During the concluding day of the seminar a ‘Grand Panel” was organised with three leading experts in the field of decentralisation: François Vaillancourt (CIRANO and Université de Montréal), Prof. Leonardo Romeo (New York University) and Jean Pierre Elong Mbassi (Secretary General of the United Cities and Local Governments of Africa, UCLGA). The panel sought to address three major questions: Why should donor agencies care more about decentralisation? How can decentralisation be “instrumental” to development? How can donor agencies like the EU provide smart support to decentralisation? This note summarises the main outcomes of the intense and thought-provoking debate , which carried important strategic and operational messages for EU development practitioners across the board.