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As China enters a new era with fresh leadership, experts examine five major challenges, ambitions and threats facing the world's most populous country.

The next will be in five years time when the presumptive new president -- Xi Jinping -- delivers his thoughts on the challenges, ambitions and threats facing the world's most populous country.

Read our live blog for the latest on China's new leaders

His predecessor Hu Jintao fired a flare on the first day of the Congress about the threat of corruption and its power to potentially bring down China's Communist regime.

"If we fail to handle this issue well, it could prove fatal to the party, and even cause the collapse of the party and the fall of the state," he told delegates.

China's next leaders: Who's who

CNN asked five experts to explain what they see to be China's most pressing challenge. It's by no means a complete list, presented in no particular order.

Factional splits in China's fantasy 'all stars' lineup China's not expected to announce the top nine -- or seven -- members of the Politburo Standing Committee until Thursday but analysts have drawn clear splits between leading contenders. 

1. Xi Jinping 
2 Li Keqiang
3. Wang Qishan 
4. Li Yuanchao 
5. Liu Yunshan
6. Wang Yang 
7. Zhang Dejiang 
8. Yu Zhengsheng 
9. Liu Yandong 


1. Factional divisions

Plenty of analysis has accompanied this year's Congress as to the fine -- and not so fine -- lines that split the ideologies and loyalties of the members of the Politburo Standing Committee.

But will any fracture lines be enough to tilt the Party towards reform? China commentator Willy Lam weighs in, noting that "even before the birth of the People's Republic in 1949, factions within the party had fought over the future direction of the country."

The "struggle between two lines" during Mao's rule has morphed into divisions according to family ties to revolutionary leaders and guidance from powerful mentors.

"Since the early 1990s, three major factions have emerged within the party: the Shanghai faction led by ex-president Jiang Zemin, the Communist Youth League (CYL) faction led by President Hu Jintao, and the "Gang of Princelings" -- a reference to the offspring of party elders -- led by president-in-waiting Xi Jinping.