Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources
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Pour la première fois, un coeur artificiel a été greffé à un homme - Le Nouvel Observateur

Pour la première fois, un coeur artificiel a été greffé à un homme - Le Nouvel Observateur | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
Le Nouvel Observateur
Pour la première fois, un coeur artificiel a été greffé à un homme
Le Nouvel Observateur
Le patient n'était pas éligible à une greffe en raison de son âge avancé.

 

For another report in Engish click on this link-

http://www.eteknix.com/artificial-heart-offers-hope-transplant-list/

 


Via nathalie Bissot-Campos
Deborah Verran's insight:

For the first time an artificial heart has been transplanted into an adult male in France. Although the article is in French it can be translated into English via Google translate. The short accompanying video provides a glimpse of the actual device

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Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources
Combining reports, research findings and topic reviews
Curated by Deborah Verran
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Lancet Commission: Stem cells and regenerative medicine

Lancet Commission: Stem cells and regenerative medicine | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
A consensus document has just been published in The Lancet outlining exactly what is the status the current research endeavours into regenerative medicine.

This includes the use of stem cells for the purposes of either bioprinting and/or biofabricating tissues and organs.

This article dissects out the reality from the hype. In addition it summarises what are the current barriers to achieving more in the way of outcomes which may be of direct relevance to patient's. In addition there are challenges which will need to be faced at the level's of both organizations and regulatory agencies as this type of research progresses.
Deborah Verran's insight:
This is a must read for anyone interested in this type of research and what are the possible implications
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30-yr-old lives after Delhi doctors perform first-ever kidney transplant in Tanzania

30-yr-old lives after Delhi doctors perform first-ever kidney transplant in Tanzania | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

With the aid of a medical team from Delhi the first ever kidney transplant has been performed on a 30 year old woman in Tanzania at the Muhimbili National Hospital.  After over a year of planning, including the training of healthcare workers from Tanzania in Delhi, the live donor kidney transplant procedure was finally able to go ahead.


In the absence of a local law foe transplantation, the hospital had to adopt the Indian law and processes for conducting the surgery.


For more on the story click on the banner headline.

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World’s first human head transplant successfully performed on a corpse, scientists say

World’s first human head transplant successfully performed on a corpse, scientists say | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

It has just been reported that a head from a deceased individual has been attached to the body of another deceased individual via an 18 hour surgical procedure led by Professor Xiaoping Ren (picture left above), of Harbin University in China.


This story has generated a number of misleading headlines partly due to the fact that it is not actually a proper transplantation surgical procedure where either a viable organ or tissue is transplanted from a donor into an alive recipient. Instead the procedure that has been performed appears to be an experimental technical exercise.


Apparently a full head swap between brain dead organ donors is now being planned as the next step according to Dr Sergio Canavero (pictured right), who is frequently interviewed on this ongoing research. Dr Canavero claims that 'We stand on the brink of a revolution, not only in medicine but in human life'


Not everyone agrees with this sentiment, particularly as the ongoing breakthroughs that are now being seen in pharmacology, gene editing, bioengineering and the use of stem cells may in fact lead to head transplantation never being a viable procedure to treat serious conditions of the spinal cord etc for which it is being proposed.


However the background information on how this procedure was undertaken has now been published online in Surgical Neurology International. This involves operating on the bodies of deceased individuals whose relatives agreed could be used for research purposes  -


http://surgicalneurologyint.com/surgicalint-articles/first-cephalosomatic-anastomosis-in-a-human-model/


Deborah Verran's insight:
The latest on the head transplant saga which no doubt will continue to generate headlines until there is some kind of outcome with this ongoing research
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Swedish review board finds misconduct by Macchiarini, calls for six retractions - Retraction Watch

Swedish review board finds misconduct by Macchiarini, calls for six retractions - Retraction Watch | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

An ethical review board in Sweden is now asking a number of scientific journals to retract six papers that were co-authored by former star surgeon Paolo Macchiarini, after concluding that he and his co-authors committed misconduct.


One of the papers is the seminal 2011 article in The Lancet, which described the first case of a transplant using an artificial trachea seeded with cells.


This follows on from further investigations into the outcomes of the trachea transplant cases where the outcomes were not as good as initially reported.

Deborah Verran's insight:
The post script of what has turned out to be a sorry saga of over optimism and hence inaccurate scientific reporting of the initial results of a new form of tissue transplantation.
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Commentary: Timely to review our opt-out organ donation policy in Singapore

Commentary: Timely to review our opt-out organ donation policy in Singapore | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Despite significant progress since the Human Organ Transplant Act was passed in Singapore, the wait for an actual organ remains long. Yale-NUS College's Jean Liu explores the successes and challenges of an opt-out system in the Singapore context.


It appears that there is a lack of knowledge in the wider community with respect to what is meant by a diagnosis of brain death such that family members are not always willing to accept this diagnosis even if their loved one may not have objected to being an organ donor whilst they were alive.


Hence despite Singapore having an opt out system for organ donation in place, in practice this is not leading to the same rates of organ donation as in other countries. Reasons for this are explored further in this article.


Another version of the article has been published online via Medium -

https://medium.com/@jeanetic/30-years-of-an-opt-out-organ-donation-policy-58745d9fbf19


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Government announces consultation on organ donation opt-out system | Human Tissue Authority

Government announces consultation on organ donation opt-out system | Human Tissue Authority | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

In her closing conference speech on Wednesday 4 October, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Theresa May, announced the government's intention to launch a public consultation process on increasing the rates of organ donation in England.


The consultation process will propose that the new organ donation registration system will automatically enter everyone on to the donor register, unless they decide to opt out. The consultation process is planned to be launched by the end of 2017.Read more on the Department of Health website here.

Deborah Verran's insight:
The UK government has signalled that it will now establish a consultation process for opt out organ donation in England. Of note Wales already has an opt out system in place and authorities in Scotland signalled earlier this year that they would also be looking into establishing an opt out system.
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In Algeria, taboos and law deter organ donors

In Algeria, taboos and law deter organ donors | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

More than 22,000 people in Algeria suffer from renal conditions and are forced to undergo dialysis, according to the ministry of health.


However a combination of strict laws pertaining to living organ donation and widespread misconceptions about deceased donation in the community, are leading to a low rate of organ donation. This is acting as a significant barrier to the numbers of patients who are able to undergo organ transplantation.


Head of the Batna hospital nephrology department Dr Ahmed Bougroura (pictured above) describes the harsh reality facing dialysis patients in Algeria and why change is required in order to increase the rates of organ donation.


For a short video posted online via the AFP news agency click on the following link-

https://youtu.be/TKhxAa4FZRI




.

Deborah Verran's insight:
An important article on the challenges within Algeria with respect to delivering renal replacement therapy in the setting of low organ donation rates.
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Who deserves a liver? Officials try to make organ transplants fairer

Who deserves a liver? Officials try to make organ transplants fairer | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Ongoing concerns over whether deceased donor livers are being allocated equitably across the United States have led to ongoing efforts to alter the current allocation scheme.


This has involved modelling of several options all of which require that an increased number of donor livers would be diverted to the patient's with the highest MELD scores. However this has to be done in a way that does not compromise the quality of the donor organ by adding too much in the way of additional transport time.


A new plan would alter how precious organs are distributed and could shift hundreds of them across state and regional borders.


For more on where the current deliberations have got to in the United States click on the banner headline to this story.

Deborah Verran's insight:
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Growing and Testing Drugs on Dozens of Tiny Guts at Once |

Growing and Testing Drugs on Dozens of Tiny Guts at Once | | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

In a demonstration of where the field of organ-on-a-chip technology is inevitably going, MIMETAS, a company developing organ-on-chip technology out of Leiden has revealed it's gut on a chip device.


For more on the story click on the banner headline

Deborah Verran's insight:
An example of where the organ on a chip technology has got to for the purpose of in vitro testing of pharmaceutical agents
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Tissue-engineered trachea from a 3D-printed scaffold enhances whole-segment tracheal repair

Tissue-engineered trachea from a 3D-printed scaffold enhances whole-segment tracheal repair | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
In this latest research into the bioengineering of a trachea (windpipe), scientists have developed a biodegradeable scaffold which is then populated with cells.

The new trachea was then surgically implanted into rabbits and the rabbits observed for complications.

This is a proof of concept study, i.e. it allows the researchers to ascertain that the bioengineered trachea can safely be transplanted. However as mentioned in this article, there have been limitations with the use of other types of the bioengineered trachea to date, including in humans. 

Hence more research is required to ascertain whether there is an artificial trachea which can be safely implanted into patients with an acceptable risk.
Deborah Verran's insight:
The latest research into developing a bioengineered trachea
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New Delhi: Man receives liver in 'donation after circulatory death' | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis

New Delhi: Man receives liver in 'donation after circulatory death' | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

In recent news from New Delhi in India comes the report that an adult male has been transplanted with a liver from a 'donation after circulatory death organ donor (DCD).


Obtaining livers for the purpose of transplantation from DCD donors requires that certain selection criteria are followed. The absence of circulation in the donor prior to the organ retrieval means that there is a limited time frame during which the liver can then be retrieved .

Deborah Verran's insight:
This is an important development in India
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PGIMER becomes first govt hospital in India to perform a lung transplant

PGIMER becomes first govt hospital in India to perform a lung transplant | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

In news out of India comes the report of the first lung transplant procedure to have been performed in a government funded hospital. A team of over 20 surgeons and paramedics spent over 12 hours in the operating room. The donor lungs were retrieved from a young adult following the declaration of brain death.

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New strategy to lift organ donation rate in New Zealand

New strategy to lift organ donation rate in New Zealand | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

A new strategy has just been launched by the government to encourage more people to be organ donors in New Zealand.


The strategy includes placing trained healthcare professionals into intensive care units, raising community awareness about organ donation, making it easier for individuals to register and finally having all of this overseen by a national organization.



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Consultation Process for Opt Out Organ donation in England has just commenced

Consultation Process for Opt Out Organ donation in England has just commenced | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
The 3 month consultation period on whether there should be a move to an opt out system of organ donation has just commenced in England

The government is seeking the opinions of interested individuals and organisations on this matter. The online portal is hosted by the Department of Health.

To see what the consultation process looks like, click on the banner headline or the following link-


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'Head Transplant' Research in China Raises Serious Concerns

'Head Transplant' Research in China Raises Serious Concerns | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

The announcement of the first head transplant performed in China has met with scepticism and raised some major concerns.


But two pressing questions are being overlooked, according to international experts: Where are the bodies for this type of research coming from? And why is this type of research happening only in China, where there have been problems in the past with how organs have been obtained for the purpose of transplantation.


In addition there are now concerns being expressed within China as to whether these type of research procedures should now continue -


http://www.ecns.cn/2017/11-25/282230.shtml


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Skin regeneration with insights

Skin regeneration with insights | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it


A feat in stem-cell therapy highlights what can be achieved when basic and clinical research combine to advance biological understanding and treatment.

This is the lead in to  this background article on the successful use of genetically modified skin which was developed in Italy to help treat a boy with epidermolysis bullosa in Germany.


This breakthrough comes on the back of years of research into the use of skin cells to grow new skin under laboratory conditions.


A press release from the  European Stem Cell consortium focuses on the efforts of all involved,  including at the University of Modena to develop this particular type of skin -


https://www.eurostemcell.org/breakthrough-use-transgenic-stem-cells-treating-epidermolysis-bullosa

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Statement from the Administrative Council of the WFNS and Representative WFNS Honorary Presidents about Head Transplant | WFNS

Statement from the Administrative Council of the WFNS and Representative WFNS Honorary Presidents about Head Transplant | WFNS | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

The World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS), has come out with an official position statement on head transplantation.


Basically the WFNS is not supportive of this procedure based on the current available knowledge pertaining to spinal cord repair and regeneration following major trauma and/or surgery.


The full statement can be accessed by clicking on the banner headline above

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The Human Cell Atlas: from vision to reality

The Human Cell Atlas: from vision to reality | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

As an ambitious collaborative research project to map all of the cells in the human body gets officially under way, Aviv Regev, Sarah Teichmann and colleagues outline some key challenges.


In this online article published in Nature News the authors outline the reasons why this research is being undertaken, where the project has got to and what will be the future challenges. 

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Illegal kidney transplant hospital owned by KP health dept officials: Police in Pakistan

Illegal kidney transplant hospital owned by KP health dept officials: Police in Pakistan | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

 News out of Pakistan that doctors were caught red handed by police from the Federal Investigative Agency undertaking what may be an illegal kidney transplant in a small 'private hospital in the Nowshera district of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province in Pakistan' 


The private hospital is owned by Drug Inspector Mardan Mohammad Tayyab and Dr Saifullah Afridi who are health officials in the province


Some additional video footage of the doctors being caught red handed during surgery has ended up online-


https://youtu.be/OF6lKh_JAaA


In recent years there have also been ongoing concerns about organ trafficking in the Punjab region of Pakistan as outlined in the following online article-

https://scroll.in/article/850288/selling-kidneys-for-money-in-pakistans-punjab-the-organ-trade-business-is-cashing-in-on-debt


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3D bioprint me: a socioethical view of bioprinting human organs and tissues

3D bioprint me: a socioethical view of bioprinting human organs and tissues | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

In this article, the authors review the extant social science and ethical literature on three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting, also now known as biofabrication. 


3D bioprinting has the potential to be a ‘game-changer’, because the printing human organs on demand, may no longer necessitate the need for living or deceased human donation or perhaps even xenotransplantation. Although the technology is not yet at the level required to bioprint an entire organ, 3D bioprinting may have a variety of other mid-term and short-term benefits that also have positive ethical consequences, for example, creating alternatives to animal testing in the laboratory setting, filling a therapeutic need for minors and avoiding species boundary crossing. 


Despite a lack of current socioethical engagement with the consequences of the technology, the authors outline what theyThis see as some of the preliminary practical, ethical and regulatory issues that need tackling. These relate to managing public expectations and the continuing reliance on technoscientific solutions to diseases that affect high-income countries. 


Avoiding prescribing a course of action for the way forward in terms of research agendas, we do briefly outline one possible ethical framework ‘Responsible Research Innovation’ as an oversight model should 3D bioprinting promises are ever realised. 3D bioprinting has a lot to offer in the course of time should it move beyond being a conceptual therapy, but is an area that requires ethical oversight and regulation and debate, in the here and now. The purpose of this article is to begin that discussion.

Deborah Verran's insight:
This is a must read for anyone interested in the governance issues related to 3D bioprinting and/or the biofabrication of human tissues and/or organs. 
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First-ever liver transplant for acute liver failure has been performed in Sri Lanka

First-ever liver transplant for acute liver failure has been performed in Sri Lanka | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

In recent news has come the report of the first-ever liver transplant being performed for acute liver failure in Sri Lanka at the Columbo North Hospital. A team of specialists (pictured above), were responsible for the procedure with the donor liver being sourced from a deceased donor in another hospital. 


The family of the young 25 year old woman who was saved from what was most likely going to be a fatal outcome,  are delighted with the end result. For more on this report click on the banner headline

Deborah Verran's insight:
This is an important development for Sri Lanka
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CRISPR slices virus genes out of pigs, but will it make organ transplants to humans safer?

CRISPR slices virus genes out of pigs, but will it make organ transplants to humans safer? | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Scientists have been able to create piglets which no loner contain the genes for potentially harmful retroviruses within their genome. This was aided by the use of CRISPR technology (gene editing). However as mentioned in the article producing these piglets was not easy and in the end cloning was also required.


This combination of gene editing being used initially at the cellular level along with the subsequent cloning of pig embryo's is also mentioned in this report of the research via the New York Times-

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/10/health/gene-editing-pigs-organ-transplants.html


Although erasing potentially dangerous viruses brings the field of xenotransplantation a step closer to making up for the current organ shortage with pig's organs there are still some concerns.

Deborah Verran's insight:
Important question the answer to which is not clear at this stage
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Could 3D printing solve the organ transplant shortage?

Could 3D printing solve the organ transplant shortage? | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Scientists are racing to make replacement human organs with 3D printers. But whilst the technology’s possibilities are exciting, already there are fears that they could be ‘playing God’


The headline of this article belies the reality of where this particular technology is now at in 2017. Although the limitations of the current technology are explored in the article the focus then switches to the possible ethical issues should this technology deliver the hoped for results.


However one of the more interesting facts which is not well known is that cosmetics giant L'Oreal has heavily invested in the bioprinting of skin. This is in order to have a more reliable mode for the testing of it's products in the laboratory setting.


Currently the stated time frames for the bioprinting of fully functional human organs are far longer than 5 years at the time of this post in 2017.


The image above is of a 3D printed silicone heart (ie artificial heart) developed in Zurch, which is featured in the following post-


http://sco.lt/6RyRhR

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First heart transplant performed in Sri Lanka

First heart transplant performed in Sri Lanka | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
In news from Sri Lanka confirmation that the first heart transplant has been performed at the Kandy teaching hospital.

The heart was retrieved from an organ donor who died as the result of a motor vehicle accident post declaration of brain death.
Pictured above us the team of doctors who were involved.

More on the story can be obtained by clicking on the banner headline to this post

The marathon surgery was achieved with the input of specialists from around the country as well as advice from a British cardiac surgeon-
Deborah Verran's insight:
This is an important development within Sri Lanka
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To solve organ shortage, states within the USA could consider 'opt-out' organ donation laws

To solve organ shortage, states within the USA could consider 'opt-out' organ donation laws | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Presumed consent organ donation policies have worked well in many European countries. But efforts to introduce them in the U.S. have so far failed, the reasons for which are mentioned in this article.


A recent attempt to introduce the relevant legislation in to the state of Connecticut was met by a backlash in the form of letters to the editor of local newspapers as well as calls to state politicians. Hence for now this attempt has been abandoned. In addition attempts at introducing legislation into three other states has never gone past the initial preliminary stages.


As mentioned in the article it is thought that the emphasis on the rights of the individual within the United States may partly be behind the reluctance to move towards opt out organ donation.

Deborah Verran's insight:
Barriers exist within the United States when it comes to the possible introduction of an opt out system for organ donation
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