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News on the effects of bounded rationality in economics and business, relationships and politics
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This column will change your life: empathy

This column will change your life: empathy | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Oliver Burkeman: 'Empathy – the attempt to feel or think how someone else is feeling – isn't a reliable way of doing good'. 

What the world really needs, according to the Yale psychologist Paul Bloom, is a bit less empathy. Yes, I know how that sounds. So does he: "Like announcing that you hate kittens," as he put it recently in the Boston Review. In a world clearly suffering from what Barack Obama calls the"empathy deficit", it seems that he's being obnoxiously counterintuitive for the sake of it. Research suggests that empathetic people are more altruistic; higher empathy is associated with better relationships. Roman Krznaric, author of the recent book Empathy (he's in favour of it), thinks that "outrospection" – the deliberate effort to seek out other people's experiences – might help solve everything from inequality to climate change. Has Bloom been converted to the ramblings of Ayn Rand? Did he get out of the wrong side of bed? Actually, I think he might have a point.

 
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Pathways to New Community Paradigms: A Map for Direct Democracy and Systems Thinking

Pathways to New Community Paradigms: A Map for Direct Democracy and Systems Thinking | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Discovering tools for community empowerment in local governance and economic development efforts.

This blog is part of an online learning platform which includes the Pathways to New Community Paradigms Wiki and a number of other Internet based resources to explore what is termed here 'new community paradigms' which are a transformational change brought about by members of a community.

It is intended to offer resources and explore ideas with the potential of purposefully directing the momentum needed for communities to create their own new community paradigms.

It seeks to help those interested in becoming active participants in the governance of their local communities rather than merely passive consumers of government service output. This blog seeks to assist individuals wanting to redefine their role in producing a more direct democratic form of governance by participating both in defining the political body and establishing the policies that will have an impact their community so that new paradigms for their community can be chosen rather than imposed.
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Embracing the messy: systems-thinking in public policy

Embracing the messy: systems-thinking in public policy | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

In many fields, from healthcare to social policy, we are experiencing a renaissance when it comes to embracing the ‘messy’. ‘Systems thinking’ – where we learn to look beyond objects to embrace the relationships between them and the messy ‘whole’ they create – has seen significant advances in recent years, particularly in relation to how we can extend these concepts from the natural sciences to explore social problems, such as obesity, crime and tobacco control. Below, a real life story of what systems thinking can bring to public policy provided by Joseph A. Curtatone and Mark Esposito (and first shared on the LSE Impact Blog). For more on systems thinking check out ‘Systems Change‘ and ‘Thinking in Systems’.

For public officials, the law of unintended consequences should need no introduction. It would be hard to find a better example of that law at work than in what happened to Somerville, Massachusetts, after Interstate 93 and the McGrath Highway’s McCarthy Overpass were built through the heart of the Boston suburb decades ago.

The linear, engineering-based logic was simple: Highways free of traffic lights would eliminate traffic congestion for drivers heading in and out of Boston. But the impact on Somerville was complex, and the ensuing ripple effects were dynamic. Neighborhoods were cut off from one another. Numerous rail and trolley stops were eliminated. Economic development stymied. Air pollution led to higher rates of heart disease, asthma and other ailments among people living in the shadows of the highways. Somerville became less walkable and bikeable, contributing to rising childhood obesity rates.

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Business leaders need systemic thinking for sustainability

Business leaders need systemic thinking for sustainability | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

It is crucial for business leaders to change their ways and understand that they are working within a web of interdependent ecological and social systems. 

The economy is in the tank and thousands of people are out of work. At the same time, the planet is dangerously heating up and ecological systems are declining. What are we to make of these troubles? Are they merely the result of poor policies? Or is something more fundamental at play?

The roots of our difficulties are simple, yet for many business and political leaders completely hidden from view. The activities of most firms, and the goals and structure of the economy as a whole, have been shaped by fundamental misjudgments about how the planet functions and what it means to live a good life.

To resolve today's challenges, our leaders must overcome the erroneous perspectives that created the predicament. At the most fundamental level, this requires moving from a "linear" way of thinking – where we focus on quickly fixing the most visibly broken parts of what isn't working – to a "systems" perspective that brings thought and behaviour into line with the natural laws of sustainability. Despite years of talk about systemic thinking, few companies or governments actually practice it. This is due, in part, to the lack of a simple framework to guide the implementation of a systems perspective.

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How To Enhance Learning: Even of Things You Are Not Interested In — PsyBlog

How To Enhance Learning: Even of Things You Are Not Interested In — PsyBlog | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

The mental state which enhances learning, even of things we’re not that interested in. When we are more curious about a topic, naturally it is easier to learn. Now, a new neuroscience study reveals exactly what happens in our brain when we feel that tingle of curiosity and how it can boost our learning (Gruber et al., 2014). The surprising finding is that once people’s curiosity is piqued, they learn better, even when they are learning things which they were not originally curious about.

Just being in a curious state — about anything — is enough to enhance learning.

 

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Adaptation of the generalized Carnot cycle to describe thermodynamics of cerebral cortex

Adaptation of the generalized Carnot cycle to describe thermodynamics of cerebral cortex | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Abstract—The brain is a thermodynamic system operating

far from equilibrium. Its function is to extract microscopic

sensory information from the volleys of action potentials

(pulses) that are delivered by immense arrays of sensory

receptors, construct the macroscopic meaning of the

information, and store, retrieve, and update that meaning

by incorporating it into its knowledge base. The function is

executed repetitively in the action-perception-assimilation

cycle. Each cycle commences by a phase transition, in

which the immense population comprising each sensory

cortex condenses from a gas-like state to a liquid-like state.

It ends with return of the cortex to the expectant gas-like

state. We have modeled the microscopic thermodynamics

of the cycle using quantum field theory. Our new result is

modeling cortical macroscopic thermodynamics with the

generalized Carnot cycle, in which the energy required for

the construction of knowledge is supplied by brain

metabolism and is dissipated as heat by the cerebral

circulation. What makes the application possible is the

unprecedented precision with which spatial patterns of

ECoG are measured, thus providing precise state variables

with which to represent energy vs. entropy. We present

experimental evidence that these isothermal processes are

coupled by adiabatic cooling and heating. We postulate

that the action-perception-assimilation cycle comprises

minimally three consecutive Carnot cycles required for

basic perception, assimilation, and decision, and more

cycles with greater complexity of cognitive tasks at hand.

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MINDSPACE Influencing behaviour through public policy

In 2009, Sir Gus O‟Donnell, Cabinet Secretary and Head of the Home Civil Service, asked Matt Tee, Permanent Secretary for Government Communication, to review the implications of behavioural theory for policy-making. The Cabinet Office commissioned the Institute for Government to produce this report, exploring the application of behavioural theory to public policy for senior public sector leaders
and policy-makers. It is a key part of a programme of work designed to build capacity and capability in this area across the Civil Service.
We have approached the topic collaboratively. The programme began with a behaviour change summit in May 2009, which brought together senior policy, strategy and insight officials from across government, alongside a number of external experts.

Influencing people‟s behaviour is nothing new to Government, which has often used tools such as legislation, regulation or taxation to achieve desired policy outcomes. But many of the biggest policy challenges we are now facing – such as the increase in people with chronic health conditions – will only be resolved if we are successful in persuading people to change their behaviour, their lifestyles or their existing habits. Fortunately, over the last decade, our understanding of influences on behaviour has increased significantly and this points the way to new approaches and new solutions.  So whilst behavioural theory has already been deployed to good effect in some areas, it has much greater potential to help us. To realise that potential, we have to build our capacity and ensure that we have a sophisticated understanding of what does influence behaviour. This report is an important step in that direction because it shows how behavioural theory could help achieve better outcomes for citizens, either by complementing more established policy tools, or by suggesting more innovative interventions. In doing so, it draws on the most recent academic evidence, as well as exploring the wide range of existing good work in applying behavioural theory across the public sector. Finally, it shows how these insights could be put to practical use. This report tackles complex issues on which there are wide-ranging public views. We hope it will help stimulate debate amongst policy-makers and stakeholders and help us build our capability to use behaviour theory in an appropriate and effective way

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Cities as complex adaptive systems | Department of Geography

Cities as complex adaptive systems | Department of Geography | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Understanding the role played by cities and city dwellers, as entities in the ecological world system, is crucial if humans are to direct social development onto a sustainable trajectory. More than half of humanity now lives in urban environments and as their numbers escalate, their actions will have ever-increasing significance in determining the future livability of the earth for humans.

Given the current status of the world ecological system, will it continue to have the ability to provide indefinitely the material necessities for human existence on earth? A tractable method for integrating the vast quantity of information required to answer these questions has been emerging too slowly to counteract the status quo of unsustainable practice and too slowly, some contend, to steer clear of the dire consequences forecast as a result of this inability.

Since human practice has a direct affect on how the issues raised by these questions ultimately play out, it is evident that a framework of understanding for integrating and analyzing the role of humans in cities, as ecological actors on a planetary scale, is necessary. But the issues are multiscalar in both temporal and spatial dimensions. Ecological outcomes arise as the result of complex interactions between social systems (economic, political, ethnic, and many others) and natural systems (forests, wetlands, prairies and many others) and defy simple cause and effect explanation. Thus tractability has been an acute problem because causes and effects are distributed unevenly in space and time and any particular effect may have multiple causes (or vice versa) also dislocated in space and/or time.

Mathematical predictions regarding the future course of human systems have been notoriously inaccurate except over the shortest of horizons precisely because, in their generality, they cannot account for every possible contingency. 
This reserach has two, intertwined purposes. One is to make the case that the city can be conceived of as being ‘a part of’ rather than ‘apart from’ nature because doing so allows for a rational analysis of cities in terms of their ecological function as components of the world system. The second purpose is to make this case convincingly while at the same time avoiding the methodological problems created by social unpredictability and mathematical tractability that have bedeviled previous attempts at answering big questions.

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Is the Link from Working Memory to Analogy Causal? No Analogy Improvements following Working Memory Training Gains

Is the Link from Working Memory to Analogy Causal? No Analogy Improvements following Working Memory Training Gains | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Abstract

Analogical reasoning has been hypothesized to critically depend upon working memory through correlational data [1], but less work has tested this relationship through experimental manipulation [2]. An opportunity for examining the connection between working memory and analogical reasoning has emerged from the growing, although somewhat controversial, body of literature suggests complex working memory training can sometimes lead to working memory improvements that transfer to novel working memory tasks. This study investigated whether working memory improvements, if replicated, would increase analogical reasoning ability. We assessed participants’ performance on verbal and visual analogy tasks after a complex working memory training program incorporating verbal and spatial tasks [3], [4]. Participants’ improvements on the working memory training tasks transferred to other short-term and working memory tasks, supporting the possibility of broad effects of working memory training. However, we found no effects on analogical reasoning. We propose several possible explanations for the lack of an impact of working memory improvements on analogical reasoning.


Via Donald J Bolger
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Government-By-Nudge Is a Global Phenomenon | Big Think

Government-By-Nudge Is a Global Phenomenon | Big Think | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Nudges, "choice architecture," social marketing and other non-rational approaches to government are a pretty significant development. After all, these policies replace explicit arguments ("you should get more exercise for these reasons") with hidden persuasion ("in our next building, let's hide the elevator and make the stairs really prominent?"). That's a major change for any democracy. Yet many people are unimpressed, because they think of these policies as a pack of First World Problems. We in the rich world hear of these policies when they're put in place to prompt us to eat less, exercise more, save money for retirement and otherwise act sensibly. How privileged we are to worry about such things, when people in less prosperous countries face beheadings, plane crashes, Ebola or the arrival of jackbooted thugs at 2 a.m. You might think most governments have more pressing things to do than use behavioral research to get citizens to become an organ donor. But if you think that, you are wrong, as this study reveals (pdf). Its authors found non-rational approaches to persuasion are now in use in a large majority of nations—rich, middling and poor.

 
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Dr. Lisa Kramer -Expert in Behavioural Finance and Neuroeconomic

Dr. Lisa Kramer -Expert in Behavioural Finance and Neuroeconomic | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Expert in Behavioural Finance and Neuroeconomics

Stirring up controversy in financial circles for over a decade with her seminal contributions bridging the gap between rational finance and behavioural finance, Dr. Lisa Kramer is no stranger to the dynamic marketplace of ideas. An expert on behavioural finance, investments, capital market seasonality, behavioral economics, neuroeconomics, and personal finance, Dr. Kramer captivates audiences with her real-time demonstrations of human biases. Participants come away with a deeper understanding of recent, state-of-the-art developments in the exciting field of behavioural finance.

Dr. Kramer’s research has been profiled in The Wall Street Journal, US News and World Reports, The Washington Post, The Daily Telegraph, Business Week, Fast Company, The National Post, The Globe and Mail, and on CBC Television and Radio.

She received her PhD in finance from the Sauder School of Business at the University of British Columbia and is an Associate Professor of Finance at the University of Toronto. She has also held the Canadian Securities Institute Research Foundation Term Professorship, and spent a sabbatical as a visiting scholar in the Psychology Department at Stanford University where she conducted ground-breaking research.

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Should You Be Able to Sue the Government That Nudged You? | Big Think

Should You Be Able to Sue the Government That Nudged You? | Big Think | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

"Nudge" policies are spreading across the globe because they supposedly offer a less expensive and more effective way to get people to make the "right" decisions. In the original formulation, such decisions are defined as those that people would like to have made, had they not been hobbled and blinkered at the time by irresistible irrationality.

As practiced by governments, non-profits and companies, though, the ideal is not always respected, and supposedly "nudgey" policies are often justified as benefitting society as a whole. Critics of the nudge approach often ask how the nudge squads can be so sure that they know what people would want if they were in their right mind, or even what is best for any individual, or for society. Experts, after all, often make mistakes. A recent conversation along those lines got me to wondering: If a citizen feels she has been hurt by a decision that she was "nudged" to make, should she be able to sue the nudgers for damages?

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Collective choices under ambiguity

Abstract: We investigate experimentally whether collective choice matters for individual attitudes to ambiguity. We consider a two-urn Ellsberg experiment: one urn offers a 45% chance of winning a fixed monetary prize, the other an ambiguous chance. Participants choose either individually or in groups of three. Group decision rules vary. In one treatment the collective choice is taken by majority; in another it is dictated by two group members; in the third it is dictated by a single group member. We observe high proportions of ambiguity averse choices in both individual and collective decision making. Although a majority of participants display consistent ambiguity attitudes across their decisions, collective choice tends to foster ambiguity aversion, especially if the decision rule assigns asymmetric responsibilities to group members. Previous participation in laboratory experiments may miti- gate this.

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Big Decisions — Judging an Uncertain Future from the Past

Big Decisions — Judging an Uncertain Future from the Past | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

With recent estimates of pension deficits running into the multiple trillions, it now seems obvious that many decision makers in the past have somehow made some big mistakes.

Speaking at the 2014 Annual CFA Institute Conference in Seattle, Ronald J. Ryan, CFA, recalled that as recently as the late 1990s, pension plans — longtime investors in equities — had successfully achieved large surpluses but unfortunately decided not to use them to immunize their liabilities. Instead they chose to continue with high equity allocations and, by a seemingly clever accounting wheeze, adopted a return-on-assets objective to achieve a fully funded plan.

It turned out to be a disastrous decision. According to Ryan, solving the pension crisis now requires drastically better accounting rules, revolutionary asset allocation changes and bold approaches to risk management and indices. Hard to understand how big decisions — judging future uncertainties on past evidence — can go so wrong since it all seems so obvious now.

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Who We Are: Society for Judgment and Decision Making (SJDM) -

Who We Are: Society for Judgment and Decision Making (SJDM) - | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Last week, we looked at where the Society for Judgment and Decision Making members were from in terms of academic areas. This week we look at where they’re from geographically.

To start, we note that most members (1195/1714 or 70%) are from the USA.
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Grieving could offer a pathway out of a destructive economic system

Grieving could offer a pathway out of a destructive economic system | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

More scientific data and superficial behaviour change initiatives won’t help, people need to be engaged at a deep emotional, psychological and spiritual level. 

Is it possible to hold all the grief in the world and not get crushed by it?

I ask this question because our failure to deal with the collective and individual pain generated as a result of our destructive economic system is blocking us from reaching out for the solutions that can help us to find another direction.

Our decision to value above all else comfort, convenience and a superficial view of happiness, has led to feelings of disassociation and numbness and as a result we bury our grief deep within our subconscious.

The consequence is not only a compulsion to consume even more in an attempt to hide our guilt but also a projection of our hidden pain onto the world around us and at the deepest level, the Earth itself.

Just take the recent news from WWF and the Zoological Society of London that we have decimated half of all creatures across land, rivers and the seas over the past 40 years.

We read this and perhaps shake our heads in dismay, and then consume the next news story. The question we should all be asking is why aren’t we on the floor doubled up in pain at our capacity for industrial scale genocide of the world’s species.

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Study found that is possible to predict judgments from brain waves

Study found that is possible to predict judgments from brain waves | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Interesting article reporting the findings of a new study on consciousness and on how people make immediate judgments. 

A new study has found that people make immediate judgments about images they are shown — which could have an impact on their decisions — even before their brains have had time to consciously process the information.

The study shows it is possible to predict abstract judgments from brain waves, even though people are not conscious of making such judgments, according to researchers at the University of Melbourne.

During the study, researchers could predict from the participants’ brain activity how exciting they found a particular image to be, and whether a particular image made them think more about the future or the present. This is true even though the brain activity was recorded before participants knew they were going to be asked to make these judgments, the researchers explained.

The study’s findings illustrate that there is more information encoded in our brain activity than previously assumed, according to Dr. Stefan Bode from the Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences and Dr. Carsten Murawski from the University of Melbourne Department of Finance.

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"Dissipation of 'dark energy' by cortex in knowledge retrieval"

"Dissipation of 'dark energy' by cortex in knowledge retrieval" | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Abstract

We have devised a thermodynamic model of cortical neurodynamics expressed at the classical level by neural networks and at

the quantum level by dissipative quantum field theory. Our model is based on features in the spatial images of cortical activity

newly revealed by high-density electrode arrays. We have incorporated the mechanism and necessity for so-called dark energy

in knowledge retrieval. We have extended the model first using the Carnot cycle to define our measures for energy, entropy and

temperature, and then using the Rankine cycle to incorporate criticality and phase transitions. We describe the dynamics of two

interactive fields of neural activity that express knowledge, one at high and the other at low energy density, and the two operators

that create and annihilate the fields. We postulate that the extremely high density of energy sequestered briefly in cortical activity

patterns can account for the vividness, richness of associations, and emotional intensity of memories recalled by stimuli.

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Leader corruption depends on power and testosterone - YouTube

Why are leaders corrupt? This question has teased and taunted researchers over the years; however, there is not much research that has examined this question using experimental designs that give real power to leaders in real-stakes situations. In this animated, fun, but also science-packed podcast, Prof. John Antonakis explains what he and his colleagues--Dr. Samuel Bendahan, Prof. Christian Zehnder, and Prof. François Pralong--found in two experimental studies. Both power (leader choice set and number of followers) and the person (baseline testosterone) caused corruption. The implications of this study are far reaching and should make individuals responsible for organizational governance mechanisms to pause and think about how much power and discretionary choices leaders should have.

Link to read the article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.20...

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Revealed: Long-Suspected Danger of Anti-Anxiety and Sleeping Drugs — PsyBlog

Revealed: Long-Suspected Danger of Anti-Anxiety and Sleeping Drugs — PsyBlog | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Massive study of 100,000 people finds evidence for long-suspected danger of anxiety and sleeping drugs. anxiety disorders, like diazepam and temazepam, have a number of known side-effects like daytime sleepiness, falls, an increased risk of dementia — and they are also addictive. Now, though, a new study has found evidence for a long-suspected danger of these drugs as well as common sleeping pills: an increased risk of death.

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Complex network theory and the brain

Complex network theory and the brain | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

We have known for at least 100 years that a brain is organized as a network of connections between nerve cells. But in the last 10 years there has been a rapid growth in our capacity to quantify the complex topological pattern of brain connectivity, using mathematical tools drawn from graph theory.
Here we bring together articles and reviews from some of the world’s leading experts in contemporary brain network analysis by graph theory. The contributions are focused on three big questions that seem important at this stage in the scientific evolution of the field: How does the topology of a brain network relate to its physical embedding in anatomical space and its biological costs? How does brain network topology constrain brain dynamics and function? And what seem likely to be important future methodological developments in the application of graph theory to analysis of brain networks?
Clearer understanding of the principles of brain network organization is fundamental to understanding many aspects of cognitive function, brain development and clinical brain disorders. We hope this issue provides a forward-looking window on this fast moving field and captures some of the excitement of recent progress in applying the concepts of graph theory to measuring and modeling the complexity of brain networks.

 

Complex network theory and the brain
Issue compiled and edited by David Papo, Javier M. Buldú, Stefano Boccaletti and Edward T. Bullmore

http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/site/2014/network.xhtml


Via Complexity Digest
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Rational talk on housing prices lost in a bubble

Rational talk on housing prices lost in a bubble | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
The latest house price index figures released by RP Data earlier this week show a year-on-year increase in property values in Sydney of 14.3%. This has sparked the current hot debate on property prices and speculation of a price bubble. Though, it seems many people have forgotten what house price indices represent.
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How I Rewired My Brain to Become Fluent in Math

How I Rewired My Brain to Become Fluent in Math | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

I was a wayward kid who grew up on the literary side of life, treating math and science as if they were pustules from the plague. So it’s a little strange how I’ve ended up now—someone who dances daily with triple integrals, Fourier transforms, and that crown jewel of mathematics, Euler’s equation. It’s hard to believe I’ve flipped from a virtually congenital math-phobe to a professor of engineering.

One day, one of my students asked me how I did it—how I changed my brain. I wanted to answer Hell—with lots of difficulty! After all, I’d flunked my way through elementary, middle, and high school math and science. In fact, I didn’t start studying remedial math until I left the Army at age 26. If there were a textbook example of the potential for adult neural plasticity, I’d be Exhibit A.

 

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Dr. Lisa Kramer - Expert in Behavioural Finance & Neuroeconomics

Stirring up controversy in financial circles for over a decade with her seminal contributions bridging the gap between rational finance and behavioural finance, Dr. Lisa Kramer is no stranger to the dynamic marketplace of ideas. An expert on behavioural finance, investments, capital market seasonality, behavioral economics, neuroeconomics, and personal finance, Dr. Kramer captivates audiences with her real-time demonstrations of human biases. Participants come away with a deeper understanding of recent, state-of-the-art developments in the exciting field of behavioural finance.

Dr. Kramer’s research has been profiled in The Wall Street Journal, US News and World Reports, The Washington Post, The Daily Telegraph, Business Week, Fast Company, The National Post, The Globe and Mail, and on CBC Television and Radio.

She received her PhD in finance from the Sauder School of Business at the University of British Columbia and is an Associate Professor of Finance at the University of Toronto. She has also held the Canadian Securities Institute Research Foundation Term Professorship, and spent a sabbatical as a visiting scholar in the Psychology Department at Stanford University where she conducted ground-breaking research.

http://www.speakers.ca/speakers/dr-li...

This video is brought to you by Speaker's Spotlight - http://www.speakers.ca - Canada's leading speakers' bureau.
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Tiny Lights Could Illuminate Brain Activity

Tiny Lights Could Illuminate Brain Activity | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Alessandro Cerboni's insight:

Step aside, huge magnets and radioactive tracers—soon some brain activity will be revealed by simply training dozens of red lights on the scalp. A new study in Nature Photonics finds this optical technique can replicate functional MRI experiments, and it is more comfortable, more portable and less expensive.

The method is an enhancement of diffuse optical tomography (DOT), in which a device shines tiny points of red light at a subject's scalp and analyzes the light that bounces back. The red light reflects off red hemoglobin in the blood but does not interact as much with tissues of other colors, which allows researchers to recover an fMRI-like image of changing blood flow in the brain at work. For years researchers attempting to use DOT have been limited by the difficulty of packing many heavy light sources and detectors into the small area around the head. They also needed better techniques for analyzing the flood of data that the detectors collected.

 
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