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Memories 'need space' in brain

Memories 'need space' in brain | medicine |

Similar memories overlap physically in the brain and this produces less confusion if the brain area responsible is larger, according to new research.

Scientists scanned the brains of 15 people recalling four similar scenes, in a study published in PNAS.

They spotted overlapping memory traces in a specific corner of the hippocampus called "CA3", a known memory area.

If their CA3 was bigger, the subjects were less confused and there was less overlap in the traces.

Most of us store many similar memories, relating to the places we spend most time and the people we know best. Normally we can tell them apart, though some of us may be better at it than others.

The CA3 region was thought to process each memory using distinct sets of brain cells. These findings suggest, however, that when two episodes incorporate similar content, they may in fact be "remembered" by physically overlapping networks - and more space could be beneficial.

"Our results may help to explain why we sometimes find it difficult to differentiate between similar past memories, and why some people are better at doing this than others," said Prof Eleanor Maguire, the study's senior author, from the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging at University College London (UCL).

The 15 subjects watched four short movies, showing two different actions happening in each of two different places. They were then prompted to remember each one, 20 times over, inside a brain scanner.

Scans revealed distinguishable memory activity in the CA3 region, but not three other compartments of the hippocampus. Importantly, the four different memory traces showed significant overlap.

Furthermore, that overlap was more apparent in people who said they were more confused by the similarities between the four memories.

Via Wildcat2030
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A neural device to restore memory | KurzweilAI

A neural device to restore memory | KurzweilAI | medicine |

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will develop an implantable neural device with the ability to record and stimulate neurons within the brain to

Via Ray and Terry's
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Developments in HIV-1 immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccination - F1000Prime Reports

Developments in HIV-1 immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccination - F1000Prime Reports | medicine |
Developments in HIV-1 immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccination


Since the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) pandemic began, few prophylactic vaccines have reached phase III trials. Only one has shown partial efficacy in preventing HIV-1 infection. The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has had considerable success in controlling infection and reducing transmission but in so doing has changed the nature of HIV-1 infection for those with access to ART. Access, compliance, and toxicity alongside the emergence of serious non-AIDS morbidity and the sometimes poor immune reconstitution in ART-treated patients have emphasized the need for additional therapies. Such therapy is intended to contribute to control of HIV-1 infection, permit structured treatment interruptions, or even establish a functional cure of permanently suppressed and controlled infection. Both immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccination have the potential to reach these goals. In this review, the latest developments in immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccination are discussed.

Via Krishan Maggon
Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, July 9, 2014 11:26 AM
Developments in HIV-1 immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccination


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Peter Lawrence Smith, Helen Tanner and Angus Dalgleish


St George's, University of London, Institute for Infection and Immunity, 1 Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK

Corresponding author


F1000Prime Rep2014, 6:43 (doi: 10.12703/P6-43)Published: 02 Jun 2014 © 2014 Faculty of 1000 Ltd

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found at:

The PDF of this article can be found at: ;