Mycology
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Rescooped by Christopher Smyth from Plant pathogenic fungi
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The population biology of fungal invasions

The population biology of fungal invasions | Mycology | Scoop.it
Fungal invasions are increasingly recognized as a significant component of global changes, threatening ecosystem health and damaging food production. Invasive fungi also provide excellent models to evaluate the generality of results based on other eukaryotes. We first consider here the reasons why fungal invasions have long been overlooked: they tend to be inconspicuous and inappropriate methods have been used for species recognition. We then review the information available on the patterns and mechanisms of fungal invasions. We examine the biological features underlying invasion success of certain fungal species. We review population structure analyses, revealing native source populations and strengths of bottlenecks. We highlight the documented ecological and evolutionary changes in invaded regions, including adaptation to temperature, increased virulence, hybridization, shifts to clonality and association with novel hosts. We discuss how the huge census size of most fungi allows adaptation even in bottlenecked, clonal invaders. We also present new analyses of the invasion of the anther smut pathogen on white campion in North America, as a case study illustrating how an accurate knowledge of species limits and phylogeography of fungal populations can be used to decipher the origin of invasions. This case study shows that successful invasions can occur even when life-history traits are particularly unfavorable to long-distance dispersal and even with a strong bottleneck. We conclude that fungal invasions are valuable models to contribute to our view of biological invasions, in particular by providing insights into the traits as well as ecological and evolutionary processes allowing successful introductions.

Via Jean-Michel Ané, Francis Martin, Steve Marek
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Rescooped by Christopher Smyth from Rainforest EXPLORER: News & Notes
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Fungi crucial for biodiversity in rainforests

Fungi crucial for biodiversity in rainforests | Mycology | Scoop.it
Fungi play a crucial role in maintaining the diversity of life in forests, say scientists.

Via Amazon Rainforest Workshops
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Rescooped by Christopher Smyth from Fungicide Hormesis
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Putting Fungi to Work: Harvesting a Cornucopia of Drugs, Toxins, and Antibiotics

Putting Fungi to Work: Harvesting a Cornucopia of Drugs, Toxins, and Antibiotics | Mycology | Scoop.it

Fungi belong amongst the severest pathogens of humans, animals, and plants. For example,Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. account for most invasive mycoses, and such infections are associated with high rates of mortality in hematology and oncology patients. Worrisomely, it has been estimated that 4% of all patients who die in hospitals die of invasive aspergillosis and 2% die of candidiasis [1]. Moreover, in agriculture, filamentous fungi are mainly responsible for severe loss of crops worldwide, destroying over 125 million tons of rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, and soybeans each year. Calculations for 2011 predicted that prevention of these losses would be sufficient to feed 600 million people [2]. However, due to the common negative perception of fungi as pathogens, we often lose sight of the beneficial role of fungi as producers of a cornucopia of life-saving drugs.From molecules to physiology


Via Francis Martin, Carla Garzon
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Rescooped by Christopher Smyth from Environmental Microbiology
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Marine fungi may benefit from ocean acidification | Ocean acidification

Marine fungi may benefit from ocean acidification | Ocean acidification | Mycology | Scoop.it
However, the decomposition of complex substrates in marine environments, a key part of the flow of energy in ecosystems, is largely mediated by marine fungi. Although marine fungi have frequently been reported to prefer ...

Via Shift Soil
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Rescooped by Christopher Smyth from Surviving the Anthropocene
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Man-made English saltmarshes 'failing to meet European plant standards'

Man-made English saltmarshes 'failing to meet European plant standards' | Mycology | Scoop.it

This Study finds artificially created saltmarshes built to slow coastal erosion are not as rich in plant life as natural wetlands...


Via Yvonne Overton
Christopher Smyth's insight:

This is exactly why we need to be investing in research on the microbial ecology of the marsh sediments - as well as the microbes colonizing the plant tissue. A better understanding of microflora is KEY to increased success rates in restoration practices. 

 

Give me money. I'll do it! 

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