Oomycete Review Papers
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Oomycete Review Papers
Collection of Oomycete Review Papers
Curated by Wenwu Ye
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[2012 Eukaryot Cell.] Dynamics and innovations within oomycete genomes: insights into biology, pathology, and evolution

The eukaryotic microbes known as oomycetes are common inhabitants of terrestrial and aquatic environments, and include saprophytes and pathogens. Lifestyles of the pathogens extend from biotrophy to necrotrophy, obligate to facultative pathogenesis, and narrow to broad host ranges on plants or animals. Sequencing of several pathogens has revealed striking variation in genome size and content, a plastic set of genes related to pathogenesis, and adaptations associated with obligate biotrophy. Features of genome evolution include repeat-driven expansions, deletions, gene fusions, and horizontal gene transfer, in a landscape organized into gene-dense and gene-sparse sectors and influenced by transposable elements. Gene expression profiles are also highly dynamic throughout oomycete life cycles, with transcriptional polymorphisms as well as differences in protein sequence contributing to variation. The genome projects have set the foundation for functional studies and should spur the sequencing of additional species, including more diverse pathogens and nonpathogens.

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[2012 Nat Rev Microbiol.] Genome evolution in filamentous plant pathogens: why bigger can be better

Many species of fungi and oomycetes are plant pathogens of great economic importance. Over the past 7 years, the genomes of more than 30 of these filamentous plant pathogens have been sequenced, revealing remarkable diversity in genome size and architecture. Whereas the genomes of many parasites and bacterial symbionts have been reduced over time, the genomes of several lineages of filamentous plant pathogens have been shaped by repeat-driven expansions. In these lineages, the genes encoding proteins involved in host interactions are frequently polymorphic and reside within repeat-rich regions of the genome. Here, we review the properties of these adaptable genome regions and the mechanisms underlying their plasticity, and we illustrate cases in which genome plasticity has contributed to the emergence of new virulence traits. We also discuss how genome expansions may have had an impact on the co-evolutionary conflict between these filamentous plant pathogens and their hosts.

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[2007 FEMS Microbiol Lett.] Oomycete genomics: new insights and future directions

The oomycetes form a distinct phylogenetic lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms that are relatively closely related to photosynthetic algae such as brown algae and diatoms. Plant pathogenic species, notably those of the genus Phytophthora, are the best-studied oomycetes. The genomes of four Phytophthora and one downy mildew species were recently sequenced resulting in novel insights on the evolution and pathogenesis of oomycetes. This review highlights key findings that emerged from these studies and discusses the future challenges for oomycete research.

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[2012 Annu Rev Phytopathol.] Mechanisms and evolution of virulence in oomycetes

Many destructive diseases of plants and animals are caused by oomycetes, a group of eukaryotic pathogens important to agricultural, ornamental, and natural ecosystems. Understanding the mechanisms underlying oomycete virulence and the genomic processes by which those mechanisms rapidly evolve is essential to developing effective long-term control measures for oomycete diseases. Several common mechanisms underlying oomycete virulence, including protein toxins and cell-entering effectors, have emerged from comparing oomycetes with different genome characteristics, parasitic lifestyles, and host ranges. Oomycete genomes display a strongly bipartite organization in which conserved housekeeping genes are concentrated in syntenic gene-rich blocks, whereas virulence genes are dispersed into highly dynamic, repeat-rich regions. There is also evidence that key virulence genes have been acquired by horizontal transfer from other eukaryotic and prokaryotic species.

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[2011 Curr Opin Plant Biol.] How do oomyceteeffectorsinterfere with plant life?

[2011 Curr Opin Plant Biol.] How do oomyceteeffectorsinterfere with plant life? | Oomycete Review Papers | Scoop.it

Oomycete genomes have yielded a large number of predicted effector proteins that collectively interferewith plant life in order to create a favourable environment for pathogen infection. Oomycetes secreteeffectors that can be active in the host's extracellular environment, for example inhibiting host defence enzymes, or inside host cells where they can interfere with plant processes, in particular suppression of defence. Two classes of effectors are known to be host-translocated: the RXLRs and Crinklers. Manyeffectors show defence-suppressive activity that is important for pathogen virulence. A striking example is AVR3a of Phytophthora infestans that targets an ubiquitin ligase, the stabilisation of which may prevent host cell death. The quest for other effector targets and mechanisms is in full swing.

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