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Women through the glass ceiling: gender asymmetries in Wikipedia

Women through the glass ceiling: gender asymmetries in Wikipedia | Papers | Scoop.it

Contributing to the writing of history has never been as easy as it is today thanks to Wikipedia, a community-created encyclopedia that aims to document the world’s knowledge from a neutral point of view. Though everyone can participate it is well known that the editor community has a narrow diversity, with a majority of white male editors. While this participatory gender gap has been studied extensively in the literature, this work sets out to assess potential gender inequalities in Wikipedia articles along different dimensions: notability, topical focus, linguistic bias, structural properties, and meta-data presentation.
We find that (i) women in Wikipedia are more notable than men, which we interpret as the outcome of a subtle glass ceiling effect; (ii) family-, gender-, and relationship-related topics are more present in biographies about women; (iii) linguistic bias manifests in Wikipedia since abstract terms tend to be used to describe positive aspects in the biographies of men and negative aspects in the biographies of women; and (iv) there are structural differences in terms of meta-data and hyperlinks, which have consequences for information-seeking activities. While some differences are expected, due to historical and social contexts, other differences are attributable to Wikipedia editors. The implications of such differences are discussed having Wikipedia contribution policies in mind. We hope that the present work will contribute to increased awareness about, first, gender issues in the content of Wikipedia, and second, the different levels on which gender biases can manifest on the Web.

 

Women through the glass ceiling: gender asymmetries in Wikipedia
Claudia Wagner, Eduardo Graells-Garrido, David Garcia and Filippo Menczer

EPJ Data Science 2016 5:5
http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjds/s13688-016-0066-4

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From neurons to epidemics: How trophic coherence affects spreading processes

Trophic coherence, a measure of the extent to which the nodes of a directed network are organised in levels, has recently been shown to be closely related to many structural and dynamical aspects of complex systems, including graph eigenspectra, the prevalence or absence of feed-back cycles, and linear stability. Furthermore, non-trivial trophic structures have been observed in networks of neurons, species, genes, metabolites, cellular signalling, concatenated words, P2P users, and world trade. Here we consider two simple yet apparently quite different dynamical models -- one a Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) epidemic model adapted to include complex contagion, the other an Amari-Hopfield neural network -- and show that in both cases the related spreading processes are modulated in similar ways by the trophic coherence of the underlying networks. To do this, we propose a network assembly model which can generate structures with tunable trophic coherence, limiting in either perfectly stratified networks or random graphs. We find that trophic coherence can exert a qualitative change in spreading behaviour, determining whether a pulse of activity will percolate through the entire network or remain confined to a subset of nodes, and whether such activity will quickly die out or endure indefinitely. These results could be important for our understanding of phenomena such as epidemics, rumours, shocks to ecosystems, neuronal avalanches, and many other spreading processes.

 

From neurons to epidemics: How trophic coherence affects spreading processes
Janis Klaise, Samuel Johnson

http://arxiv.org/abs/1603.00670

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Rate or Trade? Identifying Winning Ideas in Open Idea Sourcing

Rate or Trade? Identifying Winning Ideas in Open Idea Sourcing | Papers | Scoop.it

Information technology (IT) has created new patterns of digitally-mediated collaboration that allow open sourcing of ideas for new products and services. These novel sociotechnical arrangements afford finely-grained manipulation of how tasks can be represented and have changed the way organizations ideate. In this paper, we investigate differences in behavioral decision-making resulting from IT-based support of open idea evaluation. We report results from a randomized experiment of 120 participants comparing IT-based decision-making support using a rating scale (representing a judgment task) and a preference market (representing a choice task). We find that the rating scale-based task invokes significantly higher perceived ease of use than the preference market-based task and that perceived ease of use mediates the effect of the task representation treatment on the users’ decision quality. Furthermore, we find that the understandability of ideas being evaluated, which we assess through the ideas’ readability, and the perception of the task’s variability moderate the strength of this mediation effect, which becomes stronger with increasing perceived task variability and decreasing understandability of the ideas. We contribute to the literature by explaining how perceptual differences of task representations for open idea evaluation affect the decision quality of users and translate into differences in mechanism accuracy. These results enhance our understanding of how crowdsourcing as a novel mode of value creation may effectively complement traditional work structures.

 

Rate or Trade? Identifying Winning Ideas in Open Idea Sourcing
Ivo Blohm, Christoph Riedl, Johann Füller, Jan Marco Leimeister

Information Systems Research

http://pubsonline.informs.org/doi/abs/10.1287/isre.2015.0605

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Temporal Network Analysis of Literary Texts

We study temporal networks of characters in literature focusing on "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" (1865) by Lewis Carroll and the anonymous "La Chanson de Roland" (around 1100). The former, one of the most influential pieces of nonsense literature ever written, describes the adventures of Alice in a fantasy world with logic plays interspersed along the narrative. The latter, a song of heroic deeds, depicts the Battle of Roncevaux in 778 A.D. during Charlemagne's campaign on the Iberian Peninsula. We apply methods recently developed by Taylor and coworkers \cite{Taylor+2015} to find time-averaged eigenvector centralities, Freeman indices and vitalities of characters. We show that temporal networks are more appropriate than static ones for studying stories, as they capture features that the time-independent approaches fail to yield.


Temporal Network Analysis of Literary Texts
Sandra D. Prado, Silvio R. Dahmen, Ana L.C. Bazzan, Padraig Mac Carron, Ralph Kenna

http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.07275

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Relative Entropy in Biological Systems

In this paper we review various information-theoretic characterizations of the approach to equilibrium in biological systems. The replicator equation, evolutionary game theory, Markov processes and chemical reaction networks all describe the dynamics of a population or probability distribution. Under suitable assumptions, the distribution will approach an equilibrium with the passage of time. Relative entropy—that is, the Kullback–Leibler divergence, or various generalizations of this—provides a quantitative measure of how far from equilibrium the system is. We explain various theorems that give conditions under which relative entropy is nonincreasing. In biochemical applications these results can be seen as versions of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, stating that free energy can never increase with the passage of time. In ecological applications, they make precise the notion that a population gains information from its environment as it approaches equilibrium.


Relative Entropy in Biological Systems
John C. Baez and Blake S. Pollard

Entropy 2016, 18(2), 46; http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e18020046

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Global Patterns of Human Synchronization

Social media are transforming global communication and coordination and provide unprecedented opportunities for studying socio-technical domains. Here we study global dynamical patterns of communication on Twitter across many scales. Underlying the observed patterns is both the diurnal rotation of the earth, day and night, and the synchrony required for contingency of actions between individuals. We find that urban areas show a cyclic contraction and expansion that resembles heartbeats linked to social rather than natural cycles. Different urban areas have characteristic signatures of daily collective activities. We show that the differences detected are consistent with a new emergent global synchrony that couples behavior in distant regions across the world. Although local synchrony is the major force that shapes the collective behavior in cities, a larger-scale synchronization is beginning to occur.


Global Patterns of Human Synchronization
Alfredo J. Morales, Vaibhav Vavilala, Rosa M. Benito, Yaneer Bar-Yam

http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.06219

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Modern Milgram experiment sheds light on power of authority

Modern Milgram experiment sheds light on power of authority | Papers | Scoop.it

More than 50 years after a controversial psychologist shocked the world with studies that revealed people’s willingness to harm others on order, a team of cognitive scientists has carried out an updated version of the iconic ‘Milgram experiments’.
Their findings may offer some explanation for Stanley Milgram's uncomfortable revelations: when following commands, they say, people genuinely feel less responsibility for their actions — whether they are told to do something evil or benign.


http://www.nature.com/news/modern-milgram-experiment-sheds-light-on-power-of-authority-1.19408

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Tony Guzman's curator insight, March 1, 2016 4:36 PM
This article sheds some interesting results from a modern Milgram experiment.
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The Mobile Territorial Lab: a multilayered and dynamic view on parents’ daily lives

In this paper, we describe the Mobile Territorial Lab (MTL) project, a longitudinal living lab which has been sensing by means of technology (mobile phones) the lives of more than 100 parents in different areas of the Trentino region in Northern Italy. We present the preliminary results after two years of experimentation of, to the best of our knowledge, the most complete picture of parents’ daily lives. Through the collection and analysis of the collected data, we created a multi-layered view of the participants’ lives, tracking social interactions, mobility routines, spending patterns, and personality characteristics.
Overall, our results prove the relevance of living lab approaches to measure human behaviors and interactions, which can pave the way to new studies exploiting a richer number of behavioral indicators. Moreover, we believe that the proposed methodology and the collected data could be very valuable for researchers from different disciplines such as social psychology, sociology, computer science, economy, etc., which are interested in understanding human behaviour.



The Mobile Territorial Lab: a multilayered and dynamic view on parents’ daily lives
Simone Centellegher, Marco De Nadai, Michele Caraviello, Chiara Leonardi, Michele Vescovi, Yusi Ramadian, Nuria Oliver, Fabio Pianesi, Alex Pentland, Fabrizio Antonelli and Bruno Lepri
EPJ Data Science 2016 5:3
http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjds/s13688-016-0064-6

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Universal resilience patterns in complex networks

Universal resilience patterns in complex networks | Papers | Scoop.it

Resilience, a system’s ability to adjust its activity to retain its basic functionality when errors, failures and environmental changes occur, is a defining property of many complex systems. Despite widespread consequences for human health, the economy and the environment, events leading to loss of resilience—from cascading failures in technological systems to mass extinctions in ecological networks—are rarely predictable and are often irreversible. These limitations are rooted in a theoretical gap: the current analytical framework of resilience is designed to treat low-dimensional models with a few interacting components, and is unsuitable for multi-dimensional systems consisting of a large number of components that interact through a complex network. Here we bridge this theoretical gap by developing a set of analytical tools with which to identify the natural control and state parameters of a multi-dimensional complex system, helping us derive effective one-dimensional dynamics that accurately predict the system’s resilience. The proposed analytical framework allows us systematically to separate the roles of the system’s dynamics and topology, collapsing the behaviour of different networks onto a single universal resilience function. The analytical results unveil the network characteristics that can enhance or diminish resilience, offering ways to prevent the collapse of ecological, biological or economic systems, and guiding the design of technological systems resilient to both internal failures and environmental changes.


Universal resilience patterns in complex networks
Jianxi Gao, Baruch Barzel & Albert-László Barabási

Nature 530, 307–312 (18 February 2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature16948

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See Also https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xZ3OmlbtaMU

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Marcelo Errera's curator insight, February 21, 2016 9:37 PM

That's a very interesting study. Indeed it deserves to be in Nature.

One might wonder, though, why such networks are formed in the first place. 

Marcelo Errera's curator insight, February 27, 2016 9:12 AM

( more thoughts on this paper)

 

That's a very interesting study. Indeed it deserves to be in Nature.

One might wonder, though, why such networks are formed in the first place. 

 

There is a constructal theory to explain the robustness of such networks. Check it out:

 

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001793101500664X ; (need subscription to IJHMT)

 

 

Gian77's curator insight, April 8, 7:56 AM

That's a very interesting study. Indeed it deserves to be in Nature.

One might wonder, though, why such networks are formed in the first place. 

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The likely determines the unlikely

We point out that the functional form describing the frequency of sizes of events in complex systems (e.g. earthquakes, forest fires, bursts of neuronal activity) can be obtained from maximal likelihood inference, which, remarkably, only involve a few available observed measures such as number of events, total event size and extremes. Most importantly, the method is able to predict with high accuracy the frequency of the rare extreme events. To be able to predict the few, often big impact events, from the frequent small events is of course of great general importance. For a data set of wind speed we are able to predict the frequency of gales with good precision. We analyse several examples ranging from the shortest length of a recruit to the number of Chinese characters which occur only once in a text.


The likely determines the unlikely
Xiaoyong Yan, Petter Minnhagen, Henrik Jeldtoft Jensen

http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.05272

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Tensegrity, Dynamic Networks, and Complex Systems Biology: Emergence in Structural and Information Networks Within Living Cells

The genomic revolution has led to the systematic characterization of all the genes of the genome and the proteins they encode. But we still do not fully understand how many cell behaviors are controlled, because many important biological properties of cells emerge at the whole-system level from the collective action of thousands of molecular components, which is orchestrated through specific regulatory interactions. In this chapter we present two distinct approaches based on the concept of molecular networks to understand two fundamental system properties of living cells: their ability to maintain their shape and mechanical stability, and their ability to express stable, discrete cell phenotypes and switch between them. We first describe how structural networks built using the principles of tensegrity architecture and computational models that incorporate these features can predict many of the complex mechanical behaviors that are exhibited by living mammalian cells. We then discuss how genome-wide biochemical signaling networks produce “attractor” states that may represent the stable cell phenotypes, such as growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, and which explain how cells can make discrete cell fate decisions in the presence of multiple conflicting signals. These network-based concepts help to bridge the apparent gap between emergent system features characteristic of living cells and the underlying molecular processes.


Tensegrity, Dynamic Networks, and Complex Systems Biology: Emergence in Structural and Information Networks Within Living Cells
Sui Huang, Cornel Sultan, Donald E. Ingber

Chapter
Complex Systems Science in Biomedicine
Part of the series Topics in Biomedical Engineering International Book Series pp 283-310

http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-0-387-33532-2_11


Via june holley
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nukem777's curator insight, February 20, 2016 11:46 AM

Could be a new way to look at biodiversity, networks, and supercooperators.

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Gut bacteria that prevent growth impairments transmitted by microbiota from malnourished children

Malnutrition in children is a persistent challenge that is not always remedied by improvements in nutrition. This is because a characteristic community of gut microbes seems to mediate some of the pathology. Human gut microbes can be transplanted effectively into germ-free mice to recapitulate their associated phenotypes. Using this model, Blanton et al. found that the microbiota of healthy children relieved the harmful effects on growth caused by the microbiota of malnourished children. In infant mammals, chronic undernutrition results in growth hormone resistance and stunting. In mice, Schwarzer et al. showed that strains of Lactobacillus plantarum in the gut microbiota sustained growth hormone activity via signaling pathways in the liver, thus overcoming growth hormone resistance. Together these studies reveal that specific beneficial microbes could potentially be exploited to resolve undernutrition syndromes.


Gut bacteria that prevent growth impairments transmitted by microbiota from malnourished children
BY LAURA V. BLANTON, MARK R. CHARBONNEAU, TAREK SALIH, MICHAEL J. BARRATT, SIDDARTH VENKATESH, OLGA ILKAVEYA, SATHISH SUBRAMANIAN, MARK J. MANARY, INDI TREHAN, JOSH M. JORGENSEN, YUE-MEI FAN, BERNARD HENRISSAT, SEMEN A. LEYN, DMITRY A. RODIONOV, ANDREI L. OSTERMAN, KENNETH M. MALETA, CHRISTOPHER B. NEWGARD, PER ASHORN, KATHRYN G. DEWEY, JEFFREY I. GORDON

Science  19 Feb 2016:
Vol. 351, Issue 6275, pp.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aad3311

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Beyond Ebola

On 14 January 2016, Liberia was declared Ebola-free. A new case was identified shortly after the announcement, but it is nevertheless clear that the West African epidemic has moved on to a more hopeful phase. What lessons can be drawn from the Ebola crisis to help the international community to prepare for and respond to the next global epidemic? This question is particularly pertinent given the recent declaration of the Zika virus as a public health emergency.


Beyond Ebola
Janet Currie, Bryan Grenfell, Jeremy Farrar

Science  19 Feb 2016:
Vol. 351, Issue 6275, pp. 815-816
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aad8521

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Estimation and monitoring of city-to-city travel times using call detail records

Estimation and monitoring of city-to-city travel times using call detail records | Papers | Scoop.it

Whenever someone makes or receives a call on a mobile telephone, a Call Detail Record (CDR) is automatically generated by the operator for billing purposes. CDRs have a wide range of applications beyond billing, from social science to data-driven development. Recently, CDRs have been increasingly used to study human mobility, whose understanding is crucial e.g. for planning efficient transportation infrastructure. A major difficulty in analyzing human mobility using CDR data is that the location of a cell phone user is not recorded continuously but typically only when a call is initiated or a text message is sent. In this paper we address this problem, and develop a method for estimating travel times between cities based on CDRs that relies not on individual trajectories of people, but their collective statistical properties. We apply our method to data from Senegal, released by Sonatel and Orange for the 2014 Data for Development Challenge. We turn CDR mobility traces to estimates on travel times between Senegalese cities, filling an existing gap in knowledge. Moreover, the proposed method is shown to be highly valuable for monitoring travel conditions and their changes in near real-time, as demonstrated by measuring the decrease in travel times due to the opening of the Dakar-Diamniadio highway. Overall, our results indicate that it is possible to extract reliable de facto information on typical travel times that is useful for a variety of audiences ranging from casual travelers to transport infrastructure planners.

 

Estimation and monitoring of city-to-city travel times using call detail records
Rainer Kujala, Talayeh Aledavood and Jari Saramäki

EPJ Data Science 2016 5:6
http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjds/s13688-016-0067-3

 

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Living Cognitive Society: a `digital' World of Views

The current social reality is characterized by all-encompassing change, which disrupts existing social structures at all levels. Yet the prevailing view of society is based on the ontological primacy of stable hierarchical structures, which is no longer adequate.
We propose a conceptual framework for thinking about a dynamically changing social system: the Living Cognitive Society. Importantly, we show how it follows from a much broader philosophical framework, guided by the theory of individuation, which emphasizes the importance of relationships and interactive processes in the evolution of a system.
The framework addresses society as a living cognitive system -- an ecology of interacting social subsystems -- each of which is also a living cognitive system. We argue that this approach can help us to conceive sustainable social systems that will thrive in the circumstances of accelerating change. The Living Cognitive Society is explained in terms of its fluid structure, dynamics and the mechanisms at work. We then discuss the disruptive effects of Information and Communication Technologies on the mechanisms at work.
We conclude by delineating a major topic for future research -- distributed social governance -- which focuses on processes of coordination rather than on stable structures within global society.

 

Living Cognitive Society: a `digital' World of Views
Viktoras Veitas, David Weinbaum (Weaver)

http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.08388

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The Research Space: using the career paths of scholars to predict the evolution of the research output of individuals, institutions, and nations

In recent years scholars have built maps of science by connecting the academic fields that cite each other, are cited together, or that cite a similar literature. But since scholars cannot always publish in the fields they cite, or that cite them, these science maps are only rough proxies for the potential of a scholar, organization, or country, to enter a new academic field. Here we use a large dataset of scholarly publications disambiguated at the individual level to create a map of science-or research space-where links connect pairs of fields based on the probability that an individual has published in both of them. We find that the research space is a significantly more accurate predictor of the fields that individuals and organizations will enter in the future than citation based science maps. At the country level, however, the research space and citations based science maps are equally accurate. These findings show that data on career trajectories-the set of fields that individuals have previously published in-provide more accurate predictors of future research output for more focalized units-such as individuals or organizations-than citation based science maps.


The Research Space: using the career paths of scholars to predict the evolution of the research output of individuals, institutions, and nations
Miguel R. Guevara, Dominik Hartmann, Manuel Aristarán, Marcelo Mendoza, César A. Hidalgo

http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.08409

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An experimental study of segregation mechanisms

Segregation is widespread in all realms of human society. Several influential studies have argued that intolerance is not a prerequisite for a segregated society, and that segregation can arise even when people generally prefer diversity. We investigated this paradox experimentally, by letting groups of high-school students play four different real-time interactive games. Incentives for neighbor similarity produced segregation, but incentives for neighbor dissimilarity and neighborhood diversity prevented it. The participants continued to move while their game scores were below optimal, but their individual moves did not consistently take them to the best alternative position. These small differences between human and simulated agents produced different segregation patterns than previously predicted, thus challenging conclusions about segregation arising from these models.


An experimental study of segregation mechanisms
Tsvetkova M, Nilsson O, Öhman C, Sumpter L, Sumpter D
EPJ Data Science 2016, 5 :4 (27 February 2016)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjds/s13688-016-0065-5

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FITNESS LANDSCAPE EPISTASIS AND RECOMBINATION

Homologous recombination is an important operator in the evolution of biological organisms. However, there is still no clear, generally accepted understanding of why it exists and under what circumstances it is useful. In this paper, we consider its utility in the context of an infinite population haploid model with selection and homologous recombination. We define utility in terms of two metrics — the increase in frequency of fit genotypes, and the increase in average population fitness, relative to those associated with selection only. Explicitly, we explore the full parameter space of a two-locus two-allele system, showing, as a function of the landscape and the initial population, that recombination is beneficial in terms of these metrics in two distinct regimes: a relatively landscape independent regime — the search regime — where recombination aids in the search for a fit genotype that is absent or at low frequency in the population; and the modular regime, where recombination allows for the juxtaposition of fit “modules” or Building Blocks (BBs). Thus, we conclude that the ubiquity and utility of recombination is intimately associated with the existence of modularity and redundancy in biological fitness landscapes.


FITNESS LANDSCAPE EPISTASIS AND RECOMBINATION

MANUEL BELTRÁN DEL RÍO, CHRISTOPHER R. STEPHENS, and DAVID A. ROSENBLUETH, Advs. Complex Syst. 18, 1550026 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0219525915500265

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Evolution in the Anthropocene

Most current conservation strategies focus on the immediate social, cultural, and economic values of ecological diversity, functions, and services (1). For example, the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (2) mostly addresses the utilitarian management of biodiversity from local to global scales. However, besides urgent diagnosis and actions (3, 4), processes that occur over evolutionary time scales are equally important for biodiversity conservation. Strategizing for conservation of nature at such long time scales will help to preserve the function—and associated services—of the natural world, as well as providing opportunities for it to evolve. This approach will foster a long-term, sustainable interaction that promotes both the persistence of nature and the wellbeing of humans.


Evolution in the Anthropocene
François Sarrazin, Jane Lecomte

Science  26 Feb 2016:
Vol. 351, Issue 6276, pp. 922-923
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aad6756

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Measuring the Complexity of Continuous Distributions

Measuring the Complexity of Continuous Distributions | Papers | Scoop.it

We extend previously proposed measures of complexity, emergence, and self-organization to continuous distributions using differential entropy. Given that the measures were based on Shannon’s information, the novel continuous complexity measures describe how a system’s predictability changes in terms of the probability distribution parameters. This allows us to calculate the complexity of phenomena for which distributions are known. We find that a broad range of common parameters found in Gaussian and scale-free distributions present high complexity values. We also explore the relationship between our measure of complexity and information adaptation.


Measuring the Complexity of Continuous Distributions
Guillermo Santamaría-Bonfil, Nelson Fernández,  and Carlos Gershenson

Entropy 2016, 18(3), 72

http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/18/3/72

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Networks of plants: how to measure similarity in vegetable species

Despite the common misconception of nearly static organisms, plants do interact continuously with the environment and with each other. It is fair to assume that during their evolution they developed particular features to overcome problems and to exploit possibilities from environment. In this paper we introduce various quantitative measures based on recent advancements in complex network theory that allow to measure the effective similarities of various species. By using this approach on the similarity in fruit-typology ecological traits we obtain a clear plant classification in a way similar to traditional taxonomic classification. This result is not trivial, since a similar analysis done on the basis of diaspore morphological properties do not provide any clear parameter to classify plants species. Complex network theory can then be used in order to determine which feature amongst many can be used to distinguish scope and possibly evolution of plants. Future uses of this approach range from functional classification to quantitative determination of plant communities in nature.


Networks of plants: how to measure similarity in vegetable species
Gianna Vivaldo, Elisa Masi, Camilla Pandolfi, Stefano Mancuso, Guido Caldarelli

http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.05887

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Complexity theory and financial regulation

Traditional economic theory could not explain, much less predict, the near collapse of the financial system and its long-lasting effects on the global economy. Since the 2008 crisis, there has been increasing interest in using ideas from complexity theory to make sense of economic and financial markets. Concepts, such as tipping points, networks, contagion, feedback, and resilience have entered the financial and regulatory lexicon, but actual use of complexity models and results remains at an early stage. Recent insights and techniques offer potential for better monitoring and management of highly interconnected economic and financial systems and, thus, may help anticipate and manage future crises.


Complexity theory and financial regulation
BY STEFANO BATTISTON, J. DOYNE FARMER, ANDREAS FLACHE, DIEGO GARLASCHELLI, ANDREW G. HALDANE, HANS HEESTERBEEK, CARS HOMMES, CARLO JAEGER, ROBERT MAY, MARTEN SCHEFFER

Science  19 Feb 2016:
Vol. 351, Issue 6275, pp. 818-819
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aad0299

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malek's comment, February 21, 2016 6:49 PM
Plug in fear and the economic systems may deviate from any rational behavior
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The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows As Proxies for National Wellbeing

The digital exhaust left by flows of physical and digital commodities provides a rich measure of the nature, strength and significance of relationships between countries in the global network. With this work, we examine how these traces and the network structure can reveal the socioeconomic profile of different countries. We take into account multiple international networks of physical and digital flows, including the previously unexplored international postal network. By measuring the position of each country in the Trade, Postal, Migration, International Flights, IP and Digital Communications networks, we are able to build proxies for a number of crucial socioeconomic indicators such as GDP per capita and the Human Development Index ranking along with twelve other indicators used as benchmarks of national wellbeing by the United Nations and other international organisations. In this context, we have also proposed and evaluated a global connectivity degree measure applying multiplex theory across the six networks that accounts for the strength of relationships between countries. We conclude with a multiplex community analysis of the global flow networks, showing how countries with shared community membership over multiple networks have similar socioeconomic profiles. Combining multiple flow data sources into global multiplex networks can help understand the forces which drive economic activity on a global level. Such an ability to infer proxy indicators in a context of incomplete information is extremely timely in light of recent discussions on measurement of indicators relevant to the Sustainable Development Goals.


The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows As Proxies for National Wellbeing
Desislava Hristova, Alex Rutherford, Jose Anson, Miguel Luengo-Oroz, Cecilia Mascolo

http://arxiv.org/abs/1601.06028

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Step by Step to Stability and Peace in Syria

Step by Step to Stability and Peace in Syria | Papers | Scoop.it

The revolution and Civil War in Syria has led to substantial death and suffering, a massive refugee crisis, and growth of ISIS extremism and its terror attacks globally. Conflict between disparate groups is ongoing. Here we propose that interventions should be pursued to stop specific local conflicts, creating safe zones, that can be expanded gradually and serve as examples for achieving a comprehensive solution for safety, peace and stable local governance in Syria.


Raphael Parens, Yaneer Bar-Yam, Step by step to stability and peace in Syria, NECSI (February 9, 2016).

http://www.necsi.edu/research/ethnicviolence/stepbystep.html

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The scope and limits of simulation in automated reasoning

In scientific computing and in realistic graphic animation, simulation – that is, step-by-step calculation of the complete trajectory of a physical system – is one of the most common and important modes of calculation. In this article, we address the scope and limits of the use of simulation, with respect to AI tasks that involve high-level physical reasoning. We argue that, in many cases, simulation can play at most a limited role. Simulation is most effective when the task is prediction, when complete information is available, when a reasonably high quality theory is available, and when the range of scales involved, both temporal and spatial, is not extreme. When these conditions do not hold, simulation is less effective or entirely inappropriate. We discuss twelve features of physical reasoning problems that pose challenges for simulation-based reasoning. We briefly survey alternative techniques for physical reasoning that do not rely on simulation.


The scope and limits of simulation in automated reasoning
Ernest Davis, Gary Marcus

Artificial Intelligence
Volume 233, April 2016, Pages 60–72

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.artint.2015.12.003

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