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In what situation must spanning-tree be implemented?

In what situation must spanning-tree be implemented? | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
In what situation must spanning-tree be implemented?
A. when first hop redundancy protocol exists with redundant Layer 2 links between distribution switches
B. when a VLAN spans access layer switches to support busines…
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Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Management Metrics

Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Management Metrics | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Management Metrics Q1. In what ways can network management impact a service provider’s business? Answer: It affects the cost of ownership of a network, revenues that can be generated from communication services, network availability, and the quality of the communication services that are offered. Figure: Network Management Business Impact Q2. …
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Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Management Integration

Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Management Integration | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Management Integration Q1. Imagine that you are a service provider. An equipment vendor offers you an integrated management system. Which aspects of management integration will such a system be unlikely to address, even if the equipment vendor’s claims are, from his perspective, entirely correct? Answer: It might not provide multivendor …
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Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Common Management Protocols

Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Common Management Protocols | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Common Management Protocols Q1. Why is SNMPv1 not considered secure? How could a hacker exploit its security holes? Answer: SNMPv1’s only security mechanism is a community string that is part of SNMP messages, which is communicated in the clear. For example, it does not offer authentication, which would enable an …
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Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Management Functions and Reference Models: Getting Organized

Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Management Functions and Reference Models: Getting Organized | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Management Functions and Reference Models: Getting Organized Q1. What does FCAPS stand for? Answer: Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, and Security. Q2. What does OAM&P stand for? Answer: Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning. Q3. What is the difference between alarm filtering and alarm correlation? Answer: Alarm filtering lets alarms pass only …
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Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: The Dimensions of Management

Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: The Dimensions of Management | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: The Dimensions of Management Q1. What are the different aspects, or “subdimensions,” of management interoperability? Answer: Communication, function, and information Figure: Aspects of Management Interoperability Q2. Why is a management protocol needed between managers and agents, and why isn’t mere connectivity between them sufficient? Answer: It is possible for people to …
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Understanding Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

Understanding Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Understanding Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) OSPF Packet Details OSPF has five types of packets used for various reasons. Table 8-1 documents the different OSPF packet types and describes their functionality. All the OSPF packet types share a common 20-byte OSPF protocol header. Figure 8-1 shows the common OSPF protocol header format. The list that …
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Exploring PKI and Asymmetric Encryption

Exploring PKI and Asymmetric Encryption | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Exploring PKI and Asymmetric Encryption Understanding Asymmetric Algorithms Asymmetric algorithms support two of the primary objectives of any form of security, because their main objectives are confidentiality and authentication. To meet these objectives, these algorithms are based on much more complex mathematical formulas that require greater time to compute than symmetric algorithms. With their greater …
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Designing a Cryptographic Solution

Designing a Cryptographic Solution | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Designing a Cryptographic Solution Introducing Cryptographic Services To understand cryptographic services, first you must understand the science of cryptology, which in essence is the making and breaking of secret codes. Cryptology can be broken into two distinct areas: cryptography and cryptanalysis. Cryptography is the development and use of codes. Cryptanalysis is all about the breaking …
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Understanding IP Routing

Understanding IP Routing | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Understanding IP Routing The primary objective of this book is to provide elaborate guidance for troubleshooting Internet Protocol (IP) routing problems on Cisco routers. In this regard, the subsequent text covers well-known routing protocols such as the following: Open Shortest Path First Protocol (OSPF) Integrated Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System Protocol (IS-IS) Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Protocol …
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Troubleshooting RIP

Troubleshooting RIP | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Troubleshooting RIP Flowcharts to Solve Common RIP Problems Troubleshooting RIP Routes Installation This section discusses several possible scenarios that can prevent RIP routes from getting installed in the routing table. This section is selected first in the troubleshooting list because the most common problem in RIP is that routes are not installed in the routing …
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Troubleshooting IGRP

Troubleshooting IGRP | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Troubleshooting IGRP Flowcharts to Solve Common IGRP Problems This section discusses the most common scenarios that can prevent IGRP routes from getting installed in the routing table. This is the most useful section in this chapter because the most common problem in IGRP is that routes are not in the routing table. If a specific …
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Creating Static Packet Filters with ACLs

Creating Static Packet Filters with ACLs | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Creating Static Packet Filters with ACLs You should already have an understanding of the basics of ACLs as covered in CCNA material. This being the case, we can forgo the basics of creating and applying access lists to interfaces (and also vtys) in favor of focusing on examples and recommendations for their use. We will …
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Cisco Zone-Based Policy Firewall Fundamentals

Cisco Zone-Based Policy Firewall Fundamentals | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Cisco Zone-Based Policy Firewall Fundamentals The last section examines the configuration of a static packet-filtering firewall using interface ACLs. In this section, we leverage on Cisco’s Zone-Based Policy Firewall (ZPF) to create a dynamic packet-filtering firewall. ZPF is not Cisco’s first foray into dynamic packet filtering technology. Before ZPF, Cisco offered Context-Based Access Control (CBAC, …
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Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Service Level Management

Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Service Level Management | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Service Level Management Q1. Both the provider and the customer of a service should be concerned with service level monitoring. Why is this so? Answer: The customer might not know for sure whether he is indeed getting the service level that was agreed to. Q2. Assume that you are a …
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Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Management Organization

Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Management Organization | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Management Organization Q1. Assume that you have to manage an enterprise network with several remote branch locations. You are told that you need to collect performance data from each remote location to assess the total traffic that goes to headquarters, that is directed to other enterprise locations, and that goes to destinations outside …
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Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Management Communication Patterns

Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Management Communication Patterns | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Management Communication Patterns Q1. What are the fundamental interaction patterns between the management agents? Answer: Manager-initiated request and response, and agent-initiated events. Q2. Assume that you have a network with 1000 devices and 1500 links. Assume that a performance management application is interested in 18 performance parameters per link and 7 performance …
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Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Management Functions and Reference Models: Getting Organized

Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Management Functions and Reference Models: Getting Organized | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: Management Functions and Reference Models: Getting Organized Q1. What does FCAPS stand for? Answer: Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, and Security. Q2. What does OAM&P stand for? Answer: Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning. Q3. What is the difference between alarm filtering and alarm correlation? Answer: Alarm filtering lets alarms pass only …
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Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: The Basic Ingredients of Network Management

Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: The Basic Ingredients of Network Management | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Cisco Network Mgmt Protocol FAQ: The Basic Ingredients of Network Management Q1. Name the two contexts in which the term agent is used in network management. Answer: 1) The agent role—that is, the role of the managed network element, as opposed to the managing system. 2) The management agent—that is, the software component of a …
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Troubleshooting EIGRP

Troubleshooting EIGRP | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Troubleshooting EIGRP Troubleshooting EIGRP Neighbor Relationships This section discusses methods of troubleshooting issues regarding EIGRP neighbor relationships. The following are the most common causes of problems with EIGRP neighbor relationships: Unidirectional link Uncommon subnet, primary, and secondary address mismatch Mismatched masks K value mismatches Mismatched AS numbers Stuck in active Layer 2 problem Access list …
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Implementing Digital Signatures

Implementing Digital Signatures | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Implementing Digital Signatures Examining Hash Algorithms For centuries everyone from kings to generals to college students has wanted to ensure the authenticity of their communications. In this section we will examine the role of hash algorithms in helping provide this assurance through the process of hashing. Along the way we will examine hash functions and …
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Understanding Routing Information Protocol (RIP)

Understanding Routing Information Protocol (RIP) | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Understanding Routing Information Protocol (RIP) This chapter covers the following key topics about Routing Information Protocol (RIP): Metric Timers Split horizon Split horizon with poison reverse RIP-1 packet format RIP behavior Why RIP doesn’t support discontiguous networks Why RIP doesn’t support variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) Default routes and RIP Protocol extension to RIP Compatibility issues …
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Building a Site-to-Site IPsec VPN Solution

Building a Site-to-Site IPsec VPN Solution | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Building a Site-to-Site IPsec VPN Solution Exploring the Basics of IPsec This section begins by identifying the characteristics of an IPsec VPN. You will learn about various protocols that make IPsec VPNs possible, including IKE protocols and the ESP and AH protocols. Although you can have a Cisco IOS router act as a VPN termination …
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Troubleshooting RIP

Troubleshooting RIP | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Troubleshooting RIP Flowcharts to Solve Common RIP Problems Troubleshooting RIP Routes Installation This section discusses several possible scenarios that can prevent RIP routes from getting installed in the routing table. This section is selected first in the troubleshooting list because the most common problem in RIP is that routes are not installed in the routing …
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Troubleshooting IGRP

Troubleshooting IGRP | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Troubleshooting IGRP Flowcharts to Solve Common IGRP Problems This section discusses the most common scenarios that can prevent IGRP routes from getting installed in the routing table. This is the most useful section in this chapter because the most common problem in IGRP is that routes are not in the routing table. If a specific …
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Using Cisco SDM and CLI Tools to Lock Down the Router

Using Cisco SDM and CLI Tools to Lock Down the Router | NetAcad CCNA training | Scoop.it
Using Cisco SDM and CLI Tools to Lock Down the Router Cisco routers come with services enabled on them by default that make them great routers, but not necessarily great security devices. The reasons for these default services are various, but generally speaking, they are there more for historical reasons than anything else and would not …
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