Bounded Rationality and Beyond
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Abraham Lincoln’s Advice to Business Leaders | Rethinking Complexity

Abraham Lincoln’s Advice to Business Leaders | Rethinking Complexity | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

CEOs from many highly successful businesses find relevance in the lessons to be learned from how Lincoln weathered the death of his son in his personal life and the many painful challenges he faced fighting to hold the U.S. together as one nation. In the New York Times article, Starbucks CEO Howard Schultz reflected on Lincoln’s presence and authenticity as well as his ability to listen to people within his circle and beyond it.

The political struggles Lincoln and the people of the US faced during the Civil War (or the War Between the States) were enormous. We may have clashes and struggles today, but they are nothing compared to the bloody battles that consumed our country during that period.

Business is fraught with challenges and struggles. Still, with a bit of a bigger perspective, I can draw upon the lessons of Lincoln’s presidency to build and evolve my business. Gathering advice from a wide range of people, especially those who do not agree with us, is critical for any business leader just as it was for Lincoln. He listened to military, political, and economic advisors. We have to listen to customers, colleagues, experts, employees, suppliers, investors, and most of all to our own hearts.

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Bounded Rationality and Beyond
News on the effects of bounded rationality in economics and business, relationships and politics
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Don’t Persuade Customers — Just Change Their Behavior

Most businesses underestimate how hard it is to change people’s behavior. There is an assumption built into most marketing and advertising campaigns that if a business can just get your attention, give you a crucial piece of information about their brand, tell you about new features, or associate their brand with warm and fuzzy emotions, that they will be able to convince you to buy.

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The 50 Most Influential Living Psychologists in the World | The Best Schools

The 50 Most Influential Living Psychologists in the World | The Best Schools | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Here are the 50 most influential living psychologists, actively changing our understanding of ourselves and our often curious human behavior. True to the ancient namesake, these psychologists have taught us much about the human soul.
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How Can Psychology Save the Planet? Bringing Behavior Change Science to Conservation

Did you know that the palm oil found in many of our lotions and cosmetics comes from the natural habitat of orangutans? Harvesting the oil damages their habitats and puts the animals at risk. Or that about a third of the calories grown in the world go to waste? Or that the equivalent of one dump truck of plastic enters the ocean ever minute? I didn’t, but the World Wildlife Foundation (WWF) and others are actively tackling these issues. These are all thorny, complex problems that require sustained behavior change to solve. Yet, historically, very little behavior change science — and even less behavior change design theory — has been applied to conservation efforts. That’s starting to change, thanks to work by the WWF, National Geographic, and others who recognize the need to apply the science of psychology to their efforts to save the planet. I had the honor of participating in the WWF’s annual Fuller Symposium on December 4–5 in Washington DC. The 2017 theme was “The Nature of Change: The Science of Influencing Behavior.” Speakers included experts in both social and environmental sciences, so the audience heard about theories of behavior change alongside case studies bringing those same theories to life.

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This Is How You Train Your Brain To Get What You Really Want

In April of 2015, I got serious about my goal to become a professional writer. I had written an eBook, Slipstream Time Hacking, and was anxious to know how to traditionally publish it. At that time, I had just barely put up my own website and had a subscriber-base of zero. I decided literary agents would be my best source of advice. After all, they know the publishing industry back-and-forth — or so I thought. After talking to 5–10 different agents about their coaching programs, it became apparent my questions would need to be answered elsewhere. One particular conversation sticks out. In order to even be considered by agents and publishers, writers need to already have a substantial readership (i.e., a platform). I told one of the agents my goal was to have 5,000 blog subscribers by the end of 2015.

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Polling the face: prediction and consensus across cultures. - PubMed - NCBI

Polling the face: prediction and consensus across cultures. - PubMed - NCBI | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Abstract Previous work has shown that individuals agree across cultures on the traits that they infer from faces. Previous work has also shown that inferences from faces can be predictive of important outcomes within cultures. The current research merges these two lines of work. In a series of cross-cultural studies, the authors asked American and Japanese participants to provide naïve inferences of traits from the faces of U.S. political candidates (Studies 1 and 3) and Japanese political candidates (Studies 2 and 4). Perceivers showed high agreement in their ratings of the faces, regardless of culture, and both sets of judgments were predictive of an important ecological outcome (the percentage of votes that each candidate received in the actual election). The traits predicting electoral success differed, however, depending on the targets' culture. Thus, when American and Japanese participants were asked to provide explicit inferences of how likely each candidate would be to win an election (Studies 3-4), judgments were predictive only for same-culture candidates. Attempts to infer the electoral success for the foreign culture showed evidence of self-projection. Therefore, perceivers can reliably infer predictive information from faces but require knowledge about the target's culture to make these predictions accurately.

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Plant Behavior and Intelligence by Anthony Trewavas


Plant Behavior and Intelligence by Anthony 
Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual plant species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. Plants should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole plant communication, computation and signal transduction.Trewavashttp://www.esalq.usp.br/lepse/imgs/conteudo_thumb/Plant-Behavior-and-Intelligence-by-Anthony-Trewavas.pdf
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Aspects of plant intelligence. - PubMed - NCBI

Abstract Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole-plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered.

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Beyond the animal brain: plants have cognitive capacities too – Laura Ruggles | Aeon Essays

Beyond the animal brain: plants have cognitive capacities too – Laura Ruggles | Aeon Essays | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

From the memories of flowers to the sociability of trees, the cognitive capacities of our vegetal cousins are all around us

At first glance, the Cornish mallow (Lavatera cretica) is little more than an unprepossessing weed. It has pinkish flowers and broad, flat leaves that track sunlight throughout the day. However, it’s what the mallow does at night that has propelled this humble plant into the scientific spotlight. Hours before the dawn, it springs into action, turning its leaves to face the anticipated direction of the sunrise. The mallow seems to remember where and when the Sun has come up on previous days, and acts to make sure it can gather as much light energy as possible each morning. When scientists try to confuse mallows in their laboratories by swapping the location of the light source, the plants simply learn the new orientation. What does it even mean to say that a mallow can learn and remember the location of the sunrise? The idea that plants can behave intelligently, let alone learn or form memories, was a fringe notion until quite recently. Memories are thought to be so fundamentally cognitive that some theorists argue that they’re a necessary and sufficient marker of whether an organism can do the most basic kinds of thinking. Surely memory requires a brain, and plants lack even the rudimentary nervous systems of bugs and worms.

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New tool uses behaviour economics to figure out ‘wealth personality’ | Toronto Star

New tool uses behaviour economics to figure out ‘wealth personality’ | Toronto Star | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Emotions often override logic in the decision-making process, and financial decision-making is no exception. To that end, TD Wealth Private Wealth Management recently launched technology that uses “behavioural finance” to help advisors understand clients’ financial blind spots. Behavioural finance looks at how personality influences financial decisions. The field of study explores why people sometimes make biased, unpredictable or irrational financial choices. The TD tool creates a wealth personality report for high-net-worth clients, using a model that identifies personality traits that can affect behaviour, according to the bank. It notes that the tool will be used to augment the current wealth advisory process. Client participation is optional Technology helps advisors identify clients’ blind spots-

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From exact sciences to life phenomena: Following Schrödinger and Turing on Programs, Life and Causality

Abstract This text presents a survey and a conceptual analysis of a path which goes from Programming to Physics and Biology. Schrödinger’s early reflections on coding and the genome will be a starting point: by his (and Turing’s) remarks, a link is explicitly made between the notion of program and the analysis of causality and determination in Physics. In particular, Turing’s work in Computing and in Morphogenesis (his 1952 paper on continuous dynamics) will be seen as part of a scientific path which goes from Laplace’s understanding of deterministic predictability to the developments of Poincaré’s analysis of unpredictability in non-linear systems, at the core of Turing’s 1952 work. The relevance of planetary “resonance”, in Poincaré’s Three Body Theorem, and its analogies and differences with logical circularities will then be discussed. On these grounds, some recent technical results will be mentioned relating algorithmic randomness, a strong form of logical undecidability, and physical (deterministic) unpredictability. This will be a way to approach the issue of resonances and circularities in System Biology, where these notions have a deeply different nature, in spite of some confusion which is often made. Finally, three aspects of the author’s (and his collaborators’) recent work in System Biology will be surveyed. They concern an approach to biological structural stability, as “extended criticality”, the structure of time and of biological rhythms and the role of a proper biological observable, “organization”. This is described in terms of “anti-entropy”, a new notion inspired by a remark by Schrödinger.
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Intuition and Safety: How Intuition Can Help Keep Your Child Safe

Intuition and Safety: How Intuition Can Help Keep Your Child Safe | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Can your intuition and connection with your higher self help keep you and your children safe? I believe the answer is a resounding yes, and I’m writing this article in response to MaryEllen Tribby’s (of WorkingMomsOnly.com) heartfelt post about the three dreadful events that happened in Orlando mid-June, particularly the tragic death of two-year-old Lane Graves. In her article titled, “Stop the Blaming and Shaming: Overcoming Tragedies Together,” MaryEllen Tribby’s focus was on the two-year-old boy who was attacked and killed by an alligator at one of Disney’s finest hotels and how his parents must now feel. Especially with so many, through social media, blaming and shaming the parents for their son’s tragic loss. Being the parent of three children herself, MaryEllen recounts how she was lucky there were no cars driving by when her two-year-old girl darted into the parking lot while she was grabbing her briefcase from the front seat of her car. Or the time her toddler son smacked face-first onto the parking lot from her SUV, as she moved away the shopping cart.

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Why Your Intuition May Be the Highest Form Of Intelligence

Why Your Intuition May Be the Highest Form Of Intelligence | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Our intuition develops when we are babies, long before are indoctrinated into Newtonian physics – which largely prohibits us from understanding the quantum world. Ironically, one of our first intellectual abilities – intuition – may be one of the greatest forms of intelligence we will ever experience in a “grown-up” world. In the quantum world, there are no “positions” nor “speed.” These are classical, mechanical terms for a world that doesn’t really exist. Yet, as tiny babies we understand how things work without having a clear grasp of certain intellectual realities.

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Big Data Fusion to Estimate Fuel Consumption: A Case Study of Riyadh

Falling oil revenues and rapid urbanization are putting a strain on the budgets of oil producing nations which often subsidize domestic fuel consumption. A direct way to decrease the impact of subsidies is to reduce fuel consumption by reducing congestion and car trips. While fuel consumption models have started to incorporate data sources from ubiquitous sensing devices, the opportunity is to develop comprehensive models at urban scale leveraging sources such as Global Positioning System (GPS) data and Call Detail Records. We combine these big data sets in a novel method to model fuel consumption within a city and estimate how it may change due to different scenarios. To do so we calibrate a fuel consumption model for use on any car fleet fuel economy distribution and apply it in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The model proposed, based on speed profiles, is then used to test the effects on fuel consumption of reducing flow, both randomly and by targeting the most fuel inefficient trips in the city. The estimates considerably improve baseline methods based on average speeds, showing the benefits of the information added by the GPS data fusion. The presented method can be adapted to also measure emissions. The results constitute a clear application of data analysis tools to help decision makers compare policies aimed at achieving economic and environmental goals.

 

Big Data Fusion to Estimate Fuel Consumption: A Case Study of Riyadh
Adham Kalila, Zeyad Awwad, Riccardo Di Clemente, Marta C. González


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From Maps to Multi-dimensional Network Mechanisms of Mental Disorders

From Maps to Multi-dimensional Network Mechanisms of Mental Disorders | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

The development of advanced neuroimaging techniques and their deployment in large cohorts has enabled an assessment of functional and structural brain network architecture at an unprecedented level of detail. Across many temporal and spatial scales, network neuroscience has emerged as a central focus of intellectual efforts, seeking meaningful descriptions of brain networks and explanatory sets of network features that underlie circuit function in health and dysfunction in disease. However, the tools of network science commonly deployed provide insight into brain function at a fundamentally descriptive level, often failing to identify (patho-)physiological mechanisms that link system-level phenomena to the multiple hierarchies of brain function. Here we describe recently developed techniques stemming from advances in complex systems and network science that have the potential to overcome this limitation, thereby contributing mechanistic insights into neuroanatomy, functional dynamics, and pathology. Finally, we build on the Research Domain Criteria framework, highlighting the notion that mental illnesses can be conceptualized as dysfunctions of neural circuitry present across conventional diagnostic boundaries, to sketch how network-based methods can be combined with pharmacological, intermediate phenotype, genetic, and magnetic stimulation studies to probe mechanisms of psychopathology.

 

From Maps to Multi-dimensional Network Mechanisms of Mental Disorders
Urs Braun, Axel Schaefer, Richard F. Betzel, Heike Tost, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Danielle S. Bassett

Neuron
Volume 97, Issue 1, 3 January 2018, Pages 14-31


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Improvvisazione musicale e complessità

Improvvisazione musicale e complessità | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Improvvisazione musicale e complessità


ABSTRACT : The philosophy of complexity, in recent decades, has set up and consolidatedan epistemological approach that describes the nature often in terms of case and possibil-ity . This paradigm also calls, especially in the works of Edgar Morin, to overcome thebar riers between dierent disciplines and suggests a fruitful fusion between the studyof physics, biology and anthropology and social sciences. On the basis of this approach,this paper investigates the relationship between musical improvisation and complexity,trying to highlight that the aesthetics of the unexpected, which is realized in the perfor-mances of improvisational groups, represents a phenomenon in which there are obviousisomorphisms with the systemic organization. Isomorphisms which are characterizedby the dialectical relationship chaos-order , the genesic mechanisms of back-action, in-tegration of contingency and the central role of the concept of emergency. For thisreason, musical improvisation may be considered as a dynamic adaptive system and like anactivity situated between aesthetics and ontology.

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Einstein was an Artist: How Creativity Actually Works

Einstein inspired a paradigm shift in physics not as a scientist but as an artist. Our entire construct of the world depends on language. What we see isn’t what the universe has defined, but what our brains have learned to label. English distinguishes a scientist as someone who systematically learns about a part of the natural world and uses that knowledge to describe and predict it. An artist, on the other hand, is defined as someone who creatively produces. These labels are important. They’re not perfect, but they allow us to differentiate between the different aspects of our reality. The harm occurs when we use them incorrectly. When it comes to categories like science and art, we have a tendency to presume mutual exclusivity. Einstein may have been a practicing scientist with a focus on theoretical physics, but that doesn’t mean that he wasn’t also an artist. In fact, we can easily argue that more of his success was attributed to his creativity than it was to his underlying knowledge of the field. There are many smart and knowledgeable scientists. Rarely, however, are they capable of producing work that shifts our entire understanding of the world. That requires an entirely new way of looking at things. You don’t have to play the violin or write a poem to be an artist. It’s simply about producing, and the quality of what you produce is largely dependent on creativity. Believe it or not, there isn’t as much to it as you might think. 1. Don’t Wait for Inspiration to Get Moving There are many misconceptions about how breakthroughs are made. It’s easy to fall into the trap of thinking that they’re suddenly inspired — like the often told story of the moment the fall of an apple led Newton to discover gravity. In a slight way, they do happen, and sometimes, sporadically. That said, if your sole tactic is to sit and wait for inspiration to strike, then you’re almost always setting yourself up for failure. Dr. Mark Beeman leads the Creative Brain Lab at Northwestern University. He uses brain scanners to conduct research studies to understand the creative process. In his own words: “Although the experience of insight is sudden and can seem disconnected from the immediately preceding thought, these studies show that insight is the culmination of a series of brain states and processes operating at different time scales.” Simply put, eureka moments occur because of the work leading up to them. Action stimulates inspiration more often than inspiration stimulates action. 2. Treat It Like an Unsexy Job Doing creative work isn’t sexy. It’s about setting a schedule and just doing it. In 1902, Einstein got a job at a Swiss patent office. He had searched for a teaching position in the preceding years with little luck. This forced him into an inopportune and uninspiring place relative to his interest in physics. During his time there, however, he chose to manage his day so that he had a disciplined balance between the hours he spent on the job and the hours he dedicated to scientific work. He was deliberate in his commitment to creation, and the fruits of his labor led to the Annus Mirabilis papers. Scientists call it the miracle year. It would inspire the formulation of the two fundamental theories in physics: the theory of general relativity and quantum mechanics. Had Einstein waited for the right moment, the world might not be where it is. The best way to create is to treat it as a job. Pick a time, show up, and produce. 3. Seek Relationships Between Existing Ideas At its core, creativity is just a new and useful way of combining old ideas. It isn’t imagined out of thin air, and it isn’t completely abstract. It’s a fresh way of making sense of the existing components of reality that have yet to merge. In 1945, Einstein wrote a letter in response to a survey by a French mathematician who was trying to understand the thinking patterns of famous scientists. It can be found in Ideas and Opinions, a collection Einstein’s writings, and in it, he speaks about his process. “The words or the language, as they are written or spoken, do not seem to play any role in my mechanism of thought.The psychical entities which seem to serve as elements in thought are certain signs and more or less clear images which can be ‘voluntarily’ reproduced and combined. It is also clear that the desire to arrive finally at logically connected concepts is the emotional basis of this rather vague play with the above-mentioned elements. But taken from a psychological viewpoint, this combinatory playseems to be the essential feature in productive thought — before there is any connection with logical construction in words or other kinds of signs which can be communicated to others.” If you think about creativity as the ability to develop meaningful connections between existing parts of your reality, you can start to realize that creativity isn’t just reserved for the likes of Mozart and Picasso. It’s something that impacts all of our lives, and it’s something we all practice. Hone your mental inventory of knowledge and let it mingle in absurd ways. 4. Be Willing to Produce Subpar Work Like anything else in life, the only way to master creativity is to put in work. The difficulty, however, lies accepting the production of subpar work. Nobody likes to fall short of expectations, but it’s all the more daunting when it comes to creating because the result is a tangible output, like a painting or a book. One way to challenge this difficulty is to realize that we’re not the only ones that produce bad work. When we see a great creation by a genius, it’s useful to remember that they worked on more than just one piece. They produced a lot of really unsexy work that no one talks about. Over the course of his career, Einstein published over 300 scientific papers and about 150 non-scientific papers. An archive of his non-published work contained more than 30,000 unique documents, and he wasn’t always right. In Brilliant Blunder, Mario Livio predicts that about 20% of Einstein’s papers contain mistakes of sorts. A byproduct of his effort to think in unconventional ways was that his work was sometimes imperfect. 5. Compromise Today for Tomorrow Extraordinary results require extraordinary commitment. That’s the secret. John Hayes is a professor at Carnegie Mellon University and he once did a study to analyze thousands of musical pieces between 1685 and 1900. He was curious about how long it took for a musician to produce world class art. He narrowed it down to 500 masterpieces by 76 composers. By mapping out a timeline for each individual, he looked at when a piece was produced. Outside of only three artists, every composition was written at least a decade after they started to take their work seriously. In follow-up studies of poets and painters, he found the same result. He termed this “The ten years of silence” — a period with a high production of work but very little recognition. To cultivate creativity, you have to not only build the courage to produce bad work, but you also have put in a lot of unrewarded time to create great work. All You Need to Know If an artist is someone who produces something new and novel, then few people in history fit the bill like Einstein. Artistry was the source of his genius. This is what his story can teach us: I. Don’t wait for inspiration to get moving. Creativity is a process. Even the seemingly sporadic insights — like the ones we get in the shower — rely on what came before them. Inspiration doesn’t just strike for no reason. It relies on a consistent pattern of work that sometimes manifests itself in the form of those rare moments. To truly practice creativity, commit to a schedule, show up, and get to work, whether you want to or not. II. Seek relationships between existing ideas. Nothing new is completely original. Creativity is simply about producing something using a combination of the existing elements of your reality. Start by developing a mental inventory of relevant knowledge, work to connect the dots, and then support those connections with a logical structure. III. Produce a large volume of work. Creativity doesn’t work unless you do.Produce in the face of failure, and produce in the face of subpar results. It’s easy to forget that not every piece of work created by a genius was all that great. A lot of it wasn’t. It’s just not talked about. Creating bad work is necessary in order to uncover great work, and it all takes time. Mastering creativity is in itself an art, and like any art, it can empower you. The internet is noisy I write at Design Luck. It’s a free high-quality newsletter with unique insights that will help you live a good life. It’s well-researched and easy-going. Join 20,000+ readers for exclusive access. CreativityLifeLife LessonsSelf ImprovementEntrepreneurship One clap, two clap, three clap, forty? By clapping more or less, you can signal to us which stories really stand out.   Follow  Zat Rana Medium member since May 2017 Playing at the intersection of science, art, and business. I write to reduce noise. www.designluck.com. CNBC, Business Insider, World Economic Forum, etc. Follow  Personal Growth Keep Learning. Keep Growing. More from Personal Growth Bad Habits You Must Break Immediately to Improve Your Life in the Next 100 Days  Thomas Oppong  11K  More on Self Improvement from Personal Growth 3 Ways To Attract The Mentor You Truly Want  Nicolas Cole  1.4K  Also tagged Entrepreneurship Your Company’s Culture is Who You Hire, Fire, & Promote  Dr. Cameron Sepah  8.1K  Responses  Be the first to write a response… Alessandro Cerboni     

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Using Elicited Choice Probabilities in Hypothetical Elections to Study Decisions to Vote

Using Elicited Choice Probabilities in Hypothetical Elections to Study Decisions to Vote | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Abstract This paper demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of survey research asking respondents to report voting probabilities in hypothetical election scenarios. Posing scenarios enriches the data available for studies of voting decisions, as a researcher can pose many more and varied scenarios than the elections that persons actually face. Multiple scenarios were presented to over 4,000 participants in the American Life Panel (ALP). Each described a hypothetical presidential election, giving characteristics measuring candidate preference, closeness of the election, and the time cost of voting. Persons were asked the probability that they would vote in this election and were willing and able to respond. We analyzed the data through direct study of the variation of voting probabilities with election characteristics and through estimation of a random utility model of voting. Voting time and election closeness were notable determinants of decisions to vote, but not candidate preference. Most findings were corroborated through estimation of a model fit to ALP data on respondents' actual voting behavior in the 2012 election. Go to:

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Cultural effects on the association between election outcomes and face-based trait inferences

Cultural effects on the association between election outcomes and face-based trait inferences | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it


Abstract How competent a politician looks, as assessed in the laboratory, is correlated with whether the politician wins in real elections. This finding has led many to investigate whether the association between candidate appearances and election outcomes transcends cultures. However, these studies have largely focused on European countries and Caucasian candidates. To the best of our knowledge, there are only four cross-cultural studies that have directly investigated how face-based trait inferences correlate with election outcomes across Caucasian and Asian cultures. These prior studies have provided some initial evidence regarding cultural differences, but methodological problems and inconsistent findings have complicated our understanding of how culture mediates the effects of candidate appearances on election outcomes. Additionally, these four past studies have focused on positive traits, with a relative neglect of negative traits, resulting in an incomplete picture of how culture may impact a broader range of trait inferences. To study Caucasian-Asian cultural effects with a more balanced experimental design, and to explore a more complete profile of traits, here we compared how Caucasian and Korean participants’ inferences of positive and negative traits correlated with U.S. and Korean election outcomes. Contrary to previous reports, we found that inferences of competence (made by participants from both cultures) correlated with both U.S. and Korean election outcomes. Inferences of open-mindedness and threat, two traits neglected in previous cross-cultural studies, were correlated with Korean but not U.S. election outcomes. This differential effect was found in trait judgments made by both Caucasian and Korean participants. Interestingly, the faster the participants made face-based trait inferences, the more strongly those inferences were correlated with real election outcomes. These findings provide new insights into cultural effects and the difficult question of causality underlying the association between facial inferences and election outcomes. We also discuss the implications for political science and cognitive psychology.

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Green plants as intelligent organisms. - PubMed - NCBI

Green plants as intelligent organisms. - PubMed - NCBI | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Abstract Intelligent behaviour, even in humans, is an aspect of complex adaptive behaviour that provides a capacity for problem solving. This article assesses whether plants have a capacity to solve problems and, therefore, could be classified as intelligent organisms. The complex molecular network that is found in every plant cell and underpins plant behaviour is described. The problems that many plants face and that need solution are briefly outlined, and some of the kinds of behaviour used to solve these problems are discussed. A simple way of comparing plant intelligence between two genotypes is illustrated and some of the objections raised against the idea of plant intelligence are considered but discarded. It is concluded that plants exhibit the simple forms of behaviour that neuroscientists describe as basic intelligence.

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The Quest for Cognition in Plant Neurobiology

The Quest for Cognition in Plant Neurobiology | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Plant neurobiology1 has emerged in the last few years as a result of the incorporation of new knowledge from well established areas of research such as plant electrophysiology, cell biology, molecular biology, and ecology. The difference between plant neurobiology and other more basic disciplines resides in the target of these interdisciplinary efforts which is the study of the complex patterns of behavior of plants qua information-processing systems.i Despite the youth of plant neurobiology, a body of empirical literature has grown and new results and questions have been reported and formulated.2–3 Very recently, however, a number of researchers sceptical of the overall effort that plant neurobiology represents have teamed up in order to manifest their concern “with the rationale behind” the approach.4 In their view, the newly born discipline does not furnish plant sciences, writ large, with any deeper understanding that is not in principle empirically achievable by, say, plant physiology.
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Improving Medication Adherence: 7 Behavioral Science-Based Guidelines for Creating Effective and Engaging Communications

Improving Medication Adherence: 7 Behavioral Science-Based Guidelines for Creating Effective and Engaging Communications | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Despite the close attention paid to medication adherence by healthcare providers, pharmaceutical marketers and manufacturers, and health educators, it continues to be an enormous problem with both financial and physical consequences. In one recent meta-analysis of medication adherence studies, the average adherence rate across conditions was just 60 percent.


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7 Clever Examples of Nudge Marketing

7 Clever Examples of Nudge Marketing | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Nudging is a powerful way to influence behavior. Many organizations are using nudge principles to solve problems. Take a look at some really cool examples!


Dan Ariely’s popular book, Predictably Irrational, as well as Richard Thaler & Cass Sunstein’s Nudge are a pair of books that opened the eyes of many to the world of nudging. By leveraging behavioral economics and choice architecture, we are able to use subtle ‘nudges’ to influence the decisions people make. If you are unfamiliar with the term nudge, it is a subtle push that aims to alter a person’s behavior without really being noticed. Instead of forbidding choices, or using overt incentives, a nudge acts more like a light breeze that our mind catches like a sail, pushing us into a preferred direction. Thaler and Sunstein’s Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth & Happiness defines a nudge as such: A nudge, as we will use the term, is any aspect of the choice architecture that alters people’s behavior in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives. To count as a mere nudge, the intervention must be easy and cheap to avoid.

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Game Theory (Open Access textbook with 165 solved exercises)


Via Bernard Ryefield
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Dal canale di TOMMIX: Dissonanza Cognitiva

Dissonanza cognitiva, i media ti fanno credere che il mondo è tutto bello, tutto va bene, poi esci fuori di casa guardi la realtà parli con la gente e ti rendi conto che sta andando tutto a puttane, i media non fanno altro che creare la realtà che loro vogliono, questo video lo spiega bene, un po' come nel fim matrix quando Morpheus mostra a neo il vero volto della terra. Anche mentana l'ha capito che per i giovani non c'è futuro, e ha detto io fossi un giovane scenderei in piazza ogni giorno.

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4 Powerful Lessons To Successfully Run A Self-Managed Company

4 Powerful Lessons To Successfully Run A Self-Managed Company | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

While visiting fully self-managed company Rebel Group, we learned about 4 powerful lessons to successfully run a self-managed company. Here they are.

A few months ago we received a message from one of the co-founders of a Dutch consultancy firm explaining us their unique way of working. Their name? Rebel, what a coincidence! With such a beautiful name it seemed just a matter of time for us to visit them and learn more about their unique approach of organizing the firm. So, a few months later we find ourselves travelling to the Dutch city of Rotterdam where Rebel has its headquarters. Together with co-founder Jeroen in ‘t Veld and the recently joined Rachida Abdellaoui we explored their unique way of working. During the visit we discussed at length how the leadership of the firm passes on the culture and vision to the company’s new generation of rebels. But what is it that we can learn from this rebellious consultancy firm?

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