Parasites
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CDC - Fasciola - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Fascioliasis is an infectious disease caused by Fasciolaparasites, which are flat worms referred to as liver flukes. The adult (mature) flukes are found in the bile ducts and liver of infected people and animals, such as sheep and cattle. In general, fascioliasis is more common in livestock and other animals than in people.

Two Fasciola species (types) infect people. The main species isFasciola hepatica, which is also known as "the common liver fluke" and "the sheep liver fluke." A related species, Fasciola gigantica, also can infect people.

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Luis Navarro's curator insight, June 19, 2014 11:23 AM
Preguntas frecuentes sobre fasciola
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MyJournals.org - Science - 'Identification and characterization of ...

MyJournals.org - Science - 'Identification and characterization of ... | Parasites | Scoop.it
MyJournals.org - Science - 'Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the pancreatic fluke Eurytrema pancreaticum' (Parasites & Vectors)
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RDFRS: Parasites Make Their Hosts Sociable So They Get Eaten

RDFRS: Parasites Make Their Hosts Sociable So They Get Eaten | Parasites | Scoop.it
Many animals come together to find safety in numbers. In teeming herds, flocks, shoals and swarms, it's harder for a predator to track and isolate any single individual. This is the standard view of animal groups, as espoused in ...
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If animals are behaving in odd ways, it’s always worth considering that parasites could be influencing them. Many of these body-snatchers are also pharmacists that commandeer the brains of their hosts to create head-banging caterpillars, docile cockroaches, suicidal crickets and fearless rats.

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Parasite of the Day: Drepanocephalus spathans

Parasite of the Day: Drepanocephalus spathans | Parasites | Scoop.it
Other animals that frequent catfish farms are fish-eating birds, and ram-horn snails become infected by D. spathans from the parasite's eggs which are shed in the faeces of such birds carrying the adult fluke - in this case the ...
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The Positive Role of Parasites in the Origins of Life

One problem in the origins of life is how parasitic side-reactions can be mitigated. It is known that spatial self-organisation can help with this, making autocatalytic chemical systems more robust to invasion by parasitic species. In previous work we have shown that in such scenarios parasitic reactions can actually be beneficial. Here we demonstrate for the first time a system in which the presence of a parasitic autocatalytic cycle is not only beneficial but actually necessary for the persistence of its host. This occurs due to the effect the parasite has on the spatial organisation of the system; the host-parasite system is more stable than the host alone, despite the fact that the parasite’s direct effect on its host is purely negative. We briefly discuss the implications for the origins of life.


Via Complexity Digest
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NAD Lembeh Blog » Why can´t parasites be to good?

NAD Lembeh Blog » Why can´t parasites be to good? | Parasites | Scoop.it
but even interactions between parasites and their hosts are often in that realm, as the parasite or disease in some sense has an evolutionary pressure on it not to be to good and efficient in translocating energy from the host.
Argos Oz's insight:

Sexually transmitted diseases such as for example Syphilis, a disease that can keep spreading from its victims for many years, can be expected to alter the sexual behavior of its host, thus facilitating the spread of the disease. And after all, many of us have experienced exactly such a behaviour altering effect of a disease, as one of the symptoms of ordinary colds is sneezing, which is a behaviour that efficiently spreads the disease.

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Thin ewes could be sign of fluke - FarmersWeekly

Thin ewes could be sign of fluke - FarmersWeekly | Parasites | Scoop.it
Thin ewes could be sign of fluke
FarmersWeekly
As lambing approaches, the Sustainable Control of Parasites in Sheep (SCOPS) group is urging sheep farmers to check ewe body condition and continue the fight against liver fluke this winter.
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Parasite of the Day: Bivitellobilharzia loxodontae

Parasite of the Day: Bivitellobilharzia loxodontae | Parasites | Scoop.it
Blood flukes from the Schistosoma genus is found in over 77 countries, infecting at least 230 million people, and second only to malaria as the most socioeconomically crippling parasitic disease in the world.
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Blood flukes from the genus Schistosoma are found in over 77 countries, infecting at least 230 million people, and second only to malaria as the most socioeconomically crippling parasitic disease in the world. But the majority of flukes from the family Schistosomatidae do not infect humans; they parasitise other species of mammals, as well as birds. There are about 100 known species of schistosome flukes around the world. Understandably, those species from the genus Schistosoma are the most extensively studied due to their public health importance. However, there are many other blood flukes for which very little is known on even the most basic aspect of their ecology.

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Prof. Aaron G. Maule said Fluke is one of the most important helminthes ... - India Education Diary

India Education Diary
Prof. Aaron G. Maule said Fluke is one of the most important helminthes ...
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parasites inflict very significant losses in cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep in India and infection levels can reach 55% in isolated regions.

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Young malaria parasites resist drugs - BigPond News

Young malaria parasites resist drugs - BigPond News | Parasites | Scoop.it
BigPond News Young malaria parasites resist drugs BigPond News A team led by Professor Leann Tilley and Dr Nectarios Klonis, have shown malaria parasites in the early stages of development are more than 100 times less sensitive to artemisinin-based...
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Thriller Central: Real Monsters- Animals Just Waiting to Star in ...

Thriller Central: Real Monsters- Animals Just Waiting to Star in ... | Parasites | Scoop.it
Among these, the Chinese liver fluke and other sinister parasites called trematodes not only infect animals but infect up to three completely different species of animal as they move through up to six completely separate stages ...
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 30 million people suffer from Chinese liver fluke around the world.

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How parasites went on Crusade

How parasites went on Crusade | Parasites | Scoop.it

The contents of crusader latrines are helping researchers probe the history of parasite infections in humans.

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The Future is Paradise to Parasites | Minda Berbeco

The Future is Paradise to Parasites | Minda Berbeco | Parasites | Scoop.it
Liver flukes are funky little parasites that look a little like a worm with a big ugly sucker for a mouth. They spend about half of their life cycle in fresh water snails, chillin' out, growing, doing what the snail does.
Argos Oz's insight:

milk, cheese and lamb chop lovers beware. If liver flukes become a large epidemic, it will affect the animals, the farmers, the food and eventually you. Unless of course you become vegan, in which case, skip the watercress. Did I forget to mention? People can get liver flukes from eating veggies, too.

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Little Mind Benders | Body & Brain | Science News

Little Mind Benders | Body & Brain | Science News | Parasites | Scoop.it
The organism is a cat parasite and can have sex only within cells in the gut of some kind of feline. Matings there produce offspring protected in toughened structures called oocysts, which the cat excretes into soil and water, ...
Argos Oz's insight:

The parasite has wormed its way into an estimated one-third of people on the planet. In France, where Vittecoq works at both a CNRS national research lab in Montpellier and the Tour du Valat research center in Arles, nearly one-third to about one-half of adults carry hitchhiking T. gondii. The organism is a cat parasite and can have sex only within cells in the gut of some kind of feline. Matings there produce offspring protected in toughened structures called oocysts, which the cat excretes into soil and water, and which ready themselves within a few days to start a new generation.



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IRELAND: Parasites and escaping fish on list of concerns

IRELAND: Parasites and escaping fish on list of concerns | Parasites | Scoop.it
OPPOSITION TO FISH FARMS:A range of fisheries and tourism interests say their opposition to salmon farms is based on bad experience.

 

Fisheries and estate manager Simon Ashe at Ballynahinch Castle near Cashel in Connemara said the estate used to have the largest sea trout hatcheries in the country, taking 5,000 sea trout out of nearby Bertraghboy Bay and surrounding waters each year. However, following the arrival of fish farms ,“this was wiped out in three years”.

 

He said stocks were starting to come back since some fish farms in the bay were abandoned.

 

He claimed he also has a collection of photographs of sea cages half sunk or dumped on the shore.

 

Ashe speaks of problems associated with parasites; the denuding of sand eels from the natural habitat to feed fish in cages, leaving wild salmon without traditional feeding grounds; of chemicals used to kill fish parasites; of the effect of chemicals on local oyster beds; of problems caused by escaped fish rivalling wild fish for spawning grounds; and the impact on angling tourism.

 

Of the Galway Bay project, he said: “I am surprised the Minister for Agriculture hasn’t figured it out. He is probably facing a train wreck here.”

 

Delphi Lodge’s Michael Wade said a local project released 20,000 smolts, 10,000 of which were immunised from parasites. They went to sea “past the fish farm barrier” but the mortality rate among the non-immunised was shocking.

 

“The fishing community of the world is watching this. If the Bord Iascaigh Mhara project goes ahead the anglers will go to Iceland or Russia. We have a wonderful resource here, all we have to do is leave it alone.”

 

Enda Conneely from Inis Oírr said five tourism and angling and development interests were concerned about the farm having seen a previous farm in the area fail with serious consequences.

 

An Taisce said it was opposed on environmental grounds . Friends of the Irish Environment said it was concerned the board was applying to its parent department for a licence. Other bodies opposed to the farm include Salmon Watch Ireland, the Federation of Irish Salmon and Sea Trout Anglers, No Salmon Farms at Sea, Coastwatch and Save Galway Bay.

 

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Tenfold increase in fluke cases with more to come, says NADIS - Farmers Guardian

Tenfold increase in fluke cases with more to come, says NADIS - Farmers Guardian | Parasites | Scoop.it
Tenfold increase in fluke cases with more to come, says NADIS Farmers Guardian This is according to Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) figures reported in the latest NADIS (National Animal Disease Information Service) parasite...
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Toxoplasma gondii parasites hitchhike a ride in immune cells to get to the brain

Toxoplasma gondii parasites hitchhike a ride in immune cells to get to the brain | Parasites | Scoop.it

A common parasite call Toxoplasma gondii, which typically infects cats, is famous among scientists for its clever tactic of jumping from one cat to another by infecting rats and altering their behavior to make them more likely to be eaten by another cat, thus transferring the parasite to a new host.

Flegr discovered that the behaviors that toxo provokes in rats in order to get them eaten—slowed reaction times, lethargy, reduction in fear—also show up in infected humans. But until very recently, scientists knew little about how toxo might be doing this.

 

Enter Antonion Barragan, a researcher at the Center for Infectious Medicine at Karolinska Institute in Sweden. As Barragan and his team examined toxo in the blood of mice, they found the parasite living in a surprising place: inside the immune cells designed to kill them, a type of white blood cell called a "dendritic cell," after its treelike appearance. "These are the gatekeepers of the immune system," he said. "And we wondered, maybe the parasite is using these cells to get around." Using the cells as Trojan horses. As it turned out, he was right. Toxo was using the immune system cells to travel through the body and get to the host's brain. But how? The immune cells need to be stimulated in order to move—and the toxo itself obviously wasn't getting them going; the cells didn't even seem to know they'd been infected. What was agitating the dendritic cells?

 

And then they found it: a neurotransmitter called GABA. "It didn't make any sense," Barragan said. "GABA operates in the brain. What's it doing in the immune system?" But there it was. Barragan was seeing something nobody had seen before. Toxo appeared to be inducing GABA production inside the dendritic cells, which excited GABA receptors on the outside of the very same dendritic cells, and sent them zooming through the body, and to the brain. Now, here's the fascinating part: Disturbances in GABA are commonly seen in many psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. And elevated GABA levels, Barragan says, "are associated with decreases in fear and anxiety."

 

Still, Flegr cautions that this discovery doesn't tell the whole story. "I still think the most important molecule is dopamine," he said. "But this GABA mechanism is brand new and very interesting."

 

And perhaps not surprisingly, given all we've learned about toxo so far, he said, "It's very, very clever."


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Argos Oz's insight:

Two months ago, a team of Swedish scientists uncovered a key piece of the puzzle. In order to travel throughout the body and, most importantly, to the brain, toxo hijacks the very cells designed to destroy foreign invaders: the white blood cells. And not only does the parasite ride those cells like a city bus, but it also turns them into tiny chemical factories, producing a neurotransmitter known to reduce fear and anxiety in rats—and in humans. (Explore the human body.)

Even though toxo most often lives in cats, it infects millions of humans, jumping to us via contact with litter boxes, contaminated water, or undercooked meat. For most people, the parasite causes no obvious problems. Pregnant women must be careful, though; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warns that women infected during pregnancy face increased risk of miscarriage or birth defects.

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LAND OF THE DEAD: PARASITES, POOP, AND PALEONTOLOGY

LAND OF THE DEAD: PARASITES, POOP, AND PALEONTOLOGY | Parasites | Scoop.it
But then there's those damn parasites. Like the crazy uncle everyone tries to ignore, parasites are an uncomfortable reminder that “Except for the grace of natural selection, there go I.” Parasites cause immeasurable pain, ...
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Cymothoa exigua, a crustacean that eats the tongue of a fish and then attaches to the fleshy stub to function as a new tongue, getting sustenance from the fish’s blood and mucus!

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On the Trails: Parasites and behavior modification - Juneau Empire

On the Trails: Parasites and behavior modification
Juneau Empire
Flukes are a kind of flatworm, and they too can create behavior modification in their hosts. For example, one species of fluke infests certain snails and castrates them.
Argos Oz's insight:

The word “parasite” comes from the Greek words, meaning “beside the food.” The ancient Greeks reportedly used it to refer to people who served food at temple feasts.

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Amphibian parasites need frogs, too | Frog vs Fungus

Amphibian parasites need frogs, too | Frog vs Fungus | Parasites | Scoop.it
Whenever I hear the word “parasite”, I tend to think of lamprey fish or wasp larvae eating a caterpillar from the inside out. However, these are the most extreme examples of parasites – it is to the benefit of most parasites to ...
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Parasites are usually one of two general kinds: ectoparasites (attached to the outside of the body) or endoparasites (inside the body). The common ectoparasites that most of us are familiar with are ticks, mosquitoes and bedbugs, while human endoparasites include tapeworms, nematodes and trematodes.

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Young malaria parasites refuse to take their medicine, may explain ...

Young malaria parasites refuse to take their medicine, may explain ... | Parasites | Scoop.it
New research has revealed that immature malaria parasites are more resistant to treatment with key antimalarial drugs than older parasites, a finding that could lead to more effective treatments for a disease that kills one ...
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Loved by butterflies and parasites! - Citizen Matters

Citizen Matters
Loved by butterflies and parasites!
Citizen Matters
Loved by butterflies and parasites! Marigolds are good to have in an organic garden, attracting parasites, that may otherwise affect the vegetable plants.
Argos Oz's insight:

French Marigolds attract plant-parasitic nematodes (tiny microscopic round worms in the soil that attack the roots of plants) from deep in the soil and when planted as companions to tomatoes, melons or even ornamental plants, protect them from being destroyed by the nematodes. For the same reason marigolds can be grown in pots or in soil where one plans to grow tomatoes next. After the marigold plant matures, working it back into the soil will help suppress nematodes. For maximum effect, the French Marigolds should be planted in large numbers in the garden.

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Fruit Flies Medicate Offspring with Alcohol - LiveScience.com

Fruit Flies Medicate Offspring with Alcohol - LiveScience.com | Parasites | Scoop.it
Business Insider
Fruit Flies Medicate Offspring with Alcohol
LiveScience.com
Throughout the world, parasitic wasps are a bane to fruit flies. Female wasps lay their eggs inside fly larvae, which then hatch and eat the maggots from the inside out.
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The Parasite’s Fountain of Youth

The Parasite’s Fountain of Youth | Parasites | Scoop.it
In 1980, a man walked into the Royal Perth Hospital in Australia, complaining that he was tired.
Argos Oz's insight:

Planarians can reproduce in a manner that seems to defy the rules of zoology. They simply split in half, and each half then regrows the rest of its body.

Scientists can regrow new planarians from tiny cuttings, complete with muscles, intestines, nerves, and the many other organs that are necessary for a full-blown flatworm. We’ve known about this power of regeneration for centuries, but it always bears appreciating anew. Imagine that someone cut off your ear and tossed it on the ground, where it promptly grew into a complete copy of yourself–complete with a new brain.

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