Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming
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Diphthongs for Big Kids | Pennington Publishing Blog

Diphthongs for Big Kids | Pennington Publishing Blog | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
Response to intervention reading teachers know that phonics instruction is critically important to fill in the gaps for older readers. Teachers use a variety of approaches to determine which phonics skills are missing from older students’ reading strategies. Some teachers favor an implicit approach to discover these gaps, such as guided reading running records. Other teachers favor an explicit approach to this data via phonics assessments. I tend to be a broad-brush, cover all the angles kind of reading specialist with a balanced approach to reading intervention. What works for some kids doesn’t necessarily work for all kids. Assessment My Sam and Friends Guided Reading Phonics Books provide 54 custom running records and word fluency practice to allow teachers to discover reading deficits through reading, i.e. the implicit approach. My Vowel Sounds and Consonant Sounds Phonics Assessments provide the explicit approach to diagnose phonics deficits. Instruction and Practice The assessment-based instruction and practice in my comprehensive Teaching Reading Strategies reading intervention program uses the implicit and explicit approaches as well. With the modeled expository reading fluencies (129 YouTube videos a 3 speeds) and connected comprehension worksheets, there are plenty of learn to read by reading practice activities. Additionally, the systematic and explicit sound-spellings blending, syllabication worksheets, 102 spelling pattern worksheets, and phonics workshops ensure that the reading intervention is targeted to assessment-based, identified student needs. A Balanced Approach to Reading Intervention Older kids who didn’t get (or never got) phonics instruction the first time around deserve the assessments and practice that will ensure mastery this time. And, as an aside, my assessments and practice for word identification and recognition are balanced as well. In addition to five phonemic awareness assessments (and corresponding activities), the program also includes sight word, rimes (word families), and word part (syllable), assessments and activities. Again, a multi-pronged approach is needed for the diverse student populations in any reading intervention class at any age. I’ve taught remedial reading and supervised reading programs for elementary, middle school, high school and community college. I’m here to say that reading intervention teachers have to be equipped to teach how students learn and that different approaches are necessary. As a further aside, I’m not talking about learning styles, multiple intelligences, or different modalities; I’m simply talking about varied approaches to reading instruction. Following is the explicit, systematic approach to phonics acquisition via small group workshops from my reading intervention program. Download the entire set of diphthong lessons and assessment at the end of the article. How to Teach Diphthongs Introductory Definition: Unlike vowel digraphs, which say one sound, such as with “ai” as in train, a diphthong says two sounds, such as with “aw” in hawk. On our animal sound-spelling cards, the names of each card: rooster, woodpecker, cow, koi, and hawk each use two vowel sounds. The ldiphtongs are written in purple on the cards with slashes (/) before and after to remind us that the diphthongs are sounds, not letters. Each diphthong has more than one spelling. The most common spellings are listed below the names of the cards. A blank means that a consonant must go in there. A consonant is a different sound than a vowel and can be spelled with one or more letters. Teaching Tips To teach phonics to big kids and adults, we have to teach differently than when we teach phonics to beginning readers. Your big kids and adults are smarter and have more life experience than pre-K, kinder, or first graders. They can catch on quickly if taught properly. Intervention students have “heard it all before.” They just haven’t learned all of it. I suggest a four-pronged approach to teaching diphthongs to your reading intervention students: 1. Use the animal sound-spelling cards (provided for you in a FREE five-lesson long vowels download at the end of this article) to teach the names, sounds, and spellings in isolation. 2. Teach whole-class sound-by-sound spelling blending for all of the diphthong spellings. Use a hurried pace, but blend every day until each has been mastered. Reinforce with games, using the diphthong cards to blend with the consonant and consonant blend cards. 3. Diagnose and gap-fill. If we use effective, comprehensive diagnostic assessments to determine what students know and don’t know and target instruction accordingly, students will much more likely buy-in to this individualized instruction (even when you use groups). Want my FREE 13 reading assessments, used by hundreds (or more) teachers to teach assessment-based gap-filling? BTW… the two phonics tests have audio files dictated by Yours Truly! 4. Use targeted practice to do the gap-filling and make sure your students have mastered the diphthongs through formative assessment. The FREE five-lesson download includes a short formative assessment. Be willing and able to re-teach if they don’t get it. After all, reading intervention is all about learning, not teaching. Get the Diphthongs Phonics Workshop FREE Resource: Or… why not buy all the phonics lessons and more? Mark Pennington, MA Reading Specialist, is the author of the comprehensive reading intervention curriculum, Teaching Reading Strategies. Designed to significantly increase the reading abilities of students ages eight through adult within one year, the curriculum is decidedly un-canned, is adaptable to various instructional settings, and is simple to use—a perfect choice for Tier I and II Response to Intervention groups. Get multiple choice diagnostic reading assessments , formative assessments, blending and syllabication activities, phonemic awareness, and phonics workshops, 102 remedial spelling worksheets, expository comprehension worksheets, multi-level fluency passages (same text) with word counts and timing charts recorded at three different reading speeds and accessed on YouTube, 586 reading and spelling game cards, posters, activities, and games. Also get the accompanying Sam and Friends Guided Reading Phonics Books. These eight-page decodable take-home books include sight words, word fluency practice,and phonics instruction aligned to the instructional sequence found in Teaching Reading Strategies. Each book is illustrated by master cartoonist, David Rickert. The cartoons, characters, and plots are designed to be appreciated by both older remedial readers and younger beginning readers. The teenage characters are multi-ethnic and the stories reinforce positive values and character development. Your students (and parents) will love these fun, heart-warming, and comical stories about the adventures of Sam and his friends: Tom, Kit, and Deb. Oh, and also that crazy dog, Pug. Everything teachers need to teach a diagnostically-based reading intervention program for struggling readers at all reading levels is found in this comprehensive curriculum. Ideal for students reading two or more grade levels below current grade level, English-language learners, and special education students. Simple directions and well-crafted activities truly make this an almost no-prep curriculum.  Plus the video training modules teach you everything you need implement the program successfully. Works well as a half-year intensive program or full-year program, with or without paraprofessional assistance. What do teachers have to say about the program? “This is just what I need! I have been searching for a resource to help my middle school SPED kiddos catch up to their peers and I can’t wait to implement this incredible product in my classroom!!!” Rating: 4.0 Literacy Centers, Reading, Spelling/Vocabularyblending, Common Core reading, comprehension, consonant digraphs, context clues, decoding, diphthongs, eighth grade fluency, EL, ELD, encoding, ESL, expository fluencies, fifth grade fluency, fluency, fluency assessment problems, fluency norms, fluency practice, fourth grade fluency, grade level fluency norms, long vowels, Mark Pennington, mastery learning, modeled reading, pennington publishing, phonemes, phonemic awareness, phonics, phonics programs, phonics worksheets, phonological awareness, problems with reading fluency assessments, r-controlled vowels, reading assessments, reading fluency, reading fluency assessments, reading fluency problems, reading intervention, reading programs, reading remediation, reading worksheets, remedial reading, RTI, seventh grade fluency, short vowels, sight words, silent final e, sixth grade fluency, special education, struggling readers, Teaching Reading Strategies, TESL, vocabulary, vocabulary worksheets, vowel digraphs
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Phonological Awareness - Hearing Words in Sentences- Modelled and Guided Practise

Phonological Awareness - Hearing Words in Sentences
Modelled and Guided Instruction.
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Executive Function Skills Precede Learning

Executive Function Skills Precede Learning | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
Executive Function Skills Precede Learning; Literacy...
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Phonological Awareness PSA

Narrated by Lauren Brown and Megan Kansanback. We are students in the Education program for EWU. For class we created this Parent Service Announcement for Ph...
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Pre-Reading Skills: How To Prepare Your Kid To Learn To Read

Pre-Reading Skills: How To Prepare Your Kid To Learn To Read | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
Though all kids develop at their own pace, there are reading readiness abilities that kids generally and predictably develop based on their age.These pre-reading abilities helps parents and educators know what to look for as a child’s development is followed, and it can alert parents and caregivers...
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Poverty, Development and the Brain

Poverty, Development and the Brain | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
Poverty is not an easily defined entity. Many studies have used low Socio-Economic Status (SES) as a surrogate to study its effects. Children in poverty exist in both dev..
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14 Ways to Make the Most of Storytime in Your Inclusive Early Childhood Classroom | Inclusion Lab

14 Ways to Make the Most of Storytime in Your Inclusive Early Childhood Classroom | Inclusion Lab | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
ANNOUNCEMENT: Before we get into this week’s post, a quick special announcement. We’ve randomly chosen the winner of last week’s final inclusion tote bag/mini-library giveaway. The lucky winner is: Beth Sipe Congrats, Beth! We’ll be in touch with you to get your addresses and send you your books and tote bag. Enjoy your prizes! And if you didn’t win this time, keep your eyes peeled for future giveaways—we’ll be doing more to ring in the next school year. And now, on to this week’s post:   Storytime is one of the richest learning experiences an early childhood classroom has to offer. Not only is it a fun social experience to share together, it also gives kids foundational knowledge about letters and sounds, story structure, and other core elements of early literacy. In your inclusive classroom, how can you be sure that all your learners are fully engaged in storytime and reaping its many benefits? Today’s post gives you more than a dozen tips on making the most of your shared reading time—and ensuring that it’s an effective, inclusive learning experience for children of all different backgrounds and ability levels. (Have your own favorite ideas? Share them with us in the comments section!)   Conduct an inventory. Take an in-depth look at the books on your classroom shelf. Analyze their characteristics: Are they in good condition? Do you offer texts with a range of topics and difficulty levels? Are the illustrations high-quality? Is there enough diversity among characters and in the types of stories you offer?   Expand your library. Different types of children’s books offer different enriching experiences for your learners. Storybooks are great for vocabulary development. Alphabet books help kids learn about letters and sounds, while counting or number books can expand early math and concept knowledge. Informational books help children develop general knowledge and encourage curiosity about their world. Word play books and poetry may help boost phonological awareness. Maximize your students’ literacy opportunities by ensuring that your shelves are stocked with all of the above!   Schedule shorter read-aloud times each day. Most young children have trouble sitting and paying attention for long periods of time. Evaluate your students’ needs and adjust the length of your read-aloud sessions accordingly. Two or even three short read-aloud sessions at predictable times each day will be far more effective than one long session.   Use your hands when you read. Follow the words in a storybook with your fingers so young children begin to understand that reading goes from left to right and from top to bottom in English. Point to objects in the pictures, ask children to point to objects you name, and ask children to name objects when you point to them.   Get it on tape. When you’re the reader, sometimes it’s hard to assess how all your students are engaging with storytime. Consider videotaping your small- or large-group book-reading sessions to review and analyze the quality of your book-reading and children’s engagement.   Try smaller groups and cozy nooks. Reading in smaller groups or in more comfortable areas (for example, on pillows in a library corner) will give your reluctant readers a better chance to interact with books—and may make it easier for you to pick up on nonverbal responses. PAVEd for Success authors Claire Hamilton & Paula Schwanenflugel recommend that children participate in a minimum of one large-group book reading per day and three small-group book readings of 5 to 7 children per week. You might try even smaller groups for children who are English language learners or have disabilities.   Use a flannel board to make storytelling more creative and offer your learners more visual support during shared reading. Supplement the story with a visual presentation using the flannel board characters and offer them to children in the library corner to give them more interactive ways to engage with and understand the story.   Consider using digital books. Using a projector to display the book during group reading sessions will ensure that all students can see the images and helps meet the needs of children with postural or visual impairments. Some digital books may also include simple animations or video clips to help explain key concepts and enhance children’s understanding.   Introduce books by taking a “book walk.” You don’t have to move from your chair to take a book walk—just show your students the pictures in the book before you read it and ask them what they think the book is about. A quick advance walk through the book helps engage students with the story and primes them for understanding by supplying them with key information about the characters ahead of time.   Choose books that have repeating and predictable patterns of text. Kids learn quickly, for example, that the pigs in The Three Little Pigs are going to say, “Not by the hair of my chinny chin chin!” Repetitive books like these allow children to more easily participate in story reading (and the repetition can help English language learners acquire new words).   Support children with visual impairments by reading in an animated way, varying pitch and volume to maintain children’s interest. Provide a description of what appears in the illustrations once you’ve finished reading a page.   Support children with language impairments by giving the child time to process the language through frequent pausing. Avoid reading too fast for the child to comprehend, especially when you’re reading books with more than one line of text per page. Take time to explain concepts if a child appears to be confused, explain the meaning of words that may be new to the child, and consider repeated readings of the same book so the child has several opportunities to learn new concepts and words.   Support children who use sign language by using animated facial expressions to help communicate the feelings that the story conveys. Pause frequently so the child has time to process the story and examine the pictures before moving on—while you’re reading, they may need to watch you or the interpreter instead of looking at the pictures. You might also review the story in advance and be sure the child learns signs for any new words that appear in the book.   Let children know that you think reading and storytime are important.  One way to send this message is to prominently display the books you’ve recently read during storytime in your classroom’s library. Children are most likely to select books from the classroom library that have recently been read aloud during storytime.     The tips in today’s post were adapted and excerpted from the following books: Tips 1 and 5: Early Language and Literacy Classroom Observation Tool, Pre-K (ELLCO Pre-K), by Miriam W. Smith, Joanne P. Brady, & Louisa Anastasopoulos Tips 2, 3, 4, 10, and 14: Building Blocks for Teaching Preschoolers with Special Needs, Second Edition, by Susan R. Sandall & Ilene S. Schwartz Tips 6, 7, 8, and 9: PAVEd for Success by Claire E. Hamilton & Paula J. Schwanenflugel Tips 11, 12, and 13: Shared Storybook Reading, by Helen K. Ezell & Laura M. Justice   MORE POSTS ON EARLY LITERACY 4 Building Blocks of Great Literacy Centers in Inclusive Classrooms 15 Fun Ways to Build Language & Literacy Skills in Young Learners Literacy-Rich Preschool Environments for All Learners
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The child’s ability to self-regulate is a critical element in childhood language and literacy development

The child’s ability to self-regulate is a critical element in childhood language and literacy development | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
Yes, it's a good idea to read bedtime stories to your children, but for the development of language and literacy, it's not enough.The question for me remains: is it something you can help your children with as this longitudinal study is showing a correlation rather than showing a clear causal relation:...
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ABC Snacks Archives - Archive

ABC Snacks Archives -  Archive | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
Our ABC Snacks series provides tasty snacks for every letter of the alphabet! With these creative recipes, you can spend quality time with your preschooler, support pre-reading skills, and enjoy an alphabet full of yummy snacks, all at the same time.
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Self-regulation and the development of literacy and language achievement from preschool through second grade

Self-regulation and the development of literacy and language achievement from preschool through second grade | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
This study found that children who demonstrated self-regulation earlier had higher language and literacy skills throughout preschool to second grade. More specifically, earlier self-regulation trajectories were associated with both higher levels and earlier development of both decoding and reading...
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executive function and phonological awareness
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21st Century Spelling

21st Century Spelling | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
Spilling had never bin maw impotent Spelling has never been more important, as my example above attempts to illustrate. In an ag
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The Difference Between Phonological Awareness, Phonemic Awareness, and Phonics - Speech is Beautiful

The Difference Between Phonological Awareness, Phonemic Awareness, and Phonics - Speech is Beautiful | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
How many times have you heard teachers talking about phonics and speech-language pathologists talking about phonemes — and both groups talking about phonological awareness? This has happened so frequently that sometimes they get muddied up in my brain. Here are the definitions and differences between the terms: 1.Phonological Awareness refers to the development of different …
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Phonological Awareness | Steps to Success: Crossing the Bridge Between Literacy Research and Practice

Phonological Awareness | Steps to Success: Crossing the Bridge Between Literacy Research and Practice | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
One of the critical requirements for decoding, and ultimately word recognition, is phonological awareness (Snow et al., 1998). Phonological awareness is a broad term encompassing an awareness of various-sized units of sounds in spoken words such as rhymes (whole words), syllables (large parts of...
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r-controlled Vowels for Big Kids | Pennington Publishing Blog

r-controlled Vowels for Big Kids | Pennington Publishing Blog | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
Although r, l, and w do control (change from the usual) the vowel sounds, most phonics programs only include the r-controlled vowels. I agree with this approach. Try watch an l-controlled or w-controlled video lesson on YouTube and your head will start spinning. Much better to include the l-controlled vowels in the context of other sounds, such as the /aw/ diphthong for “al” and “all” and the schwa for the “_le” word parts. The w-controlled vowels are so crazy that they are most-easily learned as outlaw words (sight words). I do recommend showing two w-controlled vowels patterns via spelling sorts: the war /or/ as in warm and the wor /er/ as in word. Most speech therapists agree with this balanced approach, and they are the sounds experts. Following is the explicit, systematic approach to phonics acquisition via small group workshops from my reading intervention program. Download the entire set of r-controlled vowel lessons and assessment at the end of the article. Plus, get the complete set of FREE diagnostic 13 reading assessments to see which of your BIG KIDS need help with which phonics elements. How to Teach r-Controlled Vowels Introductory Definition: When an r follows a vowel, the r changes the sound that the vowel makes. The vowel is called an r-controlled vowel. Sometimes teachers refer to the r as the “bossy r” because the r “bosses” the vowel to make the vowel change its sound. On our animal sound-spelling cards, the names of each card: ermine, armadillo, and orca each have an r which controls the vowel sounds. Examples: /er/ as in her, /ar/ as in car, and /or/ as in for. The /er/ ermine has three different spellings, which can appear at the beginning, middle, or end of a syllable. Teaching Tips To teach phonics to big kids and adults, we have to teach differently than when we teach phonics to beginning readers. Your big kids and adults are smarter and have more life experience than pre-K, kinder, or first graders. They can catch on quickly if taught properly. Intervention students have “heard it all before.” They just haven’t learned all of it. I suggest a four-pronged approach to teaching r-controlled vowels to your reading intervention students: 1. Use the animal sound-spelling cards (provided for you in a FREE five-lesson long vowels download at the end of this article) to teach the names, sounds, and spellings in isolation. 2. Teach whole-class sound-by-sound spelling blending for all of the r-controlled vowel spellings. Use a hurried pace, but blend every day until each has been mastered. Reinforce with games, using the diphthong cards to blend with the consonant and consonant blend cards. 3. Diagnose and gap-fill. If we use effective, comprehensive diagnostic assessments to determine what students know and don’t know and target instruction accordingly, students will much more likely buy-in to this individualized instruction (even when you use groups). Want my FREE 13 reading assessments, used by hundreds (or more) teachers to teach assessment-based gap-filling? BTW… the two phonics tests have audio files dictated by Yours Truly! 4. Use targeted practice to do the gap-filling and make sure your students have mastered the diphthongs through formative assessment. The FREE five-lesson download includes a short formative assessment. Be willing and able to re-teach if they don’t get it. After all, reading intervention is all about learning, not teaching. Get the The r-controlled Vowels Lessons and Assessment FREE Resource: Or… why not buy all the phonics lessons and more? Mark Pennington, MA Reading Specialist, is the author of the comprehensive reading intervention curriculum, Teaching Reading Strategies. Designed to significantly increase the reading abilities of students ages eight through adult within one year, the curriculum is decidedly un-canned, is adaptable to various instructional settings, and is simple to use—a perfect choice for Tier I and II Response to Intervention groups. Get multiple choice diagnostic reading assessments , formative assessments, blending and syllabication activities, phonemic awareness, and phonics workshops, 102 remedial spelling worksheets, expository comprehension worksheets, multi-level fluency passages (same text) with word counts and timing charts recorded at three different reading speeds and accessed on YouTube, 644 reading and spelling game cards, posters, activities, and games. Also get the accompanying Sam and Friends Guided Reading Phonics Books. These eight-page decodable take-home books include sight words, word fluency practice,and phonics instruction aligned to the instructional sequence found in Teaching Reading Strategies. Each book is illustrated by master cartoonist, David Rickert. The cartoons, characters, and plots are designed to be appreciated by both older remedial readers and younger beginning readers. The teenage characters are multi-ethnic and the stories reinforce positive values and character development. Your students (and parents) will love these fun, heart-warming, and comical stories about the adventures of Sam and his friends: Tom, Kit, and Deb. Oh, and also that crazy dog, Pug. Everything teachers need to teach a diagnostically-based reading intervention program for struggling readers at all reading levels is found in this comprehensive curriculum. Ideal for students reading two or more grade levels below current grade level, English-language learners, and special education students. Simple directions and well-crafted activities truly make this an almost no-prep curriculum.  Plus the video training modules teach you everything you need implement the program successfully. Works well as a half-year intensive program or full-year program, with or without paraprofessional assistance. What do teachers have to say about the program? “This is just what I need! I have been searching for a resource to help my middle school SPED kiddos catch up to their peers and I can’t wait to implement this incredible product in my classroom!!!” Rating: 4.0 Literacy Centers, Reading, Spelling/Vocabularyblending, Common Core reading, comprehension, consonant digraphs, context clues, decoding, diphthongs, eighth grade fluency, EL, ELD, encoding, ESL, expository fluencies, fifth grade fluency, fluency, fluency assessment problems, fluency norms, fluency practice, fourth grade fluency, grade level fluency norms, long vowels, Mark Pennington, mastery learning, modeled reading, pennington publishing, phonemes, phonemic awareness, phonics, phonics programs, phonics worksheets, phonological awareness, problems with reading fluency assessments, r-controlled vowels, reading assessments, reading fluency, reading fluency assessments, reading fluency problems, reading intervention, reading programs, reading remediation, reading worksheets, remedial reading, RTI, seventh grade fluency, short vowels, sight words, silent final e, sixth grade fluency, special education, struggling readers, Teaching Reading Strategies, TESL, vocabulary, vocabulary worksheets, vowel digraphs
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Existing between the lines: getting to know my daughter's dyslexia | Angie Fox | Society | The Guardian

Existing between the lines: getting to know my daughter's dyslexia | Angie Fox | Society | The Guardian | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
I can’t spend any more time fixing what’s ‘wrong’ about this ‘invisible disability’ so I’ll focus on what’s right...
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What Is It with Boys and Reading?

What Is It with Boys and Reading? | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
The evidence from national and international surveys and tests is clear: On average, boys read less, and less well, than girls. But why? And what can we do about it?
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Here’s To One Amazing Village!

Here’s To One Amazing Village! | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
Friday morning, I started off my day as I always do by reading Doug Peterson’s This Week In Ontario Edublogs post. One post that really caught my eye was a recent one by Jen Aston.In this po…...
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The Culturally Co-opted Brain: How Reading Changes the Way We Think

The Culturally Co-opted Brain: How Reading Changes the Way We Think | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
From a research perspective, reading and writing is a fascinating phenomenon. After all, the first writing systems date back less than 6,000 years – the blink of an eye in the timescale of human evolution.
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Can Illiterate Parents Be Their Kids' First Teachers? -- Unreasonable

Can Illiterate Parents Be Their Kids' First Teachers? -- Unreasonable | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
By empowering parents to support their children’s pre-literacy foundation, we can give East African kids a stronger start in school and life, and a hope of breaking Africa’s intergenerational cycle of poverty.
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For some children, reading feels like a cryptic code. We can help them crack it | Teacher Network | The Guardian

For some children, reading feels like a cryptic code. We can help them crack it | Teacher Network | The Guardian | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
With many children struggling with reading in some way, there’s a wealth of evidence to help teachers support students...
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Small group phonological awareness instruction | Kentucky Teacher

Small group phonological awareness instruction | Kentucky Teacher | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
Keeping reading instruction focused during small group rotations is challenging, especially when working with early elementary students. It becomes even more difficult when you need to gather skill-specific data on each student in that group, even though you are working with fewer students at a time on a targeted skill. With more early elementary students starting the school year below grade level, instruction, assessment and data monitoring are crucial to the success of each student in the classroom. It can be overwhelming to see the diversity in skills that students can display in a single classroom. Fortunately, with careful planning, small group instruction can help teachers meet the diverse needs of many students. One area of skills that need to be addressed in the early elementary years is phonological awareness, which refers to the ability to hear and manipulate spoken language. By developing phonological awareness, students begin understanding that spoken language is made up of individual parts, such as words, rhymes, syllables and sounds. Since the ability to read is not required, these skills can be targeted the very first day of school. Because students begin school with such a wide range of skill levels, it can be a struggle to identify where to begin small group instruction. Assessment of phonological awareness skills is a critical step in planning appropriate small group instruction. There are many assessments of phonological awareness skills available online at no cost. Most are quick, easy assessments that can be administered several times to keep a running record of student progress. Many school districts have developed their own phonological awareness skills test, too. As a Read to Achieve teacher, the one I use is the Phonological Awareness Skills Test (P.A.S.T.). It is a free assessment that can be found on many online sites. The P.A.S.T has the phonological awareness skills broken down into each individual skill and arranged by level of complexity. Students are assessed until an area of concern is found based on the number of wrong answers and/or teacher judgement. Planning Small Group Instruction Once assessments are completed and student needs are determined, small groups can be formed based on targeted skills and levels of instructional intensity. One thing to keep in mind when planning small group instruction is the grade at which each phonological awareness skill is considered to be developmentally appropriate. For example, phoneme substitution is considered to be a 2nd-grade skill. A kindergartener struggling with rhyming would need more intensive phonological awareness skills instruction than a kindergartener ready for phoneme substitution. Many of the online sites that have the P.A.S.T. also have a reference chart indicating the grade level at which a skill is considered developmentally appropriate. With phonological awareness skills being so diverse, it is unlikely that all students in a group will be working on the same skill. For small group instruction to be effective and engaging, it is critical to find a way to keep track of targeted skills for students as well as their responses during that time. One way to do this is by creating a simple template that can be used when reading any kind of short children’s story. The template that I use has five columns: page number, target words, target phonological awareness skill, target student and student response. It is versatile enough to be used with any book or story and any group of students. It also aids in monitoring progress for each student. Preparing a phonological awareness skills lesson using a template only takes a few minutes. To start, look at the title of the story. Are there any questions targeting phonological awareness skills that can be asked about the words in the title? Then go page by page asking yourself the same question about the words on that page. Keep in mind the skills that the students in the small group need instruction on to guide your question formulation. The following is text from the book “Bob the Dog” by Rodrigo Folgueira: Title: Bob the Dog Page 1: Mark and Bob the Dog were playing in the park one day. Page 2: They were running and laughing so hard that they didn’t see the … Page 3: GULP! Page 4: … tiny little yellow bird. Using the text above, here is an example of what the template could look like depending on student needs: Phonological Awareness Skills Template Page Number Target Words Target Skills Target Student Response Title page Bob Beginning Phoneme Isolation Student C Title page Bob, dog, bird Beginning Sound Discrimination Student A 1 play-ing Syllable Blending Student B 1 Mark, Bob Rhyme Recognition Student B 2 that, they, see Beginning Sound Discrimination Student D 3 (g) (u) (l) (p) Phoneme Blending Student A 4 Yel-low (yel) Syllable Deletion Student D Implementation How often you implement phonological awareness instruction using a template such as the one above is based on student needs. Lesson length also is based on student needs, with additional consideration being given to attention span of students in the groups. With student progress being kept on the template, it is easy to see where the previous day’s instruction ended. My small group instruction focuses on phonological awareness skills toward the end of the school week. We read a new story on Monday, work on vocabulary and comprehension with that story on Tuesday and Wednesday, and then do our phonological awareness instruction on Thursday and Friday. This gives me enough time to analyze student responses and make adjustments for next week’s instruction. Using a simple template can ease the stress of planning and implementing small group instruction while targeting specific skills in an effective and efficient way. Individual student needs will be met and instruction can be adjusted based on data yielded during that time. With focused small group instruction, student growth is immense.   Jennifer Wilcox is a Read to Achieve teacher at Lakewood Elementary School (Hardin County). She has been a teacher for 11 years. This is her fourth year as a Read to Achieve teacher. She spent seven years as a learning and behavior disorders teacher for 1st-, 2nd- and 3rd-grade students. Wilcox earned a bachelor’s in speech pathology from Western Kentucky University in 2000 and a master’s from Campbellsville University in learning and behavior disorders in 2008.
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Find the Word that Does Not Rhyme

Find the Word that Does Not Rhyme | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
Find the Word that Does Not Rhyme : Word sets as follows:  1. cat, mat, rat, candy 2. ball, wall, bear, doll 3. pain, cow, train, chain 4. hop, cop, mop, goat 5. boat, goat, coat, tire 6. hat, see, pea, knee 7.
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Navigating the Changing Landscape of Dyslexia | Getting Smart

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By Shantell Thaxton Berrett - One in five students has a language-based learning disability (the most common being dyslexia), and legislation is changing.
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7 Ways to Make Spelling Logical (+ Downloadable Lesson Plans!)

7 Ways to Make Spelling Logical (+ Downloadable Lesson Plans!) | Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming | Scoop.it
The spelling of English words can seem ridiculous at times, but it's actually much more logical than you might think. Here's why.
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Adult Dyslexia: Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program

Adult Dyslexia: Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program Another program to treat adult dyslexia is the Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program (LIPS). Thi
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I use this all the time - very effective
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