double-stranded RNAs to digestion by nucleases. Here, we report a systematic comparison of RNAi effects in susceptible red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and recalcitrant pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) following delivery of dsRNAs of identical length targeting expression of V-type ATPase subunit E (VTE) and inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) genes. Injection and ingestion of VTE and IAP dsRNAs resulted in up to 100% mortality of T. castaneum larvae and sustained suppression (>80%) of transcript levels. In A. pisum, injection of VTE but not IAP dsRNA resulted in up to 65% mortality and transient suppression (ca. 40%) of VTE transcript levels. Feeding aphids on VTE dsRNA reduced growth and fecundity although no evidence for gene suppression was obtained. Rapid degradation of dsRNAs by aphid salivary, haemolymph and gut nucleases contrasted with stability in T. castaneum larvae where it appears that exo-nuclease activity is responsible for relatively slow digestion of dsRNAs. This is the first study to directly compare RNAi effects and dsRNA stability in receptive and refractory insect species and provides further evidence that dsRNA susceptibility to nucleases is a key factor in determining RNAi efficiency. View Full-Text Keywords: dsRNA stability; RNAi; exo-nucleases; endo-nucleases; flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum); pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) ▼ Figures This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0). Share & Cite This Article MDPI and ACS Style Cao, M.; Gatehouse, J.A.; Fitches, E.C. A Systematic Study of RNAi Effects and dsRNA Stability in Tribolium castaneum and Acyrthosiphon pisum, Following Injection and Ingestion of Analogous dsRNAs. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1079. Show more citation formats Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here. Article Metrics [Return to top] Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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Key Transport and Ammonia Recycling Genes Involved in Aphid Symbiosis Respond to Host-Plant Specialization

Key Transport and Ammonia Recycling Genes Involved in Aphid Symbiosis Respond to Host-Plant Specialization | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it
Microbes are known to influence insect-plant interactions; however, it is unclear if host-plant diet influences the regulation of nutritional insect symbioses. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum , requires its nutritional endosymbiont, Buchnera , for the production of essential amino acids. We hypothesize that key aphid genes that regulate the nutritional symbioses respond to host-plant diet when aphids feed on a specialized (alfalfa) compared to a universal host-plant diet (fava), which vary in amino acid profiles. Using RNA-Seq and whole genome bisulfite sequencing, we measured gene expression and DNA methylation profiles for such genes when aphids fed on either their specialized or universal host-plant diets. Our results reveal that when aphids feed on their specialized host-plant they significantly up-regulate and/or hypo-methylate key aphid genes in bacteriocytes related to the amino acid metabolism, including glutamine synthetase in the GOGAT cycle that recycles ammonia into glutamine and the glutamine transporter ApGLNT1 . Moreover, regardless of what host-plant aphids feed on we observed significant up-regulation and differential methylation of key genes involved in the amino acid metabolism and the glycine/serine metabolism, a metabolic program observed in proliferating cancer cells potentially to combat oxidative stress. Based on our results, we suggest that this regulatory response of key symbiosis genes in bacteriocytes allows aphids to feed on a suboptimal host-plant that they specialize on.
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Symbiotic polydnavirus of a parasite manipulates caterpillar and plant immunity

Symbiotic polydnavirus of a parasite manipulates caterpillar and plant immunity | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it
The role of herbivore-associated microbes in mediating plant–herbivore interactions has gained recent attention. We show that a parasitoid associated with its caterpillar host not only suppresses the immune system of the caterpillar but also suppresses the induced defenses of the caterpillar’s host plant. Parasitoids inject eggs into their hosts but also inject polydnaviruses that suppress the caterpillar’s immunity. Immunosuppression enables eggs to hatch and develop as larvae within caterpillars. Additionally, the polydnavirus reduces salivary glucose oxidase, the primary elicitor found in the caterpillar’s oral secretions. Caterpillars injected with polydnavirus induce lower plant defenses than untreated caterpillars. Our results reveal a dimension to the complexity of plant–herbivore interactions indicating that polydnaviruses mediate the phenotypes of the parasitoid, herbivore, and plant.

Obligate symbioses occur when organisms require symbiotic relationships to survive. Some parasitic wasps of caterpillars possess obligate mutualistic viruses called “polydnaviruses.” Along with eggs, wasps inject polydnavirus inside their caterpillar hosts where the hatching larvae develop inside the caterpillar. Polydnaviruses suppress the immune systems of their caterpillar hosts, which enables egg hatch and wasp larval development. It is unknown whether polydnaviruses also manipulate the salivary proteins of the caterpillar, which may affect the elicitation of plant defenses during feeding by the caterpillar. Here, we show that a polydnavirus of the parasitoid Microplitis croceipes , and not the parasitoid larva itself, drives the regulation of salivary enzymes of the caterpillar Helicoverpa zea that are known to elicit tomato plant-defense responses to herbivores. The polydnavirus suppresses glucose oxidase, which is a primary plant-defense elicitor in the saliva of the H. zea caterpillar. By suppressing plant defenses, the polydnavirus allows the caterpillar to grow at a faster rate, thus improving the host suitability for the parasitoid. Remarkably, polydnaviruses manipulate the phenotypes of the wasp, caterpillar, and host plant, demonstrating that polydnaviruses play far more prominent roles in shaping plant–herbivore interactions than ever considered.
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‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ is Tightly Associated with Carrot 2 Yellows Symptoms in Israel and Transmitted by the Prevalent Psyllid Vector 3 Bactericera trigonica

Carrot yellows disease has been associated for many years with the Gram-positive, 3 insect-vectored bacteria, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ and Spiroplasma citri. However, 4 reports in the last decade also link carrot yellows symptoms with a different, Gram5 negative, insect-vectored bacterium – ‘Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum’. Our study 6 shows that to date ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ is tightly associated with carrot yellows 7 symptoms across Israel. The genetic variant found in Israel is most similar to 8 haplotype D, found around the Mediterranean basin. We further show that the psyllid 9 vector of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’, Bactericera trigonica, is highly abundant in Israel 10 and is an efficient vector for this pathogen. A survey conducted comparing 11 conventional and organic carrot fields showed a marked reduction in psyllid numbers 12 and disease incidence in the field practicing chemical control. Fluorescent in situ 13 hybridization and scanning electron microscopy analyses further support the 14 association of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ with disease symptoms and show that the 15 pathogen is located in phloem sieve elements. Seed transmission experiments 16 revealed that while ~30% of the tested carrot seed lots are positive for ‘Ca. L. 17 solanacearum’, disease transmission was not observed. Possible scenarios that may 18 have led to the change in association of the disease etiological agent with carrot 19 yellows are discussed.
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Leaf nodule symbiosis: function and transmission of obligate bacterial endophytes

Leaf nodule symbiosis: function and transmission of obligate bacterial endophytes | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it
Various plant species establish intimate symbioses with bacteria within their aerial organs. The bacteria are contained within nodules or glands often present in distinctive patterns on the leaves, and have been used as taxonomic marker since the early 20th century. These structures are present in very diverse taxa, including dicots (Rubiaceae and Primulaceae) and monocots (Dioscorea). The symbionts colonize the plants throughout their life cycles and contribute bioactive secondary metabolites to the association. In this review, we present recent progress in the understanding of these plant–bacteria symbioses, including the modes of transmission, distribution and roles of the symbionts.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Ants improve the reproduction of inferior morphs to maintain a polymorphism in symbiont aphids

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A Pathogen Secreted Protein as a Detection Marker for Citrus Huanglongbing. - PubMed - NCBI

Front Microbiol. 2017 Oct 23;8:2041. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.02041. eCollection 2017.
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Alien species invasions and global warming a 'deadly duo', warn scientists

Alien species invasions and global warming a 'deadly duo', warn scientists | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it
Foreign animals and plants can cause huge damage, with the march of Argentine ants in the UK a new example of how climate change is boosting the threat
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Gene-edited soybeans and other foods avoid GMO regulations – and perhaps the whole frankenfood debate - Tech Rev (2017) 

Gene-edited soybeans and other foods avoid GMO regulations – and perhaps the whole frankenfood debate - Tech Rev (2017)  | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it

CRISPR and Talen are giving plant scientists a fast and cheap new way to create genetically modified foods. Decades of fretting over the safety and virtue of genetically modified organisms have led to a perverse outcome. Plant scientists in academia and startup companies have largely shied away from creating new GM crop varieties because it takes, on average, more than a hundred million dollars and over a decade to get such a plant approved by regulators in the United States, and also because the idea of GMO food has elicited public outrage. As a result, a few large agricultural and chemical producers like ­Monsanto... dominate the GM industry, making a killing off herbicide- and insect-resistant corn and soybeans.

The outcome has been just what GMO critics most dreaded: many farmers depend on a few large companies, whose researchers focus on traits designed to improve profits rather than produce healthier foods for consumers. For noncorporate researchers, meanwhile, genetic engineering of plants has been expensive and risky. That stunts progress in plant breeding just as climate change and population growth are putting growing pressure on agriculture. 

That’s why the work described... by our senior biomedicine editor, Antonio Regalado, is so important. Regalado explains how a leading plant geneticist is using gene editing to create a healthier soybean that farmers in South Dakota and elsewhere are beginning to plant and harvest. New gene-editing tools, either CRISPR or the slightly older TALEN, don’t insert a foreign gene into the plant to create a new trait but, rather, tweak the plant’s existing DNA. The engineered crops thus sidestep the lengthy regulatory process and could avoid the stigmas surrounding GMOs entirely.

Gene editing is cheap, powerful, and precise. Most important, it puts many more plant scientists back in the game of creating new varieties of crops, dreaming up blight-resistant potatoes, tastier tomatoes, drought-tolerant rice, and higher-fiber wheat. Until now, there has been little progress in commercializing such agricultural innovations, which are likely to represent far smaller and less lucrative markets than herbicide-resistant corn and soybeans. 


Getting gene editing into the hands of a far larger group of scientists could return us to the original vision for genetic engineering as an invaluable tool for growing healthier and cheaper foods, helping to feed the world’s growing population. Or will it? That depends on public perception. Will gene editing be viewed as a state-of-the-art tool for improving crops...? One can only hope... and that plant science can fully enter the modern age of genomics... 


https://www.technologyreview.com/s/609805/gene-editing-could-rewrite-the-gmo-debate/



Via Alexander J. Stein, Christophe Jacquet
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Characterization of physiological and molecular processes associated with potato response to Zebra chip disease

Characterization of physiological and molecular processes associated with potato response to Zebra chip disease | plant and insect vector | Scoop.it
Transcriptional analyses identified molecular mechanisms associated with the response of leaf and root potato tissues to ‘Candidatus. Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) infection, presumptive causal agent of zebra chip disease (ZC). Putativ
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