Mr. Soto's Human Geography
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Rescooped by Jose Soto from Geography Education!

Why the ‘Coffee’ Words Are Not Cognates

Why the ‘Coffee’ Words Are Not Cognates | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |

"A former student of mine drew my attention to a recent article in Slate written by Alyssa Pelish and titled 'The Stimulating History of Coffee: Why You Hear This Word Around the World'."


Tags:  language, culture, diffusion.

Via Seth Dixon
Courtney Barrowman's curator insight, January 23, 2015 12:15 PM

unit 2

Tyler Anson's curator insight, February 23, 2015 10:41 AM

This article also shows the diffusion of language. The word "coffee' has diffused and although it is spelled differently in different languages, it pronounced in almost the exact same way. This goes to show how different languages most likely diffused from the same common ancestor langauge.

Caitlyn Christiansen's curator insight, February 24, 2015 9:45 PM

The word "coffee" is a loan word that has been borrowed by languages for centuries. It is sometimes mistakenly called a cognate, but is actually a simple sound alike because it does not come from a common language root. A cognate always, always a word that comes from a common language root. "Coffee" is borrowed and does not meet the standards to be a cognate.

Words diffused along trade routes as people would  travel from place to place and share the names of items they wished to sell. Before reliable travel, the names would change from place to place as people remembered them differently or pronounced them differently according to the languages.

Rescooped by Jose Soto from Geography & Current Events!

The World in 2015: Global population and the changing shape of world demographics - YouTube

Animating the changing shape of the world population pyramid. For more multimedia content from The Economist visit our website:

Via Mr. David Burton
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Rescooped by Jose Soto from Geography Education!

10 American English Words and Phrases British Expats Eventually Adopt

10 American English Words and Phrases British Expats Eventually Adopt | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |
As a British expat who has lived and worked in the U.S. for over five years, I remain very much in favor of embracing the various wonderful nuances this country has to offer. However, there was one aspect of my move that—during the initial settling-in period—I secretly feared: the gradual Americanization of my vocabulary.

Via Seth Dixon
Seth Dixon's curator insight, January 8, 2015 4:21 PM

While this list was created for English speakers in the UK, I will invert the list to show some terms that Americans rarely use, even if we understand their meaning: rubbish, mobile, motorway, petrol, car park, you lot, maths, pavement, football and fizzy drink.  If this interests you so will this list of 10 British insults that American don't understand

Tags: language, culture, English, UK.

tentuseful's comment, January 17, 2015 4:16 AM
Thats stunning
Courtney Barrowman's curator insight, January 23, 2015 12:07 PM

unit 3

Rescooped by Jose Soto from Fantastic Maps!

Here Is The Most Disproportionately Popular Cuisine In Each State

Here Is The Most Disproportionately Popular Cuisine In Each State | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |
Utah is crazy about Hawaiian food, apparently....

Via Seth Dixon
Katie's curator insight, March 23, 2015 11:24 PM

This article is about the most popular cuisines in each state in the US. It shows what type of food is more common in different places. I think this would be an example of popular or folk culture. 

zane alan berger's curator insight, March 25, 2015 7:34 PM

This map shows the most popular foods in each state of the U.S...  Revealing some surprising selections

Eden Eaves's curator insight, May 26, 2015 11:26 PM

This map shows the disproportionately popular foods in each state.These preferences have obviously been caused by the immigrants who have resided in that state (we are all descendants of immigrants of course unless you are 100% Native American). This map is super interesting and some states favorite food is not shocking, such as southern food in Arkansas, but others definitely took me by surprise, like Hawaiian in Utah.  

Rescooped by Jose Soto from Geography Education!

The ghastly tragedy of the suburbs

The ghastly tragedy of the suburbs | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |
In James Howard Kunstler's view, public spaces should be inspired centers of civic life and the physical manifestation of the common good. Instead, he argues, what we have in America is a nation of places not worth caring about.

Via Seth Dixon
Kevin Barker's curator insight, January 21, 2015 9:02 AM

This could become something of a fixation for me.  Plano TX is seen on many levels of a great suburban city but here is one way it is lacking most.

Linda Denty's curator insight, February 3, 2015 5:41 PM
Strong language used in this!
Zeke Robinson's curator insight, May 26, 2015 9:23 PM

i disagree with this guy, for suburbs bring us close and save space and its good that we have them.

Rescooped by Jose Soto from FCHS AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY!

Worldwide, Many See Belief in God as Essential to Morality

Worldwide, Many See Belief in God as Essential to Morality | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |

"The position [that belief in God is essential to morality] is highly prevalent, if not universal, in Africa and the Middle East. At least three-quarters in all six countries surveyed in Africa say that faith in God is essential to morality.   People in richer nations tend to place less emphasis on the need to believe in God to have good values than people in poorer countries do."

Via Seth Dixon, FCHSAPGEO
Jason Schneider's curator insight, January 26, 2015 7:37 PM

It would make sense that Indonesia is one of the most religious countries in the world being that it has the highest Muslim population. Also, I never thought of Europe as being religious countries which is why I am not surprised that 70% of Europe does not believe that the belief in God needs to be moral. Another reason why I am not surprised is because they are more popular for their ethnic groups such as the french group, italian group and german group. Also, they don't have focused religions. For example, Buddhism was originated in Nepal and worshipped mostly in China, Hinduism was originated in India, Jewish was originated in Israel and Islam was originated in Saudi Arabia and it's practiced mostly in Indonesia and Pakistan. That explains why most parts of Asia (at least southern Asia) has practices specific religions.

Chris Plummer's curator insight, January 27, 2015 11:58 PM

Summary- This figure explains the relationship between regions and their morality based on a God. It is evident what in North America is is almost a 50 50 tie between between believing in god is essential for morality. Only is Europe does God seem less important than the rest of the world. There are other countries such as Chile, Argentina, or Australia that have these same beliefs, but for the most part, most countries see a believe in God as an essential to morality. 


Insight- In unit 3 we study the distributions of many things, religion included. Why do so many poorer countries have a stronger faith in God than wealthier ones? It may be because if their ethnic backgrounds, but I think there is more to it. I think when a country is poorer, more people reach out to their God for help. I also think that in wealthier countries there are distractions from religion such as video games and other mass produced technologies that get in the way of people researching their faith.

Ryan Tibari's curator insight, May 27, 2015 9:55 AM

Unit 3: This article shows the relationship between regions and their morality based on a God. It is evident what in North America is is almost a 50 50 tie between between believing in god is essential for morality. There are other countries such as Chile, Argentina, or Australia that have these same beliefs, but for the most part, most countries see a believe in God as an essential to morality. 

Rescooped by Jose Soto from Regional Geography!

10 Territorial Disputes That Mean Your Maps Are Already Wrong

10 Territorial Disputes That Mean Your Maps Are Already Wrong | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |
As it stands, there are well over 150 territorial disputes around the globe, some more urgent than others. Here are 10 you need to know about -- and that could redefine the world map.

Via Seth Dixon
Padriag John-David Mahoney's curator insight, January 29, 2015 12:48 PM

I think this is particularly interesting because not only have these disputes have been going on for years but this attitude of "claiming what is mine" (even when it might not actually be yours) has been a part of government and human behavior since...forever. We never really change. First the attitude was to explore and conquer, but now it's guised as "claiming cultural heritage" or simply TAKING something (or someplace rather) by force and then just asserting either:it has always been ours" or, in the case of Vlad Putin, "It never actually had sovereignty in the first I want it". It is Interesting to see how we guise colonialism in a supposedly post-colonialist world.

Pieter de Paauw's curator insight, March 31, 2015 6:16 PM

Onenigheid over territoria wereldwijd

Rescooped by Jose Soto from Geography & Current Events!

Rich nations 'failing to help Syria refugees'

Rich nations 'failing to help Syria refugees' | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |
Rights group says "pitiful" number taken in by wealthy countries, with burden placed mainly on ill-equipped neighbours.

Via Mr. David Burton
Campbell Ingraham's curator insight, March 23, 2015 11:33 PM

This article shows that rich nations are not helping out as much as they should with the refugee problem. Instead, many people are forced to take asylum in poor countries nearby which aren't very well equipped to deal with the influx of refugees. Rich countries should help a lot more to take on the burden and help out these refugees and the countries who aren't prepared for them. 


This article relates to refugees, asylum seekers, and internally displaced persons. It talks about the challenges that refugees face and the problems that come from these people migrating to countries not prepared for an immigration influx. So many poorer countries are forced to take on this burden while many rich countries could be helping out a lot more. 

Adriene Mannas's curator insight, May 26, 2015 6:08 PM

This post is all about how the countries around Syria are overflowing with refugees. More developed countries around the world have only taken in a very small amount of refugees which is causing an overload in the less developed surrounding countries with not as much resources. This is causing a bad quality of life for the refugees and they are lacking many needs.  


This relates to the second unit on population and refugees around the world by talking about the refugees from Syria and how they are being distributed. It also talks about how these refugees are affecting the population of their host country. 

Emily Coats's curator insight, May 27, 2015 9:31 AM


This article discusses the tragic fact that wealthy, developed nations are not putting in any effort to help refugees from Syria. China, Russia, and the European Union are just a few of the regions/organizations that are not helping refugees at a substantial level. This applies to unit 2, population and migration, and really applies to migration, specifically refugees.

Rescooped by Jose Soto from Geography Education!

Incredible images capture dazzling symmetry of Iran's mosques

Incredible images capture dazzling symmetry of Iran's mosques | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |

"Self-taught Iranian photographer gains rare access to shoot religious buildings as they've never been seen.  It's a side of Iran the rest of the world doesn't normally get to see -- the kaleidoscopically brilliant interiors of the country's intricately designed mosques.With beautiful mosaics and stained glass framed by powerful architecture, the buildings are astounding."


Tags: religion, culture, Islam, Iran, Middle East.

Via Seth Dixon
Molly McComb's curator insight, March 21, 2015 4:25 PM

Showing the sacred spaces of Islam and how they are designed around the world. 

Lena Minassian's curator insight, March 22, 2015 3:47 PM

This was one of my favorite articles. We usually are very used to seeing negative sides to the Middle East and this gave it a different spin. This shows breathtaking pictures of the Mosques in Iran. This architecture isn't like anything I've seen with all of the symmetry and colors. These photos were taken by a student and were not easily taken. You have to have an eye to capture moments like this and pictures like this are not always appreciated. the detail that went into creating and designing these mosques are really special and I would love to actually see something like this in person. 

Jared Medeiros's curator insight, March 29, 2015 4:03 PM

Amazing photos of these mosques.  The detail and color in some of these mosques are extraordinary.  This kind of brilliance in color is something that is unexpected in this part of the world where everything seems to be so bland and alike in color or style.  Its surprising that the mosques don't let professional take pictures with certain equipment inside but let tourists take photos.  I would understand if the light from a camera could cause damage to the art, but these are the people who will be able to share these beautiful pictures with the rest of the world and show that there is more to Iran than what the outside may think.

Rescooped by Jose Soto from Regional Geography!

Mexico Has Brutally Choked Off The Flow Of Undocumented Immigrants Into The U.S.

Mexico Has Brutally Choked Off The Flow Of Undocumented Immigrants Into The U.S. | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |

"Once a pit stop on the long, dangerous trail north to the U.S. border, Tenosique has become ground zero for a remarkably successful push to cut off the flow of undocumented immigrants into the United States."


Grupo Beta [in Mexico] was established to provide food and medical assistance to migrants moving through the country to the United States. With facilities across the country along migratory routes, migrants have long become accustomed to seeking out the organization for help.

But since July, activists said that Grupo Beta workers in Tabasco and other border states have begun turning migrants into law enforcement. Several migrants in Tabasco said they had been targeted by law enforcement officials minutes after seeking out mobile Grupo Beta units providing food and water near the border.  The plan had an almost immediate impact.

Via Seth Dixon
Padriag John-David Mahoney's curator insight, January 29, 2015 12:55 PM

I would think this is fantastic. I would by no means wish to stop legal immigration into the United States. However if a plan is put into action to stop or at least deter illegal immigrants ( or "illegal aliens" in the non politically correct terminology) then I am all for it. While immigration is obviously beneficial to the United States, illegal immigration is a detriment. I wish all the success for those in this group who act to curtail the flow of illegal immigrants not only to the United States, but elsewhere.

Michael Amberg's curator insight, March 23, 2015 10:01 PM

This shows how even the country that migrants are coming from help prevent undocumented migrations.

Rescooped by Jose Soto from Geography Education!

The Historical Geography of Whaling

The Historical Geography of Whaling | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |

"Summer 2014 brought a sight that had not been seen since 1941: the Charles W. Morgan leaving the Mystic River for the Atlantic Ocean, stopping at several New England harbors before eventually arriving in New Bedford, Massachusetts where the ship was built in 1841. The Charles W. Morgan is the last remaining wooden whaling ship in the world, and a National Historic Landmark."

Via Seth Dixon
Seth Dixon's curator insight, December 5, 2014 4:57 PM

Only two countries today are stilling whaling (Japan and Norway), but the whaling industry was a critical component to the settling of New England.  Check out this Maps 101 podcast for short introduction to the historical geography of New England whaling.  

Tagspodcast, Maps 101, historicalbiogeography.

Rescooped by Jose Soto from Geography Education!

Peru Is Indignant After Greenpeace Makes Its Mark on Ancient Site

Peru Is Indignant After Greenpeace Makes Its Mark on Ancient Site | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |
A sign urging environmental action during a United Nations summit meeting on climate change was placed near a 1,000-year-old geoglyph that is a cultural treasure in Peru. Officials are outraged over the trespassing and the disturbance of the ancient grounds.

Via Seth Dixon
Kevin Cournoyer's curator insight, May 6, 2015 8:36 AM

In today's world, we often run into situations where preservation and advancement are at odds with one another. Instances where sites or areas are protected by historical or cultural heritage societies is just one such example. As a result, these places are often barred from making improvements or changes that would improve the quality of life for the people living there. Some places, however, also possess a natural geography that is significant and culturally valuable to the people living there. To change or mar these geographic landmarks is considered incredibly disrespectful and inconsiderate, as is the case with this Greenpeace blunder in Peru. 


The incident described in this article also seems to represent a kind of disconnect between the developed and developing worlds. Many times, developed nations feel it is there job to police the practices and beliefs of their less developed neighbors. This, of course, is a very insulting and elitist approach to enacting change that these countries see as positive. Often, the cultures and practices of these places are scorned for the sake of "progress" or "advancement", when in reality, these powerful countries are using their almost unquestioned influence to get their message across using the context of smaller, less powerful countries. Organizations and countries that are truly proponents of change and progress must strike a balance between cultural respect and effective methods. 

Chris Costa's curator insight, September 28, 2015 11:25 AM

People make mistakes with the best of intentions, and this is certainly a case of just that. Greenpeace hoped to make a lasting impression on world leaders by creating a powerful symbol illustrating the need for the world's leaders to embark on a policy of environmental conservatism; instead, they insulted the Peruvian government and desecrated a national heritage site. I feel like something like this would never have happened in a powerful Western nation; could you imagine the outrage if a historical site like the location of the Battle of Gettysburg or Jefferson's home of Monticello had been altered in such a away? Or if this sign had been hung from Big Ben or the Eiffel Tower? I feel like this group completely disregarded the sensitivities of the Peruvian government because it is only a "middle power," a nation that could easily be trumped by the group's ambitions- in short, that the nations concerns did not matter because it was "only" Peru. I find that train of thought extremely insulting and dangerous within the context of international relations- if smaller nations can be disregarded so easily in Western circles, what does that say for the future of global politics? An apology and, more importantly, a restoration project are in order, and Peru is right to demand them. I, too, would be insulted by Greenpeace's actions.

Benjamin Jackson's curator insight, December 13, 2015 12:23 PM

an environmental group disturbing on of the regions where man has been banned from going is insane. how do you justify defacing one of the last truly pristine places on earth, where people haven't walked for centuries, for the sake of some Eco-terrorism. did you not think through the response that this act would inspire, and if so, how did you become so dense?

Rescooped by Jose Soto from Geography Education!

Why Does Earth Have Deserts?

Via Seth Dixon
Catherine Buckman's curator insight, December 16, 2014 2:22 PM

Interesting short video  explaining Hadley Cells and why the earth rain forests on Equator and deserts above and below. 

Gordon de Snoo's curator insight, December 16, 2014 7:05 PM

Good explaination

Jason Schneider's curator insight, January 28, 2015 10:27 PM

Deserts are pretty much important for bringing warm air towards the equator which cools and causes rain to form rain forests. As the cool air hits the stratosphere, it warms up again because of it's hot temperature and it spreads throughout the stratosphere 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south in latitude from the equator. When it dries, it lowers back to earth forming a dry desert. I now notice that there are no deserts along the equator and there are rain forests pretty much along the equator. The Hadley Cells are pretty much like cycles allowing rain forests and deserts to occur.

Rescooped by Jose Soto from Geography Education!

After 522 Years, Spain Seeks To Make Amends For Expulsion Of Jews

After 522 Years, Spain Seeks To Make Amends For Expulsion Of Jews | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |
Spain's monarchy decimated the Jewish population by expelling, killing or forcibly converting Jews in 1492. Now the country may offer their descendants Spanish citizenship.


Tags: Europe, migration, Israel, Spain.

Via Seth Dixon
Kendra King's curator insight, February 15, 2015 7:29 PM

Can we all agree that a 522 year apology is outdated? Honestly, Karavani, a citizen of Israel who benefits from the new policy, summarized my reaction to this when he stated, “I don't think that anybody owes me anything — definitely [not] if it happened 500 years ago.” The people involved in this situation are dead five times over at least. I think it is time to move on and if you can’t, then you have bigger issues in your life. Personally, it would make more sense for the government to remember past mistakes and learn from them by applying knowledge of discrimination to any issues of discrimination that is currently happening in the country.


I kept wondering if giving citizenship so many years later would actually be seen as a justice apology. The citizens aren’t being recognized as Jews. Plus the expense being incurred to even take the test sounds unpleasant given some of the complaints mentioned in the article. I didn’t realize that a large amount of the Israel population would actually leave for Europe. Upon realizing this, I found the trend to be amazing in a world where increased immigration is normally seen in a negative light for the nation who is welcoming the immigrants. Never did I realize that a member of Israel would view it as “a European way — to destroy this country.” I do doubt that was there intent as there are far more effective way to destroy a nation. Yet, when someone is losing a large amount of their population (some of whom speak an almost dead language) I can see how the statement was made. I guess this member of the Israeli population would be considered a person against globalization in this instance.


Leaving Israel isn’t a bad decision though. Given the instability in Israel, I think it is great that more immigrants can go someplace else. Furthermore, I think it provides a fantastic opportunity to people, like Karavani, who want better jobs. While it might be sad to see such drastic change for Levy, people can study like his cousin and keep their heritage. The world is a bigger place now that is easily traversed. I think people needed to realize there is no longer one absolute location to live and that isn’t the end of the world. It is just a new way of life.   

Chris Plummer's curator insight, February 16, 2015 9:09 PM

Summary- After almost 550 years, Spain is finally allowing decedents of expelled Jew citizenship. In 1492 Jews were forced to convert, be killed, or flee Spain. A law now grants the Jews descendants citizenship under a draft law by the Spanish Government. 


Insight- As explorers of religion in this unit, we ask out selves: Why were the Jews expelled and now let back in so long after? The expulsion was caused by the Spanish Inquisition, a goal to maintain catholic orthodox in spanish kingdoms forcing all Jews out. They are finally let back in after Spain realized  that there is now no reason to keep other people out.

Avery Liardon's curator insight, March 23, 2015 9:25 PM

Unit 3:

Spain debating whether or not they are going to let Jewish people apply to be Spanish citizens. 

Rescooped by Jose Soto from Geography Education!

Enabling Globalization: The Container

Enabling Globalization: The Container | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |

"The ships, railroads, and trucks that transport containers worldwide form the backbone of the global economy. The pace of globalization over the last sixty years has accelerated due to containers; just like canals and railroads defined earlier phases in the development of a global economy. While distance used to be the largest obstacle to regional integration, these successive waves of transportation improvements have functionally made the world a smaller place. Geographers refer to this as the Space-Time Convergence."

Via Seth Dixon
Cody Price's curator insight, May 26, 2015 10:57 PM

This article describes the basics of globalization and what technology really allowed globalization to spread, the shipping the container. It allowed thing to be shipped organized and more efficiently. These containers fit together perfectly. It helps ideas and products transport all over the world and spread pop culture. 


This relates to the idea in unit 3 of globalization. These shipping container allow ideas and products to be shipped all over the world. The shipping container was the key to better connecting the world. 

BrianCaldwell7's curator insight, April 5, 2016 8:14 AM

I've posted here several resources about the global economy and the crucial role that containers play in enabling globalization.  In this article for National Geographic Education, I draw on many of these to to put it all in one nice container.  

Tags: transportation, globalization, diffusion, industry, economic.

Nick Orazi's curator insight, January 18, 7:10 PM

This is a very interesting source about a factor that increased the pace of Globalization. The page talks about how cargo containers and the transport of them has contributed to this pace. The reason why is the cargo containers are sued to bring products from different parts of the world. This means of transportation or delivery makes the world smaller and more in touch with itself.

Rescooped by Jose Soto from Geography Education!

Name That Grid!

Name That Grid! | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |

Via Seth Dixon
Seth Dixon's curator insight, January 16, 2015 12:06 AM

I'm a sucker for online quizzes like this one that shows only the grid outlines of particular cities.  This isn't just about knowing a city, but also identifying regional and urban patterns.  What are some other fun trivia quizzes?  GeoGuessr is one of the more addictive quizzes  where 5 locations in GoogleMaps "StreetView" are shown and you have to guess where.  Smarty Pins is a fun game on Google Maps that tests players' geography and trivia skills.  In this Starbucks game you have to recognized the shape of the city, major street patterns and the economic patterns just to name a few (this is one way to make the urban model more relevant).  If you want quizzes with more direct applicability in the classroom, click here for online regional quizzes.         

Tags: urbanmodelsfun, trivia.

Rescooped by Jose Soto from Geography Education!

White? Black? A Murky Distinction Grows Still Murkier

White? Black? A Murky Distinction Grows Still Murkier | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |

"In the United States, there is a long tradition of trying to draw sharp lines between ethnic groups, but our ancestry is a fluid and complex matter. In recent years geneticists have been uncovering new evidence about our shared heritage, and last week a team of scientists published the biggest genetic profile of the United States to date, based on a study of 160,000 people."

Via Seth Dixon
Edgar Manasseh Jr.'s curator insight, January 28, 2015 11:58 PM

Some people like to distant themselves form a certain ethnic background, when we are all one. Europeans came from one area same with latinos, blacks and natives we all are similar. Africans have a major influence to  who Europeans are and also who most of the americans did descend from so theres a possible connection somewhere.

Rachel Phillips's curator insight, January 29, 2015 12:50 PM

This article was very intriguing, especially because there have been so many migrations and movements of people in the U.S.  When you think about it, people were already here, and then Europeans came, and then they brought over Africans.  But, since then, people from all over the world have continuously moved here and spread throughout the country. In this map, you can see each region, and it's almost just how you would imagine it to be.  The south has more people who think that have some amount of African ancestry, and with the amount of slavery that had occurred, that makes sense.  However, the line between the percentage of African decent you have that makes you to be considered white, and then one percent more and you are African-American, is a bit bizarre to me.  In reality, in today's society, we are just as focussed on who is what race as they were a hundred years ago, whereas it actually should not matter anymore.  But, we don't live in a perfect world, and people need to be willing to work to get to that point.

Chris Costa's curator insight, September 16, 2015 10:05 AM

I found this article particularly interesting because my father recently had a DNA test done. As a Portuguese immigrant, he was surprised to find how varied of a background he comes from, with significant parts of his DNA tracing its origins to Southern Europe (outside the Iberian Peninsula, which only constituted 50% of his markers), the British Isles, Northern Africa, and West Africa. What I think everyone should take away from this article is that the human species is a beautiful mosaic of intermingling cultures and nationalities, especially here in the United States. We are all a part of each other, despite a past filled with hate (the article discusses a Pocahontas Law in Virginia that honestly had me chuckling at the hypocrisy of the legislators who drafted it) and issues of race that continue to plague us a society to this day. Race is entirely a social construct, and issues of white and black become meaningless when you look at data such as that complied in this article. A very interesting read.

Rescooped by Jose Soto from FCHS AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY!

Complex International Borders

More complex international borders in this follow up to part 1. 
In this video I look at even more enclaves and exclaves."

Via Seth Dixon, FCHSAPGEO
Lydia Tsao's curator insight, March 23, 2015 11:40 PM

After viewing this video, I found one common characteristic that ties together the countries involved in all of these border disputes: hunger for power. Although culture and sacred lands do cause border disputes, I believe the underlying purpose of claiming land for cultural reasons is to demonstrate power. Claiming lands for cultural purposes demonstrates that one's culture is superior to the other's culture, so naturally the more powerful culture gets to claim territory. On another note, I think it's interesting to see just how many enclaves and exclaves exist in the world. I did not know how many existed until I saw the video. I think this shows how insignificant these border anomalies are because these exclaves are usually just governed by the other country by which they are surrounded. 

Danielle Lip's curator insight, April 7, 2015 9:13 PM

Borders seem to be a problem whether you live in one continent or another, everyone wants power and control but not everyone can gain it. This video focuses and goes into depth about enclave and exclave borders, showing the irregularity of the borders in different areas that causes conflicts and problems. An example of a problem that the citizens have to deal with is that some villages can not leave due to the road blocks due to the borders. I can not imagine not being able to leave a certain area for all that time, I would go insane and I imagine those people are as well. International borders power has to be split somehow and not everyone can always come to an easy decision because parts of the land are claimed but the people do not have any control of it. Irregular borders cause more trouble than they are worth in my opinion. The final interesting fact about this video was that you learn that Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan are the two locations that have the most irregular border, these places must have the most conflict and problems. These borders are in places such as Germany, South Asia, China, Belgian, Sweden and Central Asia.

Nicholas A. Whitmore's curator insight, December 17, 2015 5:17 PM

A fascinating look into the complexity of borders. It is always important to keep in mind when looking at maps that the borders are neither permanent or defined as it exists in reality. Borders on world maps are rough estimations of what the borders actually are for they can't depict precise details on such a large scale. Furthermore regional/local maps sometimes do not whether as to conform to the border misconception unfortunately. In Central Asia as defined int he video the border were primarily a result of the Soviet Unions attempts to divided ethnic minorities reducing their power (primarily Stalin). As a result the countries after the collapse proceeded to claim the ethnic groups which created enclaves within each-other. As long as these groups are on peaceful terms this kind of thing isn't an issue. Unfortunately it does make the peoples lives in the enclaves slightly more difficult due to having to cross the border twice to see the rest of your country. This kind of thing was even done to the Jews in the first century AD who like the Russians wanted to eliminate or at least reduce attempts at revolution by the local populace. Hopefully Central Asia has or will make the lives of these enclaves easier.

Rescooped by Jose Soto from Geography Education!

Human Development Index (HDI)

Human Development Index (HDI) | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |

"This map shows Human Development Index (HDI) for 169 countries in the World. The HDI is a comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, and standard of living for countries worldwide. The HDI sets a minimum and a maximum for each dimension, called goalposts, and then shows where each country stands in relation to these goalposts, expressed as a value between 0 and 1, where greater is better. The Human Development Index (HDI) measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development: health, knowledge and standard of living."


Tags: development, statistics, worldwide.

Via Seth Dixon
Caroline Ivy's curator insight, May 18, 2015 10:41 AM

This article discusses the Human Development Index (HDI), what it is, and how it is calculated. 


This chart displays that the top three spots on the HDI are occupied by Norway, Australia, and the Netherlands respectively, with the USA coming in fourth. As HDI is calculated by comparing aspects like literacy, standard of living, education, and life expectancy, why are two European countries and Australia in the top 3? Something to be looked at is the in-migration of each country. Immigrants arrival in large numbers in some countries can lower HDI if they are refugees or come from a country with a lower HDI, for they may be illiterate, have a low education, and therefore a low life expectancy. With in migration to the US tightly controlled but in constant motion, their HDI could be pulled down to 4th. As Norway and Australia and the Netherlands are not the main destination for refugees, their HDI could be higher.   

Cody Price's curator insight, May 27, 2015 12:49 AM

The HDI is the human development index which ranks countries in many different aspects. The higher the country the more developed and modern it is. The least amount of death and the longest lives are here. It is more stable the higher the country.


This relates to the topic in unit 6 of HDI. this map shows the basic HDIS of the world and the patterns formed by the HDI layout of the world. 

Anna Sasaki's curator insight, May 27, 2015 2:04 AM

This map shows the Human Development Index around the world. The HDI depends on a set list of variables, ranking them from 1st to last. Nations considered to be "Western" are more developed than nations in regions such as Africa and Asia, although all nations are slowly but steadily developing, improving their Human Development Index ranking.

The HDI shows development in nations, although leaving out Inequality factors. This map also allows us to see spatially what regions tend to be more developed as well as developing.

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Dozens of villagers die in attack by Islamic extremists in Nigeria

Dozens of villagers die in attack by Islamic extremists in Nigeria | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |
Fishing port on shores of Lake Chad attacked by suspected members of Boko Haram who ‘shot people on sight’
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Immigation in the United States

Immigation in the United States | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |

Via Seth Dixon
Flaviu Fesnic's comment, December 7, 2014 2:25 PM
It's a tough job entering US ! I legally (of course ) tried ten years ago ! The US emabassy in Bucharest refused to give me a visa ! it's so frustrating ! no reason why ...
Adriene Mannas's curator insight, December 12, 2014 11:09 AM

Unit 2 Population


This picture shows the different ways to enter the country as an immigrant and how long it takes. There are many steps required and without some of these qualifications an immigrant can not legally get into the United States.  The picture makes a clear picture of how many people don't often even make it to the country. 


This relates to the population of Human Geography because often a large part of a countries population is made up of immigrants. Without them many cultures would not exist in other countries and a lot more people would die due to prejudices in former countries or war.  

Tori Denney's curator insight, March 24, 2015 1:22 AM

Migrating - Whether you are a refugee, an internally displaced person or just seeking a better lifestyle, migrating countries is extremely difficult. This picture shares a little bit of truth about how hard and picky the United States system is about getting a green card or becoming a citizen of the United States is. The system takes into consideration, your family, your working skill, your relationships with others, and no matter what the circumstances, there's a minimum of a 6 year wait.

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Photos that bear witness to modern slavery

Photos that bear witness to modern slavery | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |
For the past two years, photographer Lisa Kristine has traveled the world, documenting the unbearably harsh realities of modern-day slavery.

Via Mr. David Burton
Ethan Bernick's curator insight, March 22, 2015 5:47 PM

Lisa Kristine tells her story of documenting slavery in 6 countries. Lisa uses photography to share information about modern day slavery. She estimates that over 27 million people are enslaved worldwide.

Emily Bian's curator insight, March 22, 2015 10:42 PM

5) Issues in contemporary commercial agriculture

This is a Ted talk with Lisa discussing modern day slavery. There are still 27 million slaves to this day. Not all of them work in agriculture, but I felt like it fit this topic because slavery is a huge issue. Slavery is illegal, and people should go at greater lengths to help people that are enslaved. A lot of them work in fields, farms, and in the agriculutre business. But a lot of slaves work in the dangerous mines, and other jobs like brick work in Nepal, India. She played videos and pictures she personally took for the last two years. This is pretty recent, and the pictures are really sad. 

All of these slaves generate a $13 billion profit for the world/others. 

This video was a good spent of 20 minutes. 

Emily Coats's curator insight, March 24, 2015 12:45 PM

Slavery is still a very serious issue around the world. In less developed countries, slavery is an ongoing system, especially in agriculture. These pictures depict the sad truth of the matter that slavery still exists today, and we must put an end to slavery, especially in major agricultural production regions.

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The Data-Driven Farm

"Mr. Tom is as much a chief technology officer as he is a farmer. Where his great-great-grandfather hitched a mule, 'we’ve got sensors on the combine, GPS data from satellites, cellular modems on self-driving tractors, apps for irrigation on iPhones,' he said.

The demise of the small family farm has been a long time coming. But for farmers like Mr. Tom, technology offers a lifeline, a way to navigate the boom-and-bust cycles of making a living from the land. It is also helping them grow to compete with giant agribusinesses."

Via Seth Dixon
Seth Dixon's curator insight, December 3, 2014 4:42 PM

The New York Times article associated with the video above offers a great glimpse into the inner works of how agribusiness technologies have transformed the American family farm.  

Tags: agriculture, food production, agribusiness, unit 5 agriculture.

BrianCaldwell7's curator insight, March 16, 2016 3:41 PM

The New York Times article associated with the video above offers a great glimpse into the inner works of how agribusiness technologies have transformed the American family farm.  


Tags: agriculture, food production, agribusiness, unit 5 agriculture.

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What Maps Can Hide

What Maps Can Hide | Mr. Soto's Human Geography |
Too often, I find myself looking at this or that new map on the happiest places to live in the United States, the states with the most craft beer, or, more importantly, the least social mobility. I glance at where I live and think, well, it could be worse. At least I don’t live in Alabama. And then I move on.

Maps like these have become ubiquitous—indeed, some media outlets have entire sections devoted to them. But the 50-state map infographic is becoming the new pie chart—overused, often abused, and not always best suited for the task at hand.

Via Seth Dixon
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Product of Mexico - Harsh Harvest

"Farm exports to the U.S. from Mexico have tripled to $7.6 billion in the last decade, enriching agribusinesses, distributors and retailers.
American consumers get all the salsa, squash and melons they can eat at affordable prices. And top U.S. brands — Wal-Mart, Whole Foods, Subway and Safeway, among many others — profit from produce they have come to depend on.These corporations say their Mexican suppliers have committed to decent treatment and living conditions for workers.  But a Los Angeles Times investigation found that for thousands of farm laborers south of the border, the export boom is a story of exploitation and extreme hardship."

Todd Scalia's curator insight, December 14, 2014 1:12 AM

we work the fields for our families. 

Jake Red Dorman's curator insight, December 17, 2014 11:36 AM

It’s crazy to see how desperate some of these people are to get working and how much they do for such a little reward. These people are working longer and harder than probably all Americans and they are barely surviving. They work for survival. It’s hard for some of these people to stay healthy, especially in the harsh conditions and tight living spaces that these people have to deal with on an everyday basis. 

Brian Wilk's curator insight, March 22, 2015 2:10 PM

Corporations are always looking for the cheapest base product to import. Unfortunately for the laborers of Mexico, their country does not enforce globally accepted standards of labor. The US cannot police other countries' policies and procedures, but we can educate our own consumers about the working conditions behind the product they buy. The consumers then have a choice; do they want to pay 49 cents a pound for bananas or 99 cents. What is more important, the health and welfare of the employee who picked the produce or the financial well-being of the consumer who purchases it?

This obviously is big business for Mexico and the US should apply some pressure to motivate our friends south of the border to foster better working conditions for their employees. It would seem to me that Mexico could afford to pay their workers a little more and still be competitive given their proximity to the US. I think I will start buying my bananas from Ecuador....