Medicina, microbiología e infecciones
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Medicina, microbiología e infecciones
Enlaces e intereses de la microbiología y medicina
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WPRO | Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)

WPRO | Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) | Medicina, microbiología e infecciones | Scoop.it
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EticaMedicaRRSS

EticaMedicaRRSS | Medicina, microbiología e infecciones | Scoop.it
MANUAL DE ESTILO PARA MÉDICOS Y ESTUDIANTES DE MEDICINA SOBRE EL BUEN USO DE REDES SOCIALES Tras más de un año de trabajo desinteresado y colaborativo de los autores: médicos y estudiantes de medic...
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La actividad física en la infancia, uno de los hábitos de vida saludables más relevantes

La actividad física en la infancia, uno de los hábitos de vida saludables más relevantes | Medicina, microbiología e infecciones | Scoop.it
La actividad física en la infancia es uno de los hábitos de vida saludables más relevantes.No sólo genera importantes beneficios para la salud durante esta edad, sino que constituye una protecció
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microBIO: La bacteria más pequeña del mundo es mediterránea!

microBIO: La bacteria más pequeña del mundo es mediterránea! | Medicina, microbiología e infecciones | Scoop.it
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Barry Schartz y nuestra pérdida de sabiduría | Video on TED.com

Barry Schwartz hace un llamado vehemente a la "sabiduría práctica" como antídoto para una sociedad que ha enloquecido a causa de la burocracia.
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Microbiologia Clinica: Nuevo libro en Microbiología y Parasitología Médicas

Microbiologia Clinica: Nuevo libro en Microbiología y Parasitología Médicas | Medicina, microbiología e infecciones | Scoop.it
Javier Casas Ciria's insight:

El libro me ha gustado mucho, y me ha sorprendido por la alta calidad de la obra. Es un buen libro que destaca por muchos aspectos. Tiene una buena encuadernación y maquetación, con la totalidad de las fotos de gran calidad y buenos esquemas y gráficos que son originales. Está muy actualizado, describiendo, por ejemplo, métodos diagnósticos que son novedad actualmente como el MALDI-TOFF. Aspecto que mas me ha gustado del libro es el abordaje de todos los temas desde un punto de vista práctico. No es puramente académico, alejado de la practica diaria, sino todo lo contrario desarrolla temas cotidianos y esenciales para comprender la microbiología y el estudio práctico de la infecciones.

Cada capítulo está muy bien enfocado. Se estructura en una revisión general del tema pero incorporan datos recientes. Aparte de la visión general, en cada tema se destacan varios cuadros de textos con algunos puntos más profundos del tema.

Y como buena obra pedagógica, cada tema acaba con unas preguntas que evidencian los aspectos de interés de cada tema, cuya investigación por el lector refuerza la adquisición de los aspectos fundamentales.

La única pega al libro es la falta de un indice temático o analítico de términos, al final de la obra que permita encontrar rápidamente cualquier duda o concepto dentro del texto.

Se evidencia un gran esfuerzo de concreción realizado por los autores, pero no por ello se dejan aspectos fundamentales en cada tema, consiguiendo una obra muy recomendable no solo para el estudiante de medicina también para todo el que necesite ideas básicas de microbiología y parasitología médicas

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A Cohort Effect of the Sexual Revolution May Be Masking an Increase in Human Papillomavirus Detection at Menopause in the United States

A Cohort Effect of the Sexual Revolution May Be Masking an Increase in Human Papillomavirus Detection at Menopause in the United States | Medicina, microbiología e infecciones | Scoop.it
Javier Casas Ciria's insight:

La infección por papilomavirus que se detecta en mujeres alrededor de la menopausia puede representar la reactivación de una infección antigua adquirida décadas anteriores, más una nueva exposición. 

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Antibody orientation matters

The orientation of antibody binding to bacteria can mean life or death to the bug, according to a new study.
Javier Casas Ciria's insight:

La concetración y la fijación de anticuerpos a las bacterias explica porque se producen en el caso de Streptococcus pyogenes muchas infecciones locales (amigdalitis) frente a pocas infecciones sistémicas.

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Fighting bacteria with mucus: Key proteins in mucus prevent bacterial adhesion to surfaces

Fighting bacteria with mucus: Key proteins in mucus prevent bacterial adhesion to surfaces | Medicina, microbiología e infecciones | Scoop.it
Results from a recent study suggest a possible new source of protection against biofilm formation: polymers found in mucus.
Javier Casas Ciria's insight:

Results from a recent MIT study suggest a possible new source of protection against biofilm formation: polymers found in mucus. The MIT biological engineers found that these polymers, known as mucins, can trap bacteria and prevent them from clumping together on a surface, rendering them harmless.

 

"Mucus is a material that has developed over millions of years of evolution to manage our interactions with the microbial world. I'm sure we can find inspiration from it for new strategies to help prevent infections and bacterial colonization," says Katharina Ribbeck, the Eugene Bell Career Development Assistant Professor of Biological Engineering and senior author of the paper, which appears in the Nov. 8 online edition of the journal Current Biology.

 

Mucin coatings may help prevent biofilm formation on medical devices and could also find applications in personal hygiene: Incorporating them into products such as toothpaste or mouthwash may supplement the body's own defenses, especially in people whose natural mucus has been depleted, Ribbeck says.

 

Lead authors of the Current Biologypaper are former MIT postdoc Marina Caldara and Ronn Friedlander, a graduate student in the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology. Other authors are Nicole Kavanaugh, an MIT graduate student in biology; Joanna Aizenberg, a professor of materials science at Harvard University; and Kevin Foster, a professor of evolutionary biology at the University of Oxford.

 

How to stop bacteria from teaming up

Mucus normally lines most of the wet surfaces of the body, including the respiratory and digestive tracts. "The textbook view of mucus is that it forms a barrier to infection, but it's not at all clear how it does so," Ribbeck says.

 

To investigate that question, Ribbeck and her colleagues observed the behavior of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria in a growth medium that contained soluble purified mucins -- long proteins with many sugar molecules attached.

 

For bacteria to effectively penetrate the mucus layer and infect the tissues below, they need to form clusters that can adhere to the tissue surface. Clumps of bacteria are much more difficult for the immune system to clear, because immune cells are specialized to attack individual bacterial cells.

 

"In general, you want to have bacteria around, you just don't want them to team up," Ribbeck says. "You want to them to be mixed with many other bacteria that are good for you. You don't want a single species to take over, because then they may overgrow the system."

 

In the new study, the researchers found that mucins block bacterial cluster formation by preventing them from adhering, which is necessary for them to clump together. When bacteria stay motile, they end up suspended in a gooey mix and can do less harm.

 

"The mucins have the ability to suppress virulence by keeping the cells separate. It's like keeping your kids in separate rooms, so they will stay out of trouble," Ribbeck says.

 

However, bacteria are sometimes able to break through this defense system and cause infections. This can be accelerated by reductions in mucus due to aging, dehydration or chemotherapy, Ribbeck says. Or it may be that the mucus does not get replaced often enough, as happens in the mucus-clogged lungs of cystic fibrosis patients.

 

The finding contradicts a long-held belief that mucus is merely a sticky substance that traps more or less everything, says Gunnar C. Hansson, a professor of medical biochemistry at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden. It also "opens a new window for studies of mucins and their properties, which will help us to develop new medical therapies and biotechnological applications," says Hansson, who was not part of the research team.

 

'Managing microbial behavior'

One advantage of using mucins as antimicrobial coatings is that the substance disarms pathogenic bacteria without killing them. This makes it less likely that bacteria could evolve resistance to mucins, as they do to antibiotic drugs. It would also spare the beneficial bacteria that live on mucus membranes.

 

"This is a nice mechanism where you just suppress the virulence traits without killing the bacteria," Ribbeck says. "It's nature's way of managing microbial behavioral in a way that could be useful to take advantage of."

Her lab is now investigating exactly how mucins prevent bacteria from losing their motility, and also how they block infection by nonmotile bacteria. Mucins seem to have wide-ranging antimicrobial properties: Ribbeck has previously shown that they can trap viruses and keep them from infecting cells, and she is now studying mucin interactions with other pathogenic organisms, such as yeasts.

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Excellent Idea of the Day: TB Tracker Halts Disease's Spread : Discovery News

Excellent Idea of the Day: TB Tracker Halts Disease's Spread : Discovery News | Medicina, microbiología e infecciones | Scoop.it
A simple fingerprint reader and a netbook is enough to stop this infectious disease in its tracks.

 

The fingerprinting system is twofold. First, it identifies the patient. When patient visit local health centers, they place their fingers on a reader, which records the print. The fingerprint reader is connected to a netbook, which also stores the data relevant to that patient.

 

Second, the netbook uses the local cellular network to send SMS notifications to health-care workers if a patient misses an appointment. When that happens, the health-care worker can go talk to the patient and see what happened.

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NEARLY CONSTANT SHEDDING OF DIVERSE ENTERIC VIRUSES BY TWO HEALTHY INFANTS. [J Clin Microbiol. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

Stool samples from two healthy infant siblings collected at about weekly intervals during their first year of life were analyzed by PCR for 15 different enteric viral genera. Adenovirus, Aichi virus, Anellovirus, Astrovirus, Bocavirus, Enterovirus, Parechovirus, Picobirnavirus, Rotavirus were detected. Not detected were Coronavirus, Cardiovirus, Cosavirus, Salivirus, Sapovirus and Norovirus.

 

Long term virus shedding, lasting from one to twelve months, was observed for adenoviruses, anelloviruses, bocaviruses, enteroviruses, parechoviruses, and picobirnaviruses. Repeated administration of oral poliovirus vaccine resulted in progressively shorter periods of poliovirus detection. Four non-polio enterovirus genotypes were also found. An average of 1.8 distinct human viruses was found per time point. Ninety two percent (66/72) of the fecal samples tested contained from one to five different human viruses.

 

Two British siblings in the mid 1980s showed nearly constant fecal viral shedding.

Our results illustrate the high level of enteric viral infections during early childhood in a developed country in the absence of severe clinical symptoms.

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Following Patients on Twitter « Mind On Medicine

Following Patients on Twitter « Mind On Medicine | Medicina, microbiología e infecciones | Scoop.it

Mind On Medicine blogger Danielle Jones describes how following patients on Social Media has made her a more caring & compassionate future physician.


Via Lionel Reichardt / le Pharmageek, Valentina Jaramillo
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Legionellosis in Spain | GIDEON - Global Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Network

Legionellosis in Spain | GIDEON - Global Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Network | Medicina, microbiología e infecciones | Scoop.it

Aumento de brotes de legionela en España, probablemente x mayor diagnóstico debido a los EIAs rápidos.

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La 'emergencia sanitaria' del cambio climático

La 'emergencia sanitaria' del cambio climático | Medicina, microbiología e infecciones | Scoop.it
Apenas unos días después de que el Papa Francisco denunciara en su esperada encíclica Laudatio si los abusos perpetrados sobre la "casa común" de la humanidad y reclamara
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Loss and Recovery of Genetic Diversity in Adapting Populations of HIV

Loss and Recovery of Genetic Diversity in Adapting Populations of HIV | Medicina, microbiología e infecciones | Scoop.it
PLOS Genetics is an open-access

Via Kenzibit
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WHO South-East Asia Region certified polio-free

New Delhi, 27 March: WHO South-East Asia Region, home to a quarter of the world’s population, was certified polio-free today by an independent commission under the WHO certification process. This is the fourth of six WHO Regions to be certified, marking an important step towards global polio eradication. With this step, 80% of the world’s population now lives in certified polio-free regions.

An independent panel of 11 experts in public health, epidemiology, virology, clinical medicine and related specialties constituting the South-East Asia Regional Certification Commission for Polio Eradication (SEA-RCCPE) met for two days to review evidence from countries before reaching the decision that all 11 countries of the Region are now polio-free and have met the requirements for certification.

Before a Region can be certified polio-free, several conditions must be satisfied such as: at least three years of zero confirmed cases due to indigenous wild poliovirus; excellent laboratory-based surveillance for poliovirus; demonstrated capacity to detect, report, and respond to imported cases of poliomyelitis; and assurance of safe containment of polioviruses in laboratories (introduced since 2000).


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Ed Rybicki's curator insight, March 30, 2014 11:11 AM

This is, seriously, a VERY big deal: the beginning of the end for a virus!!

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Foodborne Illnesses: What You Need to Know

A table of foodborne disease-causing organisms and common illness names with the associated signs and symptoms.

Via Dr. Mary T. Johnson, Anna Tomàs
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Anna Tomàs's curator insight, June 4, 2013 3:47 AM

A very useful table! Thanks to the FDA...

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Médico Rural (Medicina para Todólogos): Yo tengo una enfermera al 75% y los pacientes también.

Médico Rural (Medicina para Todólogos): Yo tengo una enfermera al 75% y los pacientes también. | Medicina, microbiología e infecciones | Scoop.it
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Carbapenem Disks on MacConkey Agar in Screening Methods for Detection of Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Rods in Stools

Direct plating of simulated stool specimens on MacConkey agar (MCA) with 10-μg ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem disks allowed the establishment of optimal zone diameters for the screening of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative rods (CRGNR) of ≤24 mm (ertapenem), ≤34 mm (meropenem), and ≤32 mm (imipenem).
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BioMed Central | Worries about dementia: how hospitalization affects the elderly

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Older people often worry about dementia and while some risks are known, for example alcoholism or stroke, the effects of illness are less clear. New research published in BioMed Central’s open access journal Critical Care looks at illness requiring hospitalization and treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU) and finds that infection or severe sepsis, neurological dysfunction, such as delirium, or acute dialysis are all independently associated with an increased risk of a subsequent diagnosis of dementia.

This study was based on a random 5% of older (66 years or above) Medicare patients who were treated in intensive care in 2005 and whose health was followed for a further three years using Medicare claims data. Of the 25,368 patients included in the study 4,519 (17.8%) went on to receive a diagnosis of dementia during the three year follow up period. 

Patients with previous indications of cognitive impairment for whom dementia could have been an escalation of a pre-existing condition were excluded from the study.

Increasing age was very strongly associated with diagnosis of dementia following ICU. The risk at 75 was more than double that of the 66 to 69 year olds. And this rose to more than five times the risk for those age 85 and older. Women had a marginally higher risk than men and, as other studies have shown, race was also important to risk. Length of stay in ICU was not a factor nor was the need for mechanical ventilation.

Three factors related to the critical illness were independently associated with an increased risk of a diagnosis of dementia: a critical illness with the presence of an infection which increased to a higher risk with more severe infection such as severe sepsis, having acute neurologic dysfunction during critical illness, including anoxic brain damage, encephalopathy, and transient mental disorders, and finally acute renal failure requiring dialysis. This last risk was time-dependent and only increased the risk 6 months after the patient had been discharged from hospital. 

Dr Hannah Wunsch, from Columbia University Medical Center, lead author of the study commented,  “Due to increasing life spans and better hospital care, millions of older people now survive a critical illness every year. Our study provides a greater understanding of the consequences of these hospitalizations on subsequent risk of receiving a diagnosis of dementia, and may allow for better planning and targeting future studies to high risk populations.”

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PLOS Pathogens: Pneumocystis: Where Does It Live?

PLOS Pathogens: Pneumocystis: Where Does It Live? | Medicina, microbiología e infecciones | Scoop.it
From molecules to physiology
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Residual Viral and Bacterial Contamination of Surfaces after Cleaning and Disinfection

Javier Casas Ciria's insight:

Environmental surfaces contaminated with pathogens can be sources of indirect transmission, and cleaning and disinfection are common interventions focused on reducing contamination levels. We determined the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection procedures for reducing contamination by noroviruses, rotavirus, poliovirus, parechovirus, adenovirus, influenza virus, Staphylococcus aureus, andSalmonella enterica from artificially contaminated stainless steel surfaces. After a single wipe with water, liquid soap, or 250-ppm free chlorine solution, the numbers of infective viruses and bacteria were reduced by 1 log10 for poliovirus and close to 4 log10 for influenza virus. There was no significant difference in residual contamination levels after wiping with water, liquid soap, or 250-ppm chlorine solution. When a single wipe with liquid soap was followed by a second wipe using 250- or 1,000-ppm chlorine, an extra 1- to 3-log10 reduction was achieved, and except for rotavirus and norovirus genogroup I, no significant additional effect of 1,000 ppm compared to 250 ppm was found. A reduced correlation between reduction in PCR units (PCRU) and reduction in infectious particles suggests that at least part of the reduction achieved in the second step is due to inactivation instead of removal alone. We used data on infectious doses and transfer efficiencies to estimate a target level to which the residual contamination should be reduced and found that a single wipe with liquid soap followed by a wipe with 250-ppm free chlorine solution was sufficient to reduce the residual contamination to below the target level for most of the pathogens tested.

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ProMED-mail |

 

The number of deaths due to definite or probable vCJD in the UK as of Mon 5 Nov 2012 remains 176. No definite/probable patients remain alive, so the total number of definite or probable vCJD cases (dead) remains 176.

 

The overall picture remains consistent with the view that the vCJD outbreak in the UK is in decline, despite an unexpected increase in 2011. The 1st cases were observed in 1995, and the peak number of deaths was 28 in the year 2000, followed by 20 in 2001, 17 in 2002, 18 in 2003, 9 in 2004, 5 in 2005, 5 in 2006, 5 in 2007, one in 2008, 3 in 2009, 3 in 2010, 5 in 2011, and none so far in 2012.

 

Totals for all types of CJD cases in the UK in 2012

---------------------------------------------------

 During 2012 so far [as of 5 Nov 2012], there have been 96 referrals, 60 fatal cases of sporadic CJD, 8 cases of genetic CJD [cases of familial CJD and Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease are now included in this single category], 3 cases of iatrogenic CJD, and no cases of vCJD.

 

Since records began in 1990, there have been 2987 referrals, 1363 fatal cases of sporadic CJD, 176 cases of vCJD, 148 cases of genetic (familial + GSS), and 71 cases of iatrogenic CJD.

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PLOS Medicine: Point-of-Care Testing for Infectious Diseases: Diversity, Complexity, and Barriers in Low- And Middle-Income Countries

PLOS Medicine is an open-access, peer-reviewed medical journal that publishes outstanding human studies that substantially enhance the understanding of human health and disease.
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Extrapulmonary Locations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA During Latent Infection

Extrapulmonary Locations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA During Latent Infection | Medicina, microbiología e infecciones | Scoop.it

Background. One-third of the world's population has latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and 10%–15% of cases of reactivation occur at extrapulmonary sites without active pulmonary tuberculosis.

 

Methods. To establish the frequency and location of mycobacterial DNA, organ specimens from 49 individuals who died from causes other than tuberculosis were studied by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR plus DNA hybridization, in situ PCR, real-time PCR, and spoligotyping.

 

Results. Lung specimens from most subjects (36) were positive for M. tuberculosis, as were specimens from the spleen (from 35 subjects), kidney (from 34), and liver (from 33). By in situ PCR, mycobacterial DNA was found in endothelium, pneumocytes, and macrophages from the lung and in Bowman's parietal cells and convoluted proximal tubules from the kidney. In spleen, macrophages and sinusoidal endothelial cells were positive, whereas in liver, Kupffer cells and sinusoidal endothelium were commonly positive. Spoligotyping of 54 pulmonary and extrapulmonary positive tissues from 30 subjects showed 43 different genotypes, including 36 orphan types. To confirm the viability of mycobacteria, 10 positive tissue samples were selected for isolation of mycobacterial RNA. All samples showed 16S ribosomal RNA expression, while 8 and 4 samples showed expression of the latent infection genes encoding isocitrate lyase and α-crystallin, respectively.

 

Conclusions. M. tuberculosis persists in several sites and cell types that might constitute reservoirs that can reactivate infection, producing extrapulmonary tuberculosis without lung involvement.

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