Philippine-Insurrection
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Two- Paragraph Essay

On August 12, 1898, the Spanish-American War came to an end. America gained control of the countries Guam, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. Spain agreed to give up the Philippine island when the United States paid them 20 million dollars (Treaty of Paris). The United States really wanted to have the Philippines because it would be a perfect territory to secure goods, had access to Asia at times of war, and for trade purposes. All the countries seemed okay with the decision, except for the Filipinos. They all came together and revolted because they weren’t going down without a fight. In the Filipinos mind, all they wanted was independence. Since the Philippines rebelled, it resulted into the Philippine Insurrection. Insurrection is a violent uprising against a government or authority. Today, this war isn’t really known as the Philippine Insurrection because the U.S didn’t control all of the Philippines. They controlled Manila, Cavite, and Manila Bay. It had no troops or government control, so now its mainly known as the Philippine-American War. Therefore, on February 4, 1899, the war began when a Filipino soldier was shot and killed by an American soldier.

 

Revolutionary leader of Cavite, General Emilio Aguinaldo, claimed Philippines to be independent. However, President McKinley declared that Philippines wouldn’t have independence, so that’s when everything turned bad. Nevertheless, the United States made the first gun shot that resulted into a bloody war. Within days, American troops spread outward towards Manila, using all the weapons they had. The Filipinos was doing poorly, so under the leadership of General Emilio Aguinaldo, they resorted to guerilla warfare. After a short time, thousands of American soldiers were being killed by this tactic. When President McKinley noticed what was going on, he decided that the only way for this conflict to be resolved was to capture Aguinaldo. On March 23, 1901, General Frederick Funston captured Aguinaldo in Palanan Isabela; with the help of some Filipinos who joined Americans side because they sought that American occupation was a good way to make money. Two years later, Aguinaldo agreed to do what the United States says, formally recognizing the power of the United States over the Philippines. The war ended July 4, 1902!

 

I believe that the United States shouldn’t get involved with any other countries problems because getting involved is what’s messing with our economy today.

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Erik McClure: Teenage Rebellion as a Failure of Society

Erik McClure: Teenage Rebellion as a Failure of Society | Philippine-Insurrection | Scoop.it

In today’s society, teenagers are rebelling against their own parents. Parents are not taking their kids seriously these days, and that results into children acting with bad behavior. Many adults need to bring back discipline to teach these kids how to act the right way.

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Emilio Aguinaldo in the Filipino-American War

A short documentary on Emilio Aguinaldo, a leader in the Philippines during the Philippine-American War, also known as the Philippine Insurrection.

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Primary Document #3 Emilio Aguinaldo

Primary Document #3 Emilio Aguinaldo | Philippine-Insurrection | Scoop.it

This photo of Emilio Aguinaldo was taken in Japan. America thought the only way this conflict would be resolved was if they capturted him. Two years later, he agreed to do what United States says, formally recognizing the power of the United States over the Philippines.

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Primary Document #1 U.S. Duty to Foreign Dependencies, 1900

ANNOTATION: President McKinley is basically talking to the Filipinos about as long as the war goes on, the military will be strong and protected. It also shows all the rules that apply to the Filipinos when they are under American rule. All of the rules seem fair, but the Filipinos don’t’ want to change their way of life.

 

In the Message transmitted to the Congress on the 5th of December 1899, President McKinley said, speaking of the Philippine Islands: "As long as the insurrection continues the military arm must necessarily be supreme. But there is no reason why steps should not be taken from time to time to inaugurate governments essentially popular in their form as fast as territory is held and controlled by our troops. To this end I am considering the advisability of the return of the commission, or such of the members thereof as can be secured, to aid the existing authorities and facilitate this work throughout the islands."

 

It is evident that the most enlightened thought of the Philippine Islands fully appreciates the importance of these principles and rules, and they will inevitably within a short time command universal assent. Upon every division and branch of the government of the Philippines, therefore, must be imposed these inviolable rules:

1.That no person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law

2.that private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation

3.that in all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial

4.to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation

5.to be confronted with the witnesses against him

6.to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor

7.to have the assistance of counsel for his defense

8.that excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted

9.that no person shall be put twice in jeopardy for the same offense, or be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself

10.that the right to be secure against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated; 11.that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist except as a punishment for crime; 12.that no law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech or of the press

13.the rights of the people to peaceably assemble and petition the Government for a redress of grievances

14.that no law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, and that the free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship without discrimination or preference shall forever be allowed.

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Vocabulary Words

Rebellion: an act of violence to a government or ruler

 

Guerilla Warfare: when the military decides to attack in smaller groups using ambushes, sabotages, and elements of surprise

 

Counterinsurgency: military or Political action taken against the activities of guerillas

 

Insurrection: a violent uprising against an authority or government

 

Archipelago: a group of islands

 

Relinquish: to keep or claim

 

Insurgents: rising in active or revolt

 

Revolt: refuse to acknowledge someone or something as having authority

 

Inevitably: as in certain to happen

 

Occupation: a job or profession

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Treaty of Paris 1898

Treaty of Paris 1898 | Philippine-Insurrection | Scoop.it

This is the document of the Treaty of Paris. It was written when the Spanish-American war ended. The document talks about how Spain is giving all the countries to the United States, and how Spain needs to abide by the rules.

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International Socialist Review -- Review of The Coming Insurrection

In France, some people were arrested for trying to destroy the French railway lines. These certain people were angered by not having a job because the society its self was capitalist. There revolt was to be heard!

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Spanish American War vs. Philippine American War

The Difference between the Spanish American War and the Philippine American War. Generally people get the two mixed up. The Spanish American War involved the U.S and Spain fighting over four countries. On the other hand, the Philippine American War was just focused between the Filipinos and the United States.

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The History Guy: Philippine American War

The History Guy: Philippine American War | Philippine-Insurrection | Scoop.it

A brief description of the war between the United States and the Philippines, which began in 1899. 

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Primary Document #2 THE PHILIPPINE INSURRECTION (1899-1902): DEVELOPMENT OF THE U.S. ARMY’S COUNTERINSURGENCY POLICY

ANNOTATION: The United States was on the verge of gaining control of the Philippines, but they weren’t going down without a fight. At first, the U.S army was disorganized and probably had no chance in winning. The National Guard suffered from poor training, leadership, and outdated equipment. With the help of President McKinley, he got everything under controlled. By 1901, Filipino forces out numbered the U.S troops two to one. All in all, neither the U.S nor Philippines won.

 

 

With the eventual defeat of the Spanish, the United States would inherit not only the Philippine archipelago, but also an insurrection that the Spanish had been fighting for some time. This would be America’s first experience with modern guerilla warfare. Over 126,000 American soldiers served in the Philippines. The total cost would be $400 million, with 4,234 Americans killed and thousands were wounded.

 

Despite the accidental nature of America’s involvement in the Philippines, the United States Army was able to wage what one historian has called its most successful counterinsurgency campaign of all time. What makes the army’s success surprising is that in 1898, the army was completely unprepared to fight a large-scale war 7,000 miles from the United States. Furthermore, the Commander in Chief, President McKinley, failed to provide clear guidance to his generals in the field. In fact, after McKinley dispatched troops to the Philippines, he told a friend that he “could not have told where those darned island were within two thousand miles.” McKinley certainly did not grasp the size and intensity of the Filipino rebellion against the Spanish. More importantly, he failed to consider what potential impact the insurgency might have on the American forces sent to fight the Spanish in the Philippines.

 

American victory in the Philippine Insurrection was not a foregone conclusion, as some have argued. In 1898, the Regular Army numbered only 27,000 soldiers. The nation lacked a pool of trained reserves and the National Guard suffered from poor training, leadership, and outdated equipped. Initially, the Cuban theater of the Spanish-American War was the higher priority for troops, receiving a majority of the Regular Army units. Later, the Boxer Rebellion in China reduced the number of soldiers available to fight in the Philippines. Even when American troop strength peaked in 1901, the Filipino insurgents outnumbered American forces by a ratio of at least two to one. The army also lacked a formal written counterinsurgency doctrine. Counter-insurgency, as defined in current army doctrine, encompasses “those military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and civic actions taken by a government to defeat insurgency.”

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