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Anyone can learn to be more inventive, cognitive researcher says

Anyone can learn to be more inventive, cognitive researcher says | Mind | Scoop.it

There will always be a wild and unpredictable quality to creativity and invention, says Anthony McCaffrey, a cognitive psychology researcher at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, because an "Aha moment" is rare and reaching it means overcoming formidable mental obstacles. But after studying common roadblocks to problem-solving, he has developed a toolkit for enhancing anyone's skills.

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Scientists model brain structure to help computers recognize objects

Scientists model brain structure to help computers recognize objects | Mind | Scoop.it

(PhysOrg.com) -- An essential question confronting neuroscientists and computer vision researchers alike is how objects can be identified by simply "looking" at an image. Introspectively, we know that the human brain solves this problem very well. We only have to look at something to know what it is.

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Human Brain Is Limiting Global Data Growth, Say Computer Scientists - Technology Review

Human Brain Is Limiting Global Data Growth, Say Computer Scientists  - Technology Review | Mind | Scoop.it
Human Brain Is Limiting Global Data Growth, Say Computer Scientists
Evidence has emerged that the brain's capacity to absorb information is limiting the amount of data humanity can produce

 

In the early 19th century, the German physiologist Ernst Weber gave a blindfolded man a mass to hold and gradually increased its weight, asking the subject to indicate when he first became aware of the change. Weber discovered that the smallest increase in weight a human can perceive is proportional to the initial mass.

This is now known as the Weber-Fechner law and shows that the relationship between the stimulus and perception is logarithmic.

It's straightforward to apply this rule to modern media. Take images for example. An increase in resolution of a low resolution pictue is more easily perceived than the same increase to a higher resolution picture.

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Giant Neurons in Crabs Encode Complex Memories: Scientific American

Giant Neurons in Crabs Encode Complex Memories: Scientific American | Mind | Scoop.it

The Chasmagnathus granulatus crab leads a simple life. It spends its days burrowing for food and trying to avoid its nemesis, the seagull. But recent research has shown that despite its rudimentary brain, this crab has a highly sophisticated memory. For example, it can remember the location of a seagull attack and learn to avoid that area. In mammals, this kind of behavior requires multiple brain regions, but a study published in the June issue of the Journal of Neuroscience suggests that the C. granulatus crab can manage with just a few neurons.

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Remembrance of things future: Long-term memory sets the stage for visual perception

Remembrance of things future: Long-term memory sets the stage for visual perception | Mind | Scoop.it

(Medical Xpress) -- Rather than being a passive state, perception is an active process fueled by predictions and expectations about our environment. In the latter case, memory must be a fundamental component in the way our brain generates these precursors to the perceptual experience – but how the brain integrates long-term memory with perception has not been determined. Recently, however, researchers in the Department of Experimental Psychology at the University of Oxford, by devising a method for integrating memory and attention, showed how LTM optimizes perception by varying brain states associated with anticipation of spatial localization in the visual field. The scientists also used fMRI to articulate a neural network involving a number of cortical areas likely to be active in the predictive use of memory in the visual cortex.

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Neuroscientists demonstrate crucial advances in 'brain reading'

Neuroscientists demonstrate crucial advances in 'brain reading' | Mind | Scoop.it

(Medical Xpress) -- At UCLA's Laboratory of Integrative Neuroimaging Technology, researchers use functional MRI brain scans to observe brain signal changes that take place during mental activity. They then employ computerized machine learning (ML) methods to study these patterns and identify the cognitive state — or sometimes the thought process — of human subjects. The technique is called "brain reading" or "brain decoding."

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From stimulus to emotion: A role for cortex in emotional learning

From stimulus to emotion: A role for cortex in emotional learning | Mind | Scoop.it

(Medical Xpress) -- A team of neurobiologists around Andreas Lüthi at the Friedrich Miescher Institute of Biomedical Research has shown for the first time that cortex, the largest area of the brain that is typically associated with higher functions such as perception and cognition, is also a prominent site of emotional learning. Letzkus and colleagues used a set of recently developed methods to observe through which neuronal circuits activity is conveyed during learning. This study, published in Nature, demonstrates a causal link between neuronal activity patterns and animal behavior, and provides pioneering work exploring emotions in the brain.

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Team creates computerized method for matching images in photos, paintings, sketches

Team creates computerized method for matching images in photos, paintings, sketches | Mind | Scoop.it

Computers can mimic the human ability to find visually similar images, such as photographs of a fountain in summer and in winter, or a photograph and a painting of the same cathedral, by using a technique that analyzes the uniqueness of images, say researchers at Carnegie Mellon University's School of Computer Science.

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