While new treatments for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and Alimta (pemetrexed) are effective second-line treatments for patients whose tumors carry mutations in the EGFR gene, they are less effective for patients without such mutations. Twenty-six patients with inoperable, previously treated NSCLC received treatment with amrubicin (Calsed) and S-1 and experienced higher treatment response rates, longer periods without cancer progression, and longer overall survival than has been reported with single-agent chemotherapy. The beneficial effects were independent of cancer subtype, suggesting that combined Calsed and S-1 may be an effective second-line treatment for NSCLC without EGFR mutation.

Research paper: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00280-012-2061-1/fulltext.html