Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence
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Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works. It includes research on intelligence and behavior, especially focusing on how information is represented, processed, and transformed (in faculties such as perception, language, memory, reasoning, and emotion) within nervous systems (human or other animal) and machines (e.g. computers). Cognitive science consists of multiple research disciplines, including psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology. The fundamental concept of cognitive science is "that thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures." Wikipedia (en)
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Group size effect on cooperation in social dilemmas

Social dilemmas are central to human society. Depletion of natural resources, climate protection, security of energy supply, and workplace collaborations are all issues that give rise to social dilemmas. Since cooperative behaviour in a social dilemma is individually costly, Nash equilibrium predicts that humans should not cooperate. Yet experimental studies show that people do cooperate even in anonymous one shot situations. However, in spite of the large number of participants in many modern social dilemmas, little is known about the effect of group size on cooperation. Does larger group size favour or prevent cooperation? We address this problem both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, we have found that there is no general answer: it depends on the strategic situation. Specifically, we have conducted two experiments, one on a one shot Public Goods Game and one on a one shot N person Prisoner Dilemma. We have found that larger group size favours the emergence of cooperation in the Public Goods game, but prevents it in the Prisoner dilemma. On the theoretical side, we have shown that this behaviour is not consistent with either the Fehr and Schmidt model or (a one parameter version of) the Charness and Rabin model. Looking for models explaining our findings, we have extended the cooperative equilibrium model from two player social dilemmas to some N person social dilemmas and we have shown that it indeed predicts the above mentioned regularities. Since the cooperative equilibrium is parameter free, we have also made a direct comparison between its predictions and experimental data. We have found that the predictions are neither strikingly close nor dramatically far from the experimental data.

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On Privilege and Luck, or Why Success Breeds Success – Phenomena: Not Exactly Rocket Science

On Privilege and Luck, or Why Success Breeds Success – Phenomena: Not Exactly Rocket Science | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Ask successful people about the secrets of their success, and you’ll probably answers like passion, hard work, skill, focus, and having great ideas. Very few people, if any, would reply with “privi...
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10 Most Brilliant Social Psychology Experiments

10 Most Brilliant Social Psychology Experiments | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Ten of the most influential social psychology experiments.

Via Philippe Vallat
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Philippe Vallat's curator insight, April 6, 2014 2:35 PM

How easily our "rational thinking" gets fooled...

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Grit and the Secret of Success

Grit and the Secret of Success | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
How to cultivate the character quality that predicts excellence more than any other.

“Inspiration is for amateurs -- the rest of us jus
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Flow Machines Workshop 2014: Creativity and Universality in Language and Music | Flow Machines

Flow Machines Workshop 2014: Creativity and Universality in Language and Music | Flow Machines | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Within the Flow Machines project we organize a workshop about "creativity and universal features in language and music".

This workshop will gather prominent specialists in mathematical physics, linguistics and computer science. During 2.5, days we will seek for possible convergence between different viewpoints on these fascinating issues. 

WHEN: 18-20 June 2014

WHERE: Central Tower, Last Floor, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu 75252 - Paris

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Motility at the Origin of Life: Its Characterization and a Model

Motility at the Origin of Life: Its Characterization and a Model | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Due to recent advances in synthetic biology and artificial life, the origin of life is currently a hot topic of research. We review the literature and argue that the two traditionally competing replicator-first and metabolism-first approaches are merging into one integrated theory of individuation and evolution. We contribute to the maturation of this more inclusive approach by highlighting some problematic assumptions that still lead to an ximpoverished conception of the phenomenon of life. In particular, we argue that the new consensus has so far failed to consider the relevance of intermediate time scales. We propose that an adequate theory of life must account for the fact that all living beings are situated in at least four distinct time scales, which are typically associated with metabolism, motility, development, and evolution. In this view, self-movement, adaptive behavior, and morphological changes could have already been present at the origin of life. In order to illustrate this possibility, we analyze a minimal model of lifelike phenomena, namely, of precarious, individuated, dissipative structures that can be found in simple reaction-diffusion systems. Based on our analysis, we suggest that processes on intermediate time scales could have already been operative in prebiotic systems. They may have facilitated and constrained changes occurring in the faster- and slower-paced time scales of chemical self-individuation and evolution by natural selection, respectively.

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Study: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals living in bigoted communities die early

Study: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals living in bigoted communities die early | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

In the first study to look at the consequences of anti-gay prejudice for mortality, researchers at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health found that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals who lived in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice have a shorter life expectancy of 12 years on average compared with their peers in the least prejudiced communities.

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New Study: Internet trolls are often Machiavellian sadists

New Study: Internet trolls are often Machiavellian sadists | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
A new study finds a relationship between online trolling behavior and anti-social personality traits.
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Rescooped by Bernard Ryefield from I am intersted in creative problem solving using semantic networks
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35 Psychological Tricks To Help You Learn Better - Innovation Excellence (blog)

35 Psychological Tricks To Help You Learn Better - Innovation Excellence (blog) | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
35 Psychological Tricks To Help You Learn Better
Innovation Excellence (blog)
... with specific physical locations. Examples include the various rooms of a house and paths through the forest.

Via Zigmas Bigelis
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Zigmas Bigelis's curator insight, February 13, 2014 6:01 AM

Very useful tips how to learn better

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The Miracle and Mystery of Sleep: 12 Remarkable Psychological Studies — PsyBlog

The Miracle and Mystery of Sleep: 12 Remarkable Psychological Studies — PsyBlog | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
“Sleeping is no mean art: for its sake one must stay awake all day.” ~Friedrich Nietzsche
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How Thinking Works: 10 Brilliant Cognitive Psychology Studies Everyone Should Know

How Thinking Works: 10 Brilliant Cognitive Psychology Studies Everyone Should Know | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
How experts think, the power of framing, the miracle of attention, the weird world of cognitive biases and more…

Via Philippe Vallat
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Rescooped by Bernard Ryefield from Networks and Graphs
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Multi-scale community organization of the human structural connectome and its relationship with resting-state functional connectivity

The human connectome has been widely studied over the past decade. A principal finding is that it can be decomposed into communities of densely interconnected brain regions. Past studies have often used single-scale modularity measures in order to infer the connectome's community structure, possibly overlooking interesting structure at other organizational scales. In this report, we used the partition stability framework, which defines communities in terms of a Markov process (random walk), to infer the connectome's multi-scale community structure. Comparing the community structure to observed resting-state functional connectivity revealed communities across a broad range of scales that were closely related to functional connectivity. This result suggests a mapping between communities in structural networks, models of influence-spreading and diffusion, and brain function. It further suggests that the spread of influence among brain regions may not be limited to a single characteristic scale.

 

Multi-scale community organization of the human structural connectome and its relationship with resting-state functional connectivity
RICHARD F. BETZEL, ALESSANDRA GRIFFA, ANDREA AVENA-KOENIGSBERGER, JOAQUÍN GOÑI, JEAN-PHILIPPE THIRAN, PATRIC HAGMANN, OLAF SPORNS
Network Science , Volume 1 , Issue 03 , December 2013, pp 353 - 373
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/nws.2013.19


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▶ Noam Chomsky On Artificial Intelligence , Cognitive Science , and Neuroscience - YouTube

Brains, Minds and Machines Symposium, May, 2011, at MIT. Keynote Panel: The Golden Age A Look at the Original Roots of Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Sci...
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Resource Redistribution Method for Short-Term Recovery of Society after Large Scale Disasters

Recovery of society after a large scale disaster generally consists of two phases, short- and long-term recoveries. The main goal of the short-term recovery is to bounce the damaged system back to the operating standards enabling residents in damaged cities to survive, and fast supply with vital resources to them is one of its important elements. We propose a general principle by which the required redistribution of vital resources between the affected and neighbouring cities can be efficiently implemented. The short-term recovery is a rescuer operation where uncertainty in evaluating the state of damaged region is highly probable. To allow for such an operation the developed principle involves two basic components. The first one of ethic nature is the triage concept determining the current city priority in the resource delivery. The second one is the minimization of the delivery time subjected to this priority. Finally a certain plan of the resource redistribution is generated according to this principle. Several specific examples are studied numerically. It elucidates, in particular, the effects of system characteristics such as the city limit capacity in resource delivery, the type of initial resource allocation among the cities, the number of cities able to participate in the resource redistribution, and the damage level in the affected cities. As far as the uncertainty in evaluating the state of damaged region is concerned, some specific cases were studied. It assumes the initial communication system has crashed and formation of a new one and the resource redistribution proceed synchronously. The obtained results enable us to consider the resource redistribution plan governed by the proposed method semi-optimal and rather efficient especially under uncertainty.

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A Better Way to Cope With Persistent Bad Memories — PsyBlog

A Better Way to Cope With Persistent Bad Memories — PsyBlog | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
New technique holds promise for those experiencing disturbing emotional flashbacks.
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The Informative Herd: why humans and other animals imitate more when conditions are adverse

Decisions in a group often result in imitation and aggregation, which are enhanced in panic, dangerous, stressful or negative situations. Current explanations of this enhancement are restricted to particular contexts, such as anti-predatory behavior, deflection of responsibility in humans, or cases in which the negative situation is associated with an increase in uncertainty. But this effect is observed across taxa and in very diverse conditions, suggesting that it may arise from a more general cause, such as a fundamental characteristic of social decision-making. Current decision-making theories do not explain it, but we noted that they concentrate on estimating which of the available options is the best one, implicitly neglecting the cases in which several options can be good at the same time. We explore a more general model of decision-making that instead estimates the probability that each option is good, allowing several options to be good simultaneously. This model predicts with great generality the enhanced imitation in negative situations. Fish and human behavioral data showing an increased imitation behavior in negative circumstances are well described by this type of decisions to choose a good option.

 

The Informative Herd: why humans and other animals imitate more when conditions are adverse
Alfonso Pérez-Escudero, Gonzalo G. de Polavieja

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.7478


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António F Fonseca's curator insight, April 4, 2014 5:02 AM

I believe logic emerges from imitation.

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12 Most Mind-Blowing Mental Delusions and Syndromes — PsyBlog

12 Most Mind-Blowing Mental Delusions and Syndromes — PsyBlog | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Alice-in-Wonderland syndrome, thought insertion, clinical lycanthropy, Paris syndrome and more…
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What Is It Like to Be a Brain Simulation?

We frame the question of what kind of subjective experience a brain simulation would have in contrast to a biological brain. We discuss the brain prosthesis thought experiment. We evaluate how the experience of the brain simulation might differ from the biological, according to a number of hypotheses about experience and the properties of simulation. Then, we identify finer questions relating to the original inquiry, and answer them from both a general physicalist, and panexperientialist perspective.

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La France, l'investissement, et le biais de narration

La France, l'investissement, et le biais de narration | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Les trois Christs d'Ypsilanti Un beau matin, à la fin des années 50, trois hommes se rencontrèrent pour la première fois dans l'hôpital national d'Ypsilanti, . Ils commençaient une expérience étran...
Bernard Ryefield's insight:

De l'importance de la psychologie en économie

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Daniel Kahneman changed the way we think about thinking. But what do other thinkers think of him?

Daniel Kahneman changed the way we think about thinking. But what do other thinkers think of him? | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Thinking, Fast and Slow was a global bestseller, and had a profound impact on psychology and economics, as these tributes from other leading figures show
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How Many Basic Emotions Are There? Fewer Than Previously Thought — PsyBlog

How Many Basic Emotions Are There? Fewer Than Previously Thought — PsyBlog | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Analysis of the 42 facial muscles which create emotional expressions suggests there are four basic human emotions.
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Is Neuroscience Incompatible with the Idea of Evil?

Is Neuroscience Incompatible with the Idea of Evil? | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Understanding the neuroscience behind evil doesn't forgive evil acts.
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▶ Paul Zak: Trust, morality - and oxytocin - YouTube

Where does morality come from -- physically, in the brain? In this talk neuroeconomist Paul Zak shows why he believes oxytocin (he calls it "the moral molecule") is responsible for trust, empathy, and other feelings that help build a stable society.

 

 

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The British amateur who debunked the mathematics of happiness

The British amateur who debunked the mathematics of happiness | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Andrew Anthony: The astonishing story of the British man who began a part-time psychology course in his 50s – and ended up taking on America's academic establishment
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Graph analysis of dream reports is especially informative about psychosis

Graph analysis of dream reports is especially informative about psychosis | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Early psychiatry investigated dreams to understand psychopathologies. Contemporary psychiatry, which neglects dreams, has been criticized for lack of objectivity. In search of quantitative insight into the structure of psychotic speech, we investigated speech graph attributes (SGA) in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I, and non-psychotic controls as they reported waking and dream contents. Schizophrenic subjects spoke with reduced connectivity, in tight correlation with negative and cognitive symptoms measured by standard psychometric scales. Bipolar and control subjects were undistinguishable by waking reports, but in dream reports bipolar subjects showed significantly less connectivity. Dream-related SGA outperformed psychometric scores or waking-related data for group sorting. Altogether, the results indicate that online and offline processing, the two most fundamental modes of brain operation, produce nearly opposite effects on recollections: While dreaming exposes differences in the mnemonic records across individuals, waking dampens distinctions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of the differential diagnosis of psychosis based on the analysis of dream graphs, pointing to a fast, low-cost and language-invariant tool for psychiatric diagnosis and the objective search for biomarkers. The Freudian notion that “dreams are the royal road to the unconscious” is clinically useful, after all.

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