OHS in Various Environments
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Cabin Crew- Manual Handling Risk Management

Cabin Crew- Manual Handling Risk Management | OHS in Various Environments | Scoop.it
Kellie Bliesner's insight:

Cathay Pacific has successfully reduced their OHS workplace injuries by implementation of an OHS module and half-day training session on manual handling to crew induction training. The airline focused on reinforcing safe work practices and revising galley supplies, equipment and service protocols to reduce crew injuries. It identifies the key contributor to crew injuries was passenger baggage and now limits excess baggage allowed on board. Jane mentions during her induction phase she also recalls completing a manual handling module. Crew are discouraged from lifting passenger bags and can only remove galley carts with 2 people- the carts can weigh up to 100kg. Incorrect manual handling can lead to discomfort, pain and injury resulting in time away from work. Employers should identify all the contributing factors to hazardous manual handling risks and provide relevant controls where needed. This report shows that with effective employee education, the employer can significantly reduce OHS injuries in the workplace.

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Cabin Crew- In-flight Threat Risk Managment

Kellie Bliesner's insight:

The Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) Issue analysis is a great example to see how aviation standards on threats have changed since the horrific 9/11 attacks. It identifies that for a successful outcome the government needs to continue development of a proactive, human-centred and threat driven security system that has the ability to recognise expertise and experience of passengers, airlines and airports involved.

A passenger who behaves in a violent or distressed manner can be a serious threat and hazard to the health and safety of those on-board an aircraft. Jane mentioned during her annual check she partakes in a security training day which provides education on verbal and physical threats, violence, passenger restraint, identification of explosive material and correct procedures to dispose of dangerous goods. Jane is able to recall several in-flight events where training she obtained helped de-escalate aggressive passengers.

Post 9/11 saw the implementation of reinforced flight deck doors. The Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2002 included a requirement to strengthen the flight deck doors on airliners and promoted communication between crew to ensure the most effective response to a security threat aboard was carried out. Immediately following the 9/11 attacks, the access to the flight deck jump seat was eliminated and is now restricted to crew use only. In addition, ALPA introduced a stronger system of pilot screening during early 2007. The Crew Personnel Advanced Screening System (CrewPASS) is still currently used to this day.

 

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Cabin Crew- Fatigue Managment

Cabin Crew- Fatigue Managment | OHS in Various Environments | Scoop.it

The Civil Aviation Safety Authority has addressed Fatigue as a workplace hazard by releasing a Notice of Final Rule-Making (NFRM) to illustrate suggested approaches to managing fatigue risk in the Aviation environment. Effects of fatigue have been illustrated by examples including Air India Flight 812 crash, were the pilot fell into a deep sleep at the controls and overshot the runway resulting in the death 157 passengers and crew. Fatigue was also identified to be the cause of a DC-8 cargo plane crash in Guantanamo Bay, Cube. It was believed the captain had been awake for 23.5 hours, the first officer for 19 hours and the flight engineer for 21 hours.

Kellie Bliesner's insight:

The FRMS has been targeted at crew members and the high-workload environment during take-off, in-flight and landing. Fatigue risks such as delayed reactions in firefighting, emergency response and evacuation, poor communication, incorrect procedures in operation of doors and equipment, impaired concentration on safety critical tasks and the reduced ability to manage disruptive passengers. The aim of the FRMS is to provide data-driven means of continuously monitoring and managing fatigue-related safety risks, based upon scientific principles and knowledge as well as operational experience that aims to ensure relevant personnel are performing at adequate levels of alertness.

 

Fatigue is a physiological problem that cannot be overcome by motivation, training or willpower. The only effective treatment for fatigue is adequate sleep. By managing safety policy and objectives, safety assurance, safety risk management and safety promotion, the risk of cabin crew fatigue can be reduced and therefore crew have the ability to safely operate an aircraft or perform safety-related duties.

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Rob Keegan's curator insight, July 16, 2014 8:54 AM

As a shift worker in the aviation industry, fatgue management is a very real issue. This report and recommendations from CASA provides some very alarming examples of poor fatigue management with catastrophic consequences.

Not only in aviation but in our day to day lives fatgue is a silent killer, that must be managed to prevent disastous outcomes.

Micah Schulte's curator insight, March 27, 2015 9:20 AM

Managing fatigue is a major issue in aviation, considering the varying waking hours, time zones, sleeping in hotels and other factors which stress a flight crew. Fatigue can slow reaction time and impair concentration, reasoning and decision making posing a serious risk to safety. In the next five years I would like to see extensive research into fatigue management to increase flight crew performance.

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OHS in Handball

OHS in Handball | OHS in Various Environments | Scoop.it

European handball consists of two teams of seven players that pass a ball and shoot for goals against the opposition. The sport requires speed and agility with moderate contact.  A standard match consists of two periods of 30 minutes, and the team that scores more goals wins. Caleb has represented Queensland and Australia at many Handball Championships over the past 10 years.

Kellie Bliesner's insight:

Injuries

The most common acute injuries in handball include muscle fatigue, ligament strains and bruises. Long term injuries include shoulder, knee and ankle deterioration due to the high impact of the sport. Caleb reduces risk of long term injuries by ensuring he maintains a standard of personal fitness. To minimise the risk of acute injury Caleb trains up to 4 times per week to practice proper techniques. Most handball players will wear ankle and knee support to reduce over-straining of muscle and ligaments. On international championship tours, the Australian team with travel with up to two physiotherapist provide immediate sports therapy intervention.

 

Dehydration

Caleb's experience in team sport allows him to identify early the signs of fatigue and dehydration. Dehydration is a huge risk associated with handball. Playing halls are usually air conditioned to keep the atmosphere cool, however by replacing fluid lost in sweat by drinking water player reduce risk of dehydration. During games players are encouraged to substitute off with bench players, ensuring they rehydrate and re-energise thus preventing fatigue.

 

Sports Psychology

Player psychology is critical for enjoyment in sport. Often there are losses in team sports and it’s important to debrief within the team to resolve any on-court issues. Caleb stated ‘to ensure all players maintain a friendly attitude towards the team, we encourage social outings such as bowling, dinner and poker nights’. The Australian Handball team has access to a sports psychologist to maintain a healthy playing attitude.

 

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OHS in Aviation

OHS in Aviation | OHS in Various Environments | Scoop.it

The aviation industry allows people to connect with loved ones all around the world. Jane is a domestic cabin crew member for an Australian airline and passionately enjoys her role in the sky. The role of a flight attendant is to ensure the safety of passengers during their flight. Crew will receive flight information from the pilots prior to their shift including passenger loads, weather, hazards and serviceability of the aircraft. Once on board crew conduct extensive security checks of the cabin, pre-flight checks on equipment and report any unusual findings prior to passenger boarding. During boarding Jane ensure passengers are seated to assigned zones and that luggage is stowed correctly. Safety demonstrations are then followed by securing the cabin for take-off. Once in-flight the crew provide passengers with in-flight entertainment, food and refreshments for purchase. Jane is trained to deal with in-flight emergencies and first aid. All crew commence 4 weeks of ground school training which covers rejected take-offs, emergency landings, in-flight medical situations, cabin fires, depressurisation, dangerous goods and spills in the cabin, emergency evacuations, hijackings, and land or water survival skills.

Kellie Bliesner's insight:

Cabin crew face many health and safety risks such as fatigue, manual handling injuries, turbulence, terrorism, dehydration and other aeromedical health related injuries.

 

Fatigue

Domestic crew generally have harsher working conditions than international due to the volume of tasks involved in multiple sectors per day. Domestic crew can work up to 15 hours a day with minimum 10 hours rest. Studies show that at 12 hours the average individual has the same cognitive function as an intoxicated person with a blood alcohol reading of 0.12. The harsh shift working hours can cause fatigue resulting in impaired concentration which can lead to errors.

 

Manual Handling 

During service crew move up and down the cabin with service carts weighing up to 100kg. Many injuries seen in crew are result of the push/pulling action of a cart on inclines up 30 degrees. Most airlines now implement that crew are not to assist passengers with their bags due to OHS. Strict carry-on weight limits ensure passengers have to ability to carry own bags without assistance.  

 

Turbulence

In-flight turbulence is not uncommon due to increased jet streams from greater volumes of air traffic. Jane recalls a time where the pre-flight briefing had no turbulence forecasted, however during the in-flight service the crew and passengers struck clear air turbulence and had to be seated immediately in the center of the cabin while stabilising the service cart.  Due to plane design and testing even extreme turbulence rarely damages the plane, however it can be spontaneous and cause major injuries to those who aren’t restrained.

 

Terrorism

Despite recent events, statistically hijackings are extremely rare, however they are still possible. Since September 11 attacks, protocols have changed for in –flight security seeing restricted entry into the flight deck, limited volumes of liquids permitted and security training provided to crew. Annually cabin crew receive security training involving defence against offender and weapons, restraining disorderly passengers and flight deck protection.

 

Physical Health

Flying at 30,000ft is physically demanding on the body. Crew risk exposure to cosmic radiation and as a result cannot donate their organs after 2 years of service. Unusual eating patterns and sleeping habits pose great risk to weight, immunity, general health, and personal life. Changes in altitude can affect the middle ear and crew may spend up to 4 weeks off recovering if damaged. Decompression injuries can occur when an unplanned drop in pressure of the cabin. These injuries can reduce oxygen levels which may cause incapacitation, barotrauma and nitrogen build up in joints causing extreme pain. The effective performance time is 1-2 minutes at 30,000ft, decreasing to 0.5-1 minute at 35,000ft and 15-20 seconds at 40,000ft.

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Cabin Crew- Personal Health Management

Cabin Crew- Personal Health Management | OHS in Various Environments | Scoop.it
INDIA’S cabin crew has attacked new guidelines from the civil aviation watchdog on how much they should weigh, branding them “crazy” and discriminatory.
Kellie Bliesner's insight:

For cabin crew, maintaining a standard of individual fitness is critical to preventing injury or exacerbation of medical conditions. It is well known that working as cabin crew at altitude predisposes you to hazards affecting your health such as cosmic radiation, physiological and psychological stress, hypoxia, pressure changes and hazardous airborne particles. This article reflects the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) new guidelines stating Air India cabin crew member whose body mass index (BMI) fell outside the health weight range could be declared unfit and suspended from flying. This new guideline has been based on theory that only fit and healthy cabin crew able to properly discharge duties especially during in-flight emergencies. Jane falls within the healthy BMI range however stated there are many cabin crew who are overweight and would fail to meet the required BMI. I personally believe there should be a health related fitness assessment for cabin crew to deem that crew have the ability to perform standard and emergency duties. Crew health however is much broader than weight. Being fit can have significant beneficial effects on an individual’s mental health. Factors that are known to positively influence fitness are exercise, healthy diet and good sleep management. Section 13 of the Civil Aviation Act 1990 outlines the principal duties of a pilot in command and states the pilot is responsible for ensuring that a flight is not commenced if any flight crew member is incapacitated and unable to perform their duties from causes such as injury, sickness, fatigue or the effects of alcohol or drugs. Crew are responsible for maintaining their own physical health and should not fly if their capacity to perform their duties is reduced by fatigue, sickness or lack of oxygen.

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Cabin Crew- Turbulance Risk Managment

Kellie Bliesner's insight:

The Aviation Transport Safety Bureau has released the information safety bulletin on turbulence with aim to educate the community on the risk of in-flight turbulence. Turbulence is result of atmospheric and environmental effects and can occur unexpectedly at any altitude. Preventing injuries during turbulence requires teamwork and personal responsibility from each individual cabin crew member. Common injuries seen as a result of turbulence include; falls, burns, fractures, bruising, vomiting and anxiety or stress. Jane stated if there is turbulence expected en-route the captain will inform crew during the pre-flight briefing. She noted that it is merely the responsibly of the crew to communicate effectively and inform passengers with sufficient warning that they must remain with their seatbelt fastened.
Technology continues to advance and there are many new innovative ways of detecting turbulence before it strikes. Technologies such as the Turbulence Prediction and Warning System (TPAWS) use airborne sensors to measure changes in the atmosphere that might indicate turbulence up ahead. This information is then displayed to the pilots up to a minute before the aircraft reaches the turbulence, allowing time to climb or descend into calmer air. The bulletin emphasises that ‘two-way communication between the flight deck and
Cabin is vital to ensure the safety of passengers and crew members. Turbulence severity can vary throughout the aircraft and this may not be apparent to the flight crew, who should be updated by cabin crew members’.

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OHS in Nursing

OHS in Nursing | OHS in Various Environments | Scoop.it

My sister Angela is a registered nurse in a public hospital. She specialises in recovery, an area with high infection control protocols. Angela mentions OHS is critical to ensure protection of both the staff and the patients and it enables the environment to function smoothly and safely.

Kellie Bliesner's insight:

OHS standards are implemented to ensure nurses have a safe working environment. This includes methods of storing, transporting and utilising medical supplies, correct use of personal protective equipment (PPE), fatigue management and manual handling techniques.

 

Education and Information

Provision of appropriate educational resources, training and instruction at all levels allows nurse to remain current in procedures and policies. Angela is regularly involved in department meetings which ensure communication regarding signage, meeting, registers etc. is received by all. If injured at work all Queensland health personnel are required to submit an injury report. Reporting is often responsible for change to current OHS standards.

 

Manual Handling

Manual handling is minimised with use of mobility aids where possible. Nurses risk overstraining injuries from rolling patients, shower patients and help patients in and out of bed on a daily basis. If this is not done using the correct technique they can potentially end up with injured backs.

 

Infection Control

Nurses are supplied with PPE and information on when use is required to avoid cross contamination. This minimises exposure of harmful pathogens to both staff and patient.

 

Fatigue

Fatigue is a hazard as nurses work split shifts, including night work and over time. Fatigue poses a risk not only to the nurses but to their patients also.

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Charmaine Miller's curator insight, July 20, 2015 7:19 AM

Fatigue, infection control, manual handling of specimens in conjunction with up to date information and education  provides the safest work environment for staff, patients and the surrounding environment. 

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OHS in Skydiving

OHS in Skydiving | OHS in Various Environments | Scoop.it

Tandem skydiving is an extreme sport guaranteed to get your heart racing. Nikki is an avid skydiver who has covered the skies of Ballina, Cairns, Hawaii, Italy, Czech Republic and New Zealand. Tandem skydiving involves jumping from an aircraft and free falling at 200kph for up to one minute followed by a peaceful panoramic parachute ride back to the earth. Tandem masters are extremely experienced free fall parachutists with thousands of jumps to their credit, and hold tandem Instructor ratings. Equipment is modern, packed under strict supervision and requires mandatory safety checks.

Kellie Bliesner's insight:

As an extreme sport, the most obvious major risk involved is death. But when reviewed to other sports such as skiing and kayaking death is extremely rare. The Australia Parachute Federation (APF) have implemented many safety precautions to reduce risk of error such as reserve canopies, weight limits, physical health requirements and pre-jump information requirements.

 

Equipment Safety

By Civil Aviation Safety Authority Law all intentional parachute jumps must be made with a single harness, dual parachute system with both a main canopy AND a reserve canopy. In other words, you have a second (or spare) canopy in case the first one fails to open properly. Reserve canopies are even more carefully designed and packed that the main canopies. The reserve parachute must be inspected and repacked every 6 months by an APF licensed parachute Packer or Rigger - even if it has not been used during that time. In addition reserve chutes are fitted to automatically deploy at 1000ft should the main canopy fail to open as result of incapacitation.

 

Effects on Body

During freefall the body undergoes extreme changes as result of pressure changes. Nikki stated that she once developed costochondritis (cartilage inflammation of the sternum) as a result of repeated parachute deployment force. It’s important the individual ensures they are medically fit prior to jumping to reduce exacerbation of pre-existing medical conditions.

Generally landings are smooth and not forceful however with unforseen weather and inexperience, landing injuries include sprained ankles and/or knees. Pre-jump information include correct landing positions to reduce risk of injury.

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OHS in Paramedicine

OHS in Paramedicine | OHS in Various Environments | Scoop.it

Paramedics provide advance medical interventions in a pre-hospital environment. The role of a paramedic can be demanding at times, especially for full time parents. On a daily basis, Krystal is able to balance her professional career and her beautiful 8 month old son by working part-time in the ambulance service. Emergency medicine can be emotionally and physically demanding on the individual however risk of injury can be prevented by identifying and implementing OHS strategies.

Kellie Bliesner's insight:

Paramedics are faced with many OHS issues in the pre-hospital environment. Some issues identified by Krystal include emotional stress, exposure to diseases, manual handling injuries, physical injuries, fatigue and environmental exposure.

 

Psychological Effects

The Queensland Ambulance Service (QAS) have implemented a counselling service called ‘Priority One’ to all employees and their families. Due to the harsh and confronting scenes witnessed by paramedics, psychological and emotional stress left unaddressed can negatively affect the individual’s mental health.

 

Infection Control

Infection control is vital in a pre-hospital environment. Krystal has been supplied with a variety of personal protective equipment (PPE) to reduce exposure to pathogens. Due to the confined space and invasive procedures carried out by paramedics, its critical employees recognise the risk and don appropriate PPE when necessary.

 

Manual Handling

The leading cause of work-related illness in QAS is manual handling injuries. Due to use of equipment in a variety of environmental conditions its vital paramedics ensure they practice safe manual handling technique. Did you know, the combined weight of equipment carried by paramedics totals a heavy 33kg? Krystal stated ‘I reduce the risk of manual handling injuries by implementing correct lifting techniques’.

 

Fatigue

Due to the strenuous hours involved in shift work, QAS manages officer fatigue by using a fatigue score. The score is calculated by reviewing hours of sleep, hours awake and the hours between their previous shift. By managing fatigue, risk of error is reduced and paramedics are able to maintain a healthy lifestyle outside of work.

 

Environmental Exposure

The pre-hospital environment has a variety of environmental working conditions. Hazards involved include road conditions, weather, access to patient, lighting, fire, smoke or gas. Correct use of PPE can reduce risk of injury in a working environment such as; wearing high visibility vest to make officer more identifiable when working roadside or donning mask to protect exposure to airborne chemicals.

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