MP Mexico Revolution
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mestizo

Iit is obvious that the mestizos held a unique position, suspended between the elite Spanish and the abused Indian peasantry. Despite their superior status over the Indians, their economic situation was limited. Job opportunities, along with financial success, were not guaranteed for mestizo men. In order to make a living, and with the hope of joining Spanish society, many were willing to become an artisan or Spanish servant.

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Western Hemisphere  Colonial Mexico

The Peninsulares or Gauchapine, (European born whites) considered themselves superior to the Criollos or Creoles (Colonial born whites) and were supported in this belief by royal decrees from Spain. Both castes were, by law, politically and socially above the mixed bloods, the Mestizo and Mulattos, who were socially and legally superior to the Indians, who were socially superior to the Negroes.

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Mexican Independence

Mexican Independence | MP Mexico Revolution | Scoop.it

In September 1810, Father Hidalgo was forced to prematurely distribute the Grito de Dolores to his parishoners and nearby residents which was an appeal for social and economic reform. With little organization and no training, essentially a mob of thousands of primarily Indians and mestizos overwhelmed royal forces in Guanajuato, and proceeded to murder and loot both Peninsulares, Criollos and other "whites" in their path. The force continued to Mexico City and defeated royalist on the outskirts, but did not enter and occupy the city after which the ragged revolutionary army returned home. Hidalgo and his Creole officers were later able to assemble an army of 80,000 by payment with looted Peninsulare gold and assets. Viceroy Francisco Javier Venegas, and his soon to be successor Gen. Félix María Calleja del Rey responded to the insurgency with a vengeance and in January 1811 Hidalgo suffered a serious defeat outside Guadalajara where rebel forces were routed at Calderon Bridge. Bloody retaliation followed by mass executions of suspected rebel sympathizers by Spanish crown forces under Viceroy Calleja del Rey. Hidalgo and associates turned toward the northern provinces Nuevo Santander, Nuevo León, Coahuila and Texas for refuge where local sympathy for the rebellion and independence continued. Royalist forces in Nuevo Santander refused to fight against the insurgents as well as troops under Governor Manuel Antonio Cordero y Bustamante in Coahuila. As the royalist forces moved north to crush resistance, it was only in Coahuila and Texas that revolutionary events continued. On 21 March 1811, a periodic rebel turned loyalist, Ignacio Elizondo, ambushed Ignacio Allende, Father Hidalgo and associates at the Wells of Baján on the road to Monclova in Coahuila. Hidalgo and associates were captured and executed in Chihuahua. sdct

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Mexico - Colonial Administration

The lower classes were a mixture of poor whites, castas , and native peoples who worked in the same occupations as whites or castas but who had different rights and obligations. Indigenous groups were protected from the Inquisition (the Roman Catholic court designed to combat heresy), paid head taxes, and could not own property as individuals but were the primary beneficiaries of social services in health and education. Mestizos were under the same obligations as whites but were not considered for most of the jobs in the Spanish administration. These jobs were held only by peninsulares . Poor whites and mestizos often competed with native people for the same jobs. The only unifying force in a society that was divided by race and privilege was the Roman Catholic Church. The clergy provided education and social services to the rich and the destitute alike, and clergy also functioned as a buffer in social conflicts.

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Daily Life through History - Username

By the end of the century, classes were more broadly defined by occupation and economic status rather than by race or skin color. Nonetheless, the economically advancing middle class still tended to be whiter than the growing working class of the cities, which had a greater concentration of mestizo and Indian members.

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El Grito de Dolores

El Grito de Dolores | MP Mexico Revolution | Scoop.it

Miguel Hidalgo was the first to ask for a revolution, in 1810. He was a roman catholic priest born May 8th, 1753. In 1810 he led a revolt, helping to start the revolution. He was captured march 21st, 1811 and executed on july 30th. Although his revolts were unsuccessful, he led the way to many other rebelians and helped start the revolution.

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