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The Oldest of Them All | The Scientist Magazine®

The Oldest of Them All | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Greenland sharks roam the cold, dark waters off the of the coasts of northeastern North America, Greenland, and northern Europe. There, they have an unusual talent for staying alive, according to a study published this week (August 11) in Science.

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Drones take medical samples to the sky in Madagascar

Drones take medical samples to the sky in Madagascar | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Many of the remote villages in the Ifanadiana district of Madagascar aren't linked to the outside world by decent roads. Among other things, this means that it can be very difficult getting medical samples to labs in a timely fashion. That's where a project led by New York-based Stony Brook University comes in. It's been using autonomous drones to get biological samples from those villages to a central testing center, where they can be checked for diseases such as tuberculosis.

The GPS-guided drones were made by project partner Vayu, Inc. They take off and land vertically, like a helicopter, but switch to faster and more efficient fixed-wing flight once they reach altitude.
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Ray Kurzweil Explains Why Radical Life Extension Will Be Better Than You Think

Ray Kurzweil Explains Why Radical Life Extension Will Be Better Than You Think | Longevity science | Scoop.it
According to Ray Kurzweil, we’re approaching a time when humans will begin to radically extend their lifespans. This sounds good on the surface, but will we have enough resources to support everyone? And won’t living indefinitely get boring eventually? Not so much, Kurzweil says.

Kurzweil suggests that by the time we've significantly extended our average lifespan, we'll no longer be in a scarcity-driven world competing for finite resources. Take energy, for example. Kurzweil notes solar is on an exponential curve and has been doubling every two years.
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Eating more plant protein associated with lower risk of death | KurzweilAI

Eating more plant protein associated with lower risk of death | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Eating more protein from plant sources was associated with a lower risk of death, while eating more protein from animals was associated with a higher risk of death — especially among adults with at least one unhealthy behavior such as smoking, drinking, and being overweight or sedentary — according to an open-access survey article published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.

Mingyang Song, M.D., Sc.D., of Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, and coauthors used data from two large U.S. studies, with repeated measures of diet through food questionnaires and up to 32 years of follow-up of 131,342 participants.

The authors report:

After adjusting for major lifestyle and dietary risk factors, every 10 percent increment of animal protein from total calories was associated with a 2 percent higher risk of death from all causes and an 8 percent increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease death.
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Decoding Human Accelerated Regions | The Scientist Magazine®

Decoding Human Accelerated Regions | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Chimps are our closest living relatives on the tree of life. While their biology is largely similar to ours, we have many striking differences, ranging from digestive enzymes to spoken language. Humans also suffer from an array of diseases that do not afflict chimpanzees or are less severe in them, including autism, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, atherosclerosis, AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain cancers. I had long been fascinated with hominin fossils and the way the bones morphed into different forms over evolutionary time. But those skeletons cannot tell us much about the history of our immune system or our cognitive abilities. So I started brainstorming about how to extend the statistical approaches we were using for cancer research to compare human and chimpanzee DNA. My immodest goal was to identify the genetic basis for all the traits that make humans unique.
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Drug-delivering microrobots swim closer to reality

Drug-delivering microrobots swim closer to reality | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Over the years, scientists have come up with all manner of new ways to deliver medication, from sophisticated dual-sided pills to drug-packed nanoparticles. Now, researchers at Drexel University in Philadelphia are working on something even more sophisticated, developing tiny bead-shaped robots controlled by magnetic fields.

It sounds like something from a sci-fi movie – tiny robots swimming through the body and delivering medication exactly where it's needed most – but it's actually something scientists around the world have been working to make a reality. We've seen the concept in the past, in a Max Planck Institute study using scallop-like robots, and in a University of California, San Diego project, which made use of magnetically propelled helical microswimmers.
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Antibiotic resistance: 'Snot wars' study yields new class of drugs - BBC News

Antibiotic resistance: 'Snot wars' study yields new class of drugs - BBC News | Longevity science | Scoop.it
A new class of antibiotics has been discovered by analysing the bacterial warfare taking place up people's noses, scientists report.

Tests reported in the journal Nature found the resulting drug, lugdunin, could treat superbug infections.

The researchers, at the University of Tubingen in Germany, say the human body is an untapped source of new drugs.
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New crop of robots to vie for space in the operating room

New crop of robots to vie for space in the operating room | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Even though many doctors see need for improvement, surgical robots are poised for big gains in operating rooms around the world.

Within five years, one in three U.S. surgeries - more than double current levels – is expected to be performed with robotic systems, with surgeons sitting at computer consoles guiding mechanical arms. Companies developing new robots also plan to expand their use in India, China and other emerging markets.

Robotic surgery has been long dominated by pioneer Intuitive Surgical Inc, which has more than 3,600 of its da Vinci machines in hospitals worldwide and said last week the number of procedures that used them jumped by 16 percent in the second quarter compared to a year earlier.
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Gene "reboots" stem cells to slow or reverse the aging process

Gene "reboots" stem cells to slow or reverse the aging process | Longevity science | Scoop.it
A new study, centering on an embryonic stem cell gene known as Nanog, was found to restore the regenerative properties of adult stem cells, which naturally diminish over time. According to the researchers, this process has the potential to slow or even reverse the effects of aging, as well as combat premature aging disorders such as progeria.

Previous research into slowing the aging process has involved blocking pathways in the brain that produce certain protein complexes, switching back on genes that have been turned off due to epigenetic regulation, and activating a gene that increased the lifespan of common fruit flies.
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Orlando V. Gonzalez MD's curator insight, July 28, 2016 10:25 AM

Working hard on getting people to slow down their aging!

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Cloned Sheep Age Normally | The Scientist Magazine®

Cloned Sheep Age Normally | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
When Dolly the sheep became the world’s first cloned animal, some researchers raised concerns that animals conceived using this technique would suffer health problems as they aged. But new research suggests that animals cloned using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) age normally. Researchers from the University of Nottingham, U.K, and their colleagues measured the metabolic, cardiac, and musculoskeletal health of 17 cloned sheep aged 7 to 9 years old (including four from the same cell line that gave rise to Dolly), finding that the cloned animals showed no signs of disease related to the SCNT process, they reported today (July 26) in Nature Communications.
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Microneedle painlessly monitors drug levels without the need to draw blood

Microneedle painlessly monitors drug levels without the need to draw blood | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Microneedle technology has been around for years, and we've seen vaccines and medication administered via the technique, which uses tiny needles to break only the upper layer of the patient's skin. Now, the pain-free tech is being used for something a little different, with researchers creating a device capable of monitoring patient drug levels – something that usually requires the drawing of blood.

The development of the new system was a joint effort between the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. It consists of a small patch that's pressed against the skin of the patient, with a needle-like point, less than half a milimeter in length, which pierces only the top layer of skin, leaving the epidermis and dermis intact.
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The Genetic Components of Rare Diseases | The Scientist Magazine®

The Genetic Components of Rare Diseases | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Of the known associations between a genetic variant and disease, many are still tenuous at best. How can scientists determine which genes or genetic variants are truly detrimental?

Patients with rare diseases are often caught in the crosshairs of this uncertainty. By the time they have their genome, or portions of it, sequenced, they’ve endured countless physician visits and tests. Sequencing provides some hope for an answer, but the process of uncovering causal variants on which to build a treatment plan is still one of painstaking detective work with many false leads. Even variants that are known to be harmful show no effects in some individuals who harbor them, says Adrian Liston,
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New nanomaterial mimics cell membranes | KurzweilAI

New nanomaterial mimics cell membranes | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Materials scientists at the Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have created a new material that performs like a biological cell membrane — a material that has long been sought for applications like water purification and drug delivery.

The “peptoid” material can assemble itself into a sheet that’s thinner, but more stable, than a soap bubble, the researchers report this week in Nature Communications. The assembled sheet can withstand being submerged in a variety of liquids and can even repair itself after damage.

“We believe these materials have potential in water filters, sensors, drug delivery, and especially fuel cells or other energy applications,” said chemist Chun-Long Chen.
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Wanted: Transcriptional Regulators | The Scientist Magazine®

Wanted: Transcriptional Regulators | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
REVEALING RIBOSWITCHES: RNA is isolated from bacteria and tagged with a 3’ adapter, to which a complimentary oligonucleotide binds for reverse transcription and sequencing. Sequence analysis then reveals those transcripts that have been fully transcribed versus those prematurely truncated. The reproducible presence of similarly truncated transcripts for a given gene suggests the presence of a riboswitch in the mRNA.
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Ultrasonic wireless ‘neural dust’ sensors monitor nerves, muscles in real time | KurzweilAI

Ultrasonic wireless ‘neural dust’ sensors monitor nerves, muscles in real time | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
University of California, Berkeley engineers have designed and built millimeter-scale device wireless, batteryless “neural dust” sensors and implanted them in muscles and peripheral nerves of rats to make in vivo electrophysiological recordings.

The new technology opens the door to “electroceuticals” — bioelectronic methods to monitor and record wireless electromyogram (EMG) signals from muscle membranes and electroneurogram (ENG) signals from local neuron electrical activity, and to stimulate the immune system, reduce inflammation, and treat disorders such as epilepsy.

The technology could also improve neural control of prosthetics (allowing a paraplegic to control a computer or a robotic arm, for example) by stimulating nerves and muscles directly, instead of requiring implanted wires.
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Miniature portable device produces biopharmaceuticals on demand at point-of-care | KurzweilAI

Miniature portable device produces biopharmaceuticals on demand at point-of-care | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
MIT researchers with DARPA funding have developed a portable device for manufacturing a range of biopharmaceuticals on demand, virtually anywhere.

For medics on the battlefield and doctors in remote or developing parts of the world, getting rapid access to the drugs needed to treat patients can be challenging.
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GSK and Google parent forge $715 million bioelectronic medicines firm

GSK and Google parent forge $715 million bioelectronic medicines firm | Longevity science | Scoop.it
GlaxoSmithKline and Google parent Alphabet's life sciences unit are creating a new company focused on fighting diseases by targeting electrical signals in the body, jump-starting a novel field of medicine called bioelectronics.

Verily Life Sciences - known as Google's life sciences unit until last year - and Britain's biggest drugmaker will together contribute 540 million pounds ($715 million) over seven years to Galvani Bioelectronics, they said on Monday.

The new company, owned 55 percent by GSK and 45 percent by Verily, will be based at GSK's Stevenage research center north of London, with a second research hub in South San Francisco.
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Why prolonged sitting may increase risk of death | KurzweilAI

Why prolonged sitting may increase risk of death | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
The researchers found that compared to participants who watched TV less than 2.5 hours each day, deaths from a pulmonary embolism increased by 70 percent among those who watched TV from 2.5 to 4.9 hours; by 40 percent for each additional 2 hours of daily TV watching; and 2.5 times among those who watched TV 5 or more hours.

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It is notable that an hour of moderate exercise seemed to be enough to counteract this risk increase. The message is clear- stay active to live longer in good health.

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Ray Kurzweil: To Merge With Technology Is to Enhance Our Humanity

Ray Kurzweil: To Merge With Technology Is to Enhance Our Humanity | Longevity science | Scoop.it
“At some point, we’ll be literally a hybrid of biological and nonbiological thinking, but it's a gradual transition,” Kurzweil says.

Instead of happening overnight, he predicts we’ll steadily enhance ourselves using technology, not by replacing the parts that make us human but by building on them over time.
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Exercise Boosts Telomere Transcription | The Scientist Magazine®

Exercise Boosts Telomere Transcription | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
When healthy individuals perform a cardiovascular workout, their muscles increase transcription of telomeres, according to a study published today (July 27) in Science Advances. The team also identifies a novel transcription factor that appears to promote telomere transcription and provides the first direct evidence that telomere transcription is linked to exercise and metabolism in people.

“The novelty and merit of this work is that the authors demonstrate, for the first time, that [telomere transcription] occurs in response to physical exercise in a physiological system—human muscle,” Claus Azzalin, who studies telomere transcription at ETH Zurich in Switzerland but was not involved in the work, wrote in an email to The Scientist.

“This is a new link between metabolism and telomeres,” said study coauthor
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Placenta-on-a-chip models what is "arguably the least understood organ in the human body"

Placenta-on-a-chip models what is "arguably the least understood organ in the human body" | Longevity science | Scoop.it
The organ-on-a-chip concept has been around for a while now, providing researchers with working, lab-based models of heart disease, the human gut, and more. Now, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania have created the first ever placenta-on-a-chip that can simulate the flow of nutrients between mother and fetus. The device accurately simulates the development of the organ, and could provide insights to help prevent preterm births.

The concept of an organ-on-a-chip is to provide scientists with a device that closely mimics the function of a living human organ, providing a means of studying and developing new treatments that's both safer and potentially more accurate than animal testing. The placenta is an ideal candidate for such a device, as we know comparatively little about it.
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Americans worried about gene editing, brain chip implants, and synthetic blood | KurzweilAI

Americans worried about gene editing, brain chip implants, and synthetic blood | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
A majority of Americans would be “very” or “somewhat” worried about gene editing (68%); brain chips (69%); and synthetic blood (63%), while no more than half say they would be enthusiastic about each of these developments.
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Cinnamon may be the latest nootropic | KurzweilAI

Cinnamon may be the latest nootropic | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Kalipada Pahan, PhD, a researcher at Rush University and the Jesse Brown VA Medical Center in Chicago, has found that cinnamon improved performance of mice in a maze test.

His group published their latest findings online June 24, 2016, in the Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.

“The increase in learning in poor-learning mice after cinnamon treatment was significant,” says Pahan. “For example, poor-learning mice took about 150 seconds to find the right hole in the Barnes maze test. On the other hand, after one month of cinnamon treatment, poor-learning mice were finding the right hole within 60 seconds.”
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Augmented Reality In Healthcare Will Be Revolutionary - The Medical Futurist

Augmented Reality In Healthcare Will Be Revolutionary - The Medical Futurist | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Augmented reality differs from its most known “relative”, virtual reality (VR) since the latter creates a 3D world completely detaching the user from reality. There are two respects in which AR is unique: users do not lose touch with reality and it puts information into eyesight as fast as possible. These distinctive features enable AR to become a driving force in the future of medicine.
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Neurotransmitters, Adrenals, Blood Sugar & Nutrition - INNATE Education

Neurotransmitters, Adrenals, Blood Sugar & Nutrition - INNATE Education | Longevity science | Scoop.it
The adrenal glands are a primary stress response organ and play a key secondary role in raising blood sugar. Primarily performed by pancreas-originating glucagon, adrenal hormones like cortisol and neurotransmitters like epinephrine contribute to raising blood sugar as well. Since glucose in the blood is typically critical for brain function, there is a tight web of control to raise blood sugar via several mechanisms.

STRESS

When blood sugar is detected as lower in a physiological range, glucagon is secreted by the pancreas to promote the release of glycogen from the liver. This same mechanism is how epinephrine (aka adrenaline) raises blood sugar in the body. Epinephrine is released as well during times of acute stressors, such as threats or noxious stimuli. This is directly mediated by the central nervous system (CNS) through the sympathetic nerve system, which stimulated the adrenal medulla.
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