Our environment, our planet, our home.
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Our environment, our planet, our home.
Our planet needs care, which have suffered or will suffer the consequences of the greenhouse effect, on land, at sea, or in the water.
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Ecologia - Água - Consciência e preservação

Ecologia - Água - Consciência e preservação | Our environment, our planet, our home. | Scoop.it
Hoje, metade da população mundial (mais de 3 bilhões de pessoas) enfrenta problemas de abastecimento de água. Muitas fontes de água doce estão poluídas ou, simplesmente, secaram. V...

 

Today, half the world's population (over 3 billion people) facing problems of water supply. Many sources of fresh water are polluted or simply dried up. Did you know that 97% of water in the planet Earth is salt water (seas and oceans), glaciers form 2% inaccessible, and only 1% is fresh water stored in groundwater, rivers and lakes?

Yeah, well, we only had 1% water, unevenly distributed throughout the earth to serve more than 6 billion people (world population). This little water that remains is threatened. This is because we are only now realizing the risks posed by sewage, garbage, waste pesticides and industrial.

Each of us has a share of responsibility in this set of things. But, as we can not solve everything at once, so that we begin to make our contribution in day-to-day? You know how many liters of water a person consumes, on average, per day? Not? There are about 250 liters (that's right, 250 liters or more): bathing, hygiene, food, washing dishes and clothes, cleaning the house, plants and of course, the water that you drink.

Can you live without water? Can not. Then the output is making a rational use of this precious resource. The water must be used responsibly and sparingly. For us consumers, it also means more money in your pocket. The water bill at the end of the month will be lower. Most important, however, is to have the awareness that we are contributing effectively to reduce the risk of killing our source of life: water.

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Efeito estufa – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

Se existir um WikiProjeto mais adequado, por favor corrija esta predefinição. Este artigo está para revisão desde Fevereiro de 2008.

O efeito estufa (português brasileiro) ou efeito de estufa (português europeu) é um processo que ocorre quando uma parte da radiação infravermelha emitida pela superfície terrestre é absorvida por determinados gases presentes na atmosfera. Como consequência disso, o calor fica retido, não sendo libertado para o espaço. O efeito estufa dentro de uma determinada faixa é de vital importância pois, sem ele, a vida como a conhecemos não poderia existir. Serve para manter o planeta aquecido, e assim, garantir a manutenção da vida.

O que se pode tornar catastrófico é a ocorrência de um agravamento do efeito estufa que destabilize o equilíbrio energético no planeta e origine um fenómeno conhecido como aquecimento global. O IPCC (Painel Intergovernamental para as Mudanças Climáticas, estabelecido pelas Organização das Nações Unidas e pela Organização Meteorológica Mundial em 1988) no seu relatório mais recente[1] diz que a maior parte deste aquecimento,observado durante os últimos 50 anos, se deve muito provavelmente a um aumento dos gases do efeito estufa.

The greenhouse effect (Brazilian Portuguese) or greenhouse (European Portuguese) is a process that occurs when a portion of the infrared radiation emitted by Earth's surface is absorbed by certain gases in the atmosphere. As a result, the heat is retained and is not released into the space. The greenhouse effect within a certain range is vitally important because, without it, life as we know it could not exist. Serves to keep the planet warm, and thus ensure the maintenance of life.
What can become catastrophic is the occurrence of a greenhouse effect that destabilize the energy balance on the planet and gives rise to a phenomenon known as global warming. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, established by the United Nations and the World Meteorological Organization in 1988) in its most recent report [1] says that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years owes much probably to an increase in greenhouse gases.
The greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), CFC's (CFxClx) absorb some infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and radiate in turn some of the absorbed energy back to surface. As a result, the surface receives almost twice as much energy from the atmosphere than it receives from the sun and the surface is about 30 ° C hotter than it would be without the presence of gases 'greenhouse'.
One of the worst gas is methane, about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide, is produced by flatulence sheep and cattle, cattle being that 16% of global pollution. Scientists seek the solution to this problem and are developing a drug to try to solve the case. In New Zealand it was thought to charge up rates per cow to offset the effect of the gases emitted. [2]
Unlike the literal meaning of the term 'greenhouse effect', the atmosphere does not behave like a greenhouse (or as a blanket). An oven, the heating occurs essentially because convection is suppressed. No exchange of air between the interior and exterior. Already in the atmospheric greenhouse effect, part of the infrared radiation emitted by the surface is absorbed by the atmosphere, raising its temperature, and part is re-emitted in successive process that ultimately ends with its release into space. Although the temperature rise in both cases, the physical processes are quite distinct.
The energy received from the sun is different from the frequency spectrum emitted by the Earth's surface. Greenhouse gases are largely transparent to sunlight visible, infrared and obstruct the Earth, retaining energy on our planet.
The problem of increasing greenhouse gases and their influence on global warming, has placed in confrontation social forces that do not allow you to treat this matter from the standpoint of strictly scientific. Line up on one side, proponents of anthropogenic causes as primarily responsible for the accelerated warming of the planet. They are the most ubiquitous and the media. On the other side are the "skeptics" who claim that warming is accelerating far more related to intrinsic causes of the dynamics of the Earth, what with pollution and deforestation claimed that faster cause undesirable effects to life on the face of the earth that proper spare capacity planetary.
Both sides present arguments and are supported by social forces.
Pollution of the last two hundred years has thicker the layer of gases in the atmosphere. This layer prevents the dispersion of light energy from the sun that illuminates and warms the Earth and also retains the infrared radiation (heat) emitted from the surface of the planet. The effect of the gaseous layer thickness is similar to that of a glass greenhouse for plants, which afforded name. Many of these gases are produced naturally as a result of volcanic eruptions, the decomposition of organic matter and the smoke from large fires. Its existence is essential to the existence of life on the planet, but the current density gaseous layer is due largely to human activity. On a global scale, the excessive increase of greenhouse gases causes global warming, which has catastrophic consequences. The melting icecaps, the so-called "eternal ice" and glaciers, for example, raises the water level of the oceans and lakes, submerging islands and large densely populated coastal areas. The overheating of the tropical and subtropical regions contributes to intensify the process of desertification and proliferation of insects harmful to human and animal health. The destruction of natural habitats causes the disappearance of plant and animal species. Multiply droughts, floods and hurricanes, with its sequel of destruction and death.


Influence of each greenhouse gas in the greenhouse effect.
All of radiation absorption occur near the ground surface, i.e. on the lower parts of the atmosphere, where it is most dense at higher altitudes because the density of the atmosphere is too low to have an important role as a radiation absorber (except for the case of ozone). The water vapor, which is the most powerful greenhouse gas, is present in the lower parts of the atmosphere, and thus most of the radiation absorption will occur at its base. The increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, maintained the amount of solar radiation that enters the planet will cause the temperature rise in their lower parts. The result of this process is the increase in infrared radiation from the base of the atmosphere, both upwards and downwards. As the lower (larger amount of matter) increases more than the top temperature, maintaining the energy balance (which should be equal to enter coming out) is given by the redistribution temperature of the atmosphere. The lower levels are warmer and colder upper. Irradiation into outer space will occur at higher levels with an equivalent temperature of a blackbody radiating needed to maintain energy balance in equilibrium.
Assessments of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are the most comprehensive summaries of the state of the art in forecasting the future of the planet, considering several possible scenarios

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Aquecimento global – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

Se existir um WikiProjeto mais adequado, por favor corrija esta predefinição. Este artigo está para revisão desde abril de 2010.

Aquecimento global é o aumento da temperatura média dos oceanos e do ar perto da superfície da Terra que ocorre desde meados do século XX e que deverá continuar no século XXI. Segundo o Quarto Relatório de Avaliação do Painel Intergovernamental sobre Mudanças Climáticas (2007), a temperatura na superfície terrestre aumentou 0,74 ± 0,18 °C durante o século XX.[1]

A maior parte do aumento de temperatura observado desde meados do século XX foi causada por concentrações crescentes de gases do efeito estufa, como resultado de atividades humanas como a queima de combustíveis fósseis e a desflorestação.[2][3] O escurecimento global, uma consequência do aumento das concentrações de aerossois atmosféricos que bloqueiam parte da radiação solar antes que esta atinja a superfície da Terra, mascarou parcialmente os efeitos do aquecimento induzido pelos gases de efeito de estufa.

Global warming is increasing the average temperature of the oceans and the air near the Earth's surface that occurs from mid-twentieth century and that should continue in the twenty-first century. According to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007), the temperature at the Earth's surface increased 0.74 ± 0.18 ° C during the twentieth century. [1]
Most of the observed temperature increase since the mid-twentieth century was caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases as a result of human activities such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation. [2] [3] Global dimming, a result increasing concentrations of atmospheric aerosols that block part of solar radiation before it reaches the Earth's surface, partially masked the effects of warming induced by greenhouse gases.
Climate models referenced by the IPCC projected that global surface temperature will probably rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 ° Centre 1990 and 2100. [3] The range of values reflects the use of differing scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions and results of models with differing climate sensitivity. Although most studies have their focus on the period up to the year 2100, it is expected that warming and rising sea levels continue for more than a millennium even if greenhouse gas concentrations are stabilized. [3]
An increase in global temperatures may in turn cause other changes, including sea level rise, changes in patterns deprecipitação resulting in floods and droughts. [4] It is expected that the warming is more intense in the Arctic and would be associated with retreat of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects include changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, species extinctions and changes in agricultural production. The warming and its consequences will vary from region to region, although the nature of these regional variations is uncertain. [5] Another global concomitant occurrence [6] [7] global warming is already happening and is expected to continue in future is aacidificação ocean, which is also the result of contemporary increase the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
The scientific consensus is that anthropogenic global warming is happening. [8] [9] [10] [11] The Kyoto Protocol is aimed at stabilizing the concentration of greenhouse gases to avoid "dangerous anthropogenic interference. [12] In November 2009 were 187 states have signed and ratified the protocol. [13]

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Nossa história

Nossa história | Our environment, our planet, our home. | Scoop.it
Nossa história...

 

The history of WWF in Brazil began in 1971, when WWF began its work in the country supporting the first studies on an unknown primate endangered species of Rio de Janeiro. This pioneering work was to become the Conservation Program of the Golden Lion Tamarin, one of the most successful of its kind in the world, which for 30 years has been run by WWF in partnership with other organizations. In the following years several small projects throughout Brazil relied on the financial support of the entity.

It was in the 80s that the presence of the WWF in the country increased, with the support given to the first years of the Tamar Project, among other initiatives. By choosing to work with local partners, WWF helped establish and strengthen several environmental groups that now occupy a prominent place in the area of conservation, such as the Amazon Victoria Foundation (FVA).
 
Until 1989, various national organizations of WWF (WWF-US, WWF-UK and WWF-Sweden) directly financed projects developed by students or institutions and Brazilian researchers. However, with the expansion of technical and financial support over the years, it became necessary to establish a representative office. This happened in 1990 with the hiring of Dr. Cléber Garlic biologist, who was responsible for open office in Brasilia. The unit is now maintained by the WWF-US who ran on behalf of the Network, all projects supported by WWF in Brazil.

The structure of the office and the number of technicians and employees grew continuously within the objective of strengthening the actions of WWF in Brazil and maximize impact for the conservation of nature. In 1993, to give more flexibility to work, he was appointed the first director of the office, biologist Eduardo Martins.
 

Consolidation in Brazil

Gradually, however, it is clear that a country the size, threats and biodiversity of Brazil needed to have a national entity itself, which could contribute more effectively to the debate and solutions to environmental problems. In 1994, the Brazilian team gets the green light to enable a proper structure.
 
On August 30, 1996, is officially created the WWF-Brazil, the Brazilian organization and autonomous nonprofit nature conservation that has joined the WWF. On occasion, takes office the first Board of Directors of WWF-Brazil, composed of nine representatives from business, environmentalism and other sectors of Brazilian society.
 
Brazil became the 25th national organization WWF and the first in Latin America, which includes offices in Mexico, Peru, Colombia, Bolivia and Costa Rica (responsible for all of Central America), and partner organizations in Argentina (Fundación Vida Silvestre Argentina), Ecuador (Fundación Natura) and Venezuela (Fudena).
 
The following steps were the approval of the first strategic plan for the period 1996-2001, consolidating goals and objectives of the conservation program, the intensification of environmental education, communications and public policy, raising the public profile of the organization and launching a Table of Affiliates, with the opening of the entity to the participation of people interested in supporting conservation activities. Over 500 affiliates were recorded in the first six months of operation.
 

Present

Today, WWF-Brazil executes projects throughout the country through partnerships with businesses, nongovernmental organizations, agencies of federal, state and local, developing research and diagnosis; protection of species and threatened ecosystems; development alternative models of conservation and use of natural resources training and development of partner organizations; dissemination of results through environmental education, environmental policy and communication, and social mobilization campaigns.

Besides the headquarters in Brasilia, WWF-Brazil also has four other offices: Sao Paulo (SP), Rio Branco (AC), Manaus (AM) and Campo Grande (MS). Currently, therefore, the institution has ample structure to operate on a national scale, working in the Amazon, Pantanal, Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

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Greenpeace no Brasil

Greenpeace no Brasil | Our environment, our planet, our home. | Scoop.it
O Greenpeace chegou ao Brasil no mesmo ano em que o país abrigou a primeira e mais importante conferência ambiental da História, a Eco-92.

 

O protesto que marca a fundação da organização por aqui foi uma ação contra a usina nuclear de Angra. Chegando por mar, ao bordo do navio Rainbow Warrior, os ativistas fixaram 800 cruzes no pátio da usina, simbolizando o número de mortos no acidente de Chernobyl.

A primeira grande vitória no Brasil se deu um ano após a inauguração do escritório, com a proibição da importação de lixo tóxico. Ainda na década de 1990, tiveram início as campanhas contra o uso dos gases CFC – que atacam a camada de ozônio – e de transgênicos, que levou à aprovação de uma lei para a rotulagem de alimentos com organismos geneticamente modificados.

De olho na proteção da maior floresta tropical do mundo, em 1992 começou a investigação sobre a exploração ilegal e predatória de madeira na Amazônia.

Para a redução das emissões de gases do efeito estufa, o Greenpeace trabalha em um cenário de [R]evolução Energética, para pressionar o governo a incentivar o setor de energia eólica, solar e biomassa.

O Greenpeace ajudou o Brasil a levar mais a sério o debate ambiental, enquanto a realidade do país mostrou à organização que os problemas ambientais e os sociais caminham juntos.

Os desafios da organização cresceram com o país. O ritmo do desmatamento na Amazônia vem caindo, mas ainda é alarmante, sem que os problemas tenham sido resolvidos. Por outro lado, o Brasil, que tinha tudo para aproveitar seus recursos naturais para se tornar uma potência energética de matriz quase 100% limpa, ainda quer investir em energias sujas e perigosas como petróleo e nuclear – e por isso a organização faz campanha pelo incentivo e pelo investimento em fontes renováveis de energia, como eólica, solar e biomassa.

 

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Aquecimento global – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

Se existir um WikiProjeto mais adequado, por favor corrija esta predefinição. Este artigo está para revisão desde abril de 2010.

Aquecimento global é o aumento da temperatura média dos oceanos e do ar perto da superfície da Terra que ocorre desde meados do século XX e que deverá continuar no século XXI. Segundo o Quarto Relatório de Avaliação do Painel Intergovernamental sobre Mudanças Climáticas (2007), a temperatura na superfície terrestre aumentou 0,74 ± 0,18 °C durante o século XX.[1]

A maior parte do aumento de temperatura observado desde meados do século XX foi causada por concentrações crescentes de gases do efeito estufa, como resultado de atividades humanas como a queima de combustíveis fósseis e a desflorestação.[2][3] O escurecimento global, uma consequência do aumento das concentrações de aerossois atmosféricos que bloqueiam parte da radiação solar antes que esta atinja a superfície da Terra, mascarou parcialmente os efeitos do aquecimento induzido pelos gases de efeito de estufa.

Aquecimento global é o aumento da temperatura média dos oceanos e do ar perto da superfície da Terra que ocorre desde meados do século XX e que deverá continuar no século XXI. Segundo o Quarto Relatório de Avaliação do Painel Intergovernamental sobre Mudanças Climáticas (2007), a temperatura na superfície terrestre aumentou 0,74 ± 0,18 °C durante o século XX.[1]

A maior parte do aumento de temperatura observado desde meados do século XX foi causada por concentrações crescentes de gases do efeito estufa, como resultado de atividades humanas como a queima de combustíveis fósseis e a desflorestação.[2][3] O escurecimento global, uma consequência do aumento das concentrações de aerossois atmosféricos que bloqueiam parte da radiação solar antes que esta atinja a superfície da Terra, mascarou parcialmente os efeitos do aquecimento induzido pelos gases de efeito de estufa.

Modelos climáticos referenciados pelo IPCC projetam que as temperaturas globais de superfície provavelmente aumentarão no intervalo entre 1,1 e 6,4 °Centre 1990 e 2100.[3] A variação dos valores reflete o uso de diferentes cenários de futura emissão de gases estufa e resultados de modelos com diferenças na sensibilidade climática. Apesar de a maioria dos estudos ter seu foco no período até o ano 2100, espera-se que o aquecimento e o aumento no nível do mar continuem por mais de um milênio, mesmo que as concentrações de gases estufa se estabilizem.[3]

Um aumento nas temperaturas globais pode, em contrapartida, causar outras alterações, incluindo aumento no nível do mar, mudanças em padrões deprecipitação resultando em enchentes e secas.[4] Espera-se que o aquecimento seja mais intenso no Ártico, e estaria associado ao recuo das geleiras,permafrost e gelo marinho. Outros efeitos prováveis incluem alterações na frequência e intensidade de eventos meteorológicos extremos, extinção de espécies e variações na produção agrícola. O aquecimento e as suas consequências variarão de região para região, apesar da natureza destas variações regionais ser incerta.[5] Outra ocorrência global concomitante[6][7] com o aquecimento global que já se verifica e que se prevê continuar no futuro, é aacidificação oceânica, que é também resultado do aumento contemporâneo da concentração de dióxido de carbono atmosférico.

O consenso científico é que o aquecimento global antropogênico está a acontecer.[8][9][10][11] O Protocolo de Quioto visa a estabilização da concentração de gases de efeito estufa para evitar uma "interferência antropogénica perigosa.[12] Em Novembro de 2009 eram 187 os estados que assinaram e ratificaram o protocolo.[13]

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