Linux FAQ
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Linux FAQ
FAQs and tips on Linux and open-source tools. Tutorials on Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora, CentOS and RHEL. Hands-on guides on cloud computing and virtualization software and platforms.
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How to find network card driver name and version on Linux - Ask Xmodulo

How to find network card driver name and version on Linux - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: An Ethernet network interface card is attached to my Linux box, and I would like to know which network adapter driver is installed for the NIC hardware. Is there a way to find out the name and version of a network card driver for my network card? For network interface card (NIC) hardware to …Continu
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Linux vs. Windows device driver model: architecture, APIs and build environment comparison - Xmodulo

Linux vs. Windows device driver model: architecture, APIs and build environment comparison - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Device drivers are parts of the operating system that facilitate usage of hardware devices via certain programming interface so that software applications can control and operate the devices. As each driver is specific to a particular operating system, you need separate Linux, Windows, or Unix device drivers to enable the use of your device on …Continu
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How to open a TCP/UDP socket in a bash shell - Xmodulo

How to open a TCP/UDP socket in a bash shell - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Suppose you want to open a TCP/UDP socket on a Linux server for various reasons. For example, you want to check if a specific address/port is reachable. Or you want to fetch a remote web page or invoke a restful API for testing. Or you want to connect to a remote IRC server, etc. However, …Continu
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How to print "optimized out" value in gdb - Ask Xmodulo

How to print "optimized out" value in gdb - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: I was debugging a program with gdb debugger. When I tried to print the value of a variable while tracing a function call, gdb says "", not displaying the value. How can I show the value of an variable in gdb? Modern compilers such as gcc are able to perform …Continu
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How to set up a self-hosted project management web app on Linux - Xmodulo

How to set up a self-hosted project management web app on Linux - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
When a group of employees collaborate on a project, there is need for handling all aspects and complexities of the project from start to finish, such as task assignment, scheduling, budget management, communication, documentation, and so on. Thus a good project management tool is a necessity for any kinds of businesses or organizations which are …Continu
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How to disable MAC learning in a Linux bridge - Ask Xmodulo

How to disable MAC learning in a Linux bridge - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: I am troubleshooting Ethernet bridging which I set up with a Linux bridge, and I would like to disable MAC learning on the Linux bridge. How can I do that? An Ethernet bridge is a network component which interconnects multiple Ethernet networks by forwarding packets from one network to another. Linux has a software …Continu
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How to convert jpg image file to pdf format on Linux - Xmodulo

How to convert jpg image file to pdf format on Linux - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
The JPG (JPEG) format is without any doubt the most popular format used to share images on the Internet. However, there are several advantages in using PDF images compared to JPG images. For one, while JPG is a raster format with lossy compression, PDF is a layout format that contains both vector and raster graphics. …Continu
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How to add bookmarks to a PDF document on Linux - Ask Xmodulo

How to add bookmarks to a PDF document on Linux - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: I would like to add bookmarks to a PDF file, so that the bookmarks appear in the left hand side bookmarks panel. Is there a command-line approach to create bookmarks and embed bookmark links in a PDF file on Linux? In a PDF document, bookmarks can be added as a navigational tool to allow …Continu
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How to build a kernel module with DKMS on Linux - Xmodulo

How to build a kernel module with DKMS on Linux - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Supposed you wanted to install a device driver for a new graphics card, a WiFi dongle, or a network interface card that you purchased, and for whatever reason (e.g., missing kernel driver, outdated driver version, non-common build options), you decided to compile and install the driver module from the source. So you went ahead and …Continu
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How to connect your LAN to Amazon Virtual Private Cloud - Xmodulo

How to connect your LAN to Amazon Virtual Private Cloud - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
If you have a lot of your services hosted in the Amazon AWS public cloud, and are looking for ways to access your leased AWS resources in a secure way, this article is for you. Initially you started out accessing Amazon AWS over the public Internet. Over time, you have migrated more and more services …Continu
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How to install Avidemux video editor on Linux - Ask Xmodulo

How to install Avidemux video editor on Linux - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: I would like to edit a video file using Avidemux video editor. How can I install Avidemux on [insert your Linux distro]? Avidemux is open-source video editing software offering GTK+ or Qt4/Qt5 based GUI. Among other things, it allows users to transcode video streams, add/extract audio to/from a video file, and edit subtitles of …Continu
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How to detect the type of virtualization from the command line - Ask Xmodulo

How to detect the type of virtualization from the command line - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: I am trying to write a script in which I need to detect whether the Linux server on which the script is running is a virtual machine, a container or actual bare-metal hardware. This is because the script must behave differently depending on whether the underlying server is virtual or physical. Is there an …Continu
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How to compare two version numbers in a shell script - Ask Xmodulo

How to compare two version numbers in a shell script - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: I am writing a shell script in which I need to compare two version number strings (e.g., "1.2.30" and "1.3.0") to determine which version is higher or lower than the other. Is there a way to compare two version number strings in a shell script? When you are writing a shell script, there are …Continu
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How to enable and use logging module in Python - Ask Xmodulo

How to enable and use logging module in Python - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: I am writing a Python program, and I would like to use Python's built-in logging facility to debug the program. How can I enable and use the logging module in Python? Logging is an essential debugging feature for any programming and scripting language, which goes beyond simple print statements. For example, logging allows you …Continu
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How to detect IP address conflicts in Linux - Xmodulo

How to detect IP address conflicts in Linux - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
IP addresses (IPv4) are a scarce resource that is shared by different users and devices. Having an IP address conflict means that there are more than one network device or computer that claims the same IP address. IP address conflict may occur when a DHCP server has assigned an IP address to one computer, and …Continu
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How to remove all network namespaces at once on Linux - Ask Xmodulo

How to remove all network namespaces at once on Linux - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: I have created a number of network namespaces, and now I want to remove them all. Is there a way to delete all existing network namespaces at once from the command line on Linux? In Linux, the concept of "namespaces" was introduced as a way to isolate system resources among different groups of processes. …Continu
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How to migrate Cacti to a new server - Xmodulo

How to migrate Cacti to a new server - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Cacti is a popular network graphing tool widely used by many service providers. For those of you who have been using Cacti to visualize the performance of various elements of your network, it is sometimes necessary to migrate Cacti and all its graph datasets from one server to another. Why? The current server may be …Continu
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How to plot a bar graph on Gnuplot - Ask Xmodulo

How to plot a bar graph on Gnuplot - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: How can I create a bar graph (bar chart) using Gnuplot? A bar graph is a plot which visualizes data values using proportional-size bars. Bar charts are useful when you want to compare multiple items among different categories. As you can imagine, they are much more effective than a table of numerical data. This …Continu
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How to enable .htaccess in Apache HTTP server - Ask Xmodulo

How to enable .htaccess in Apache HTTP server - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: I wanted to use .htaccess file to configure something for my website running on Apache web server. But the .htaccess file I placed in the website's document root directory is not working. How can I enable .htaccess in Apache web server? An .htaccess file is a directory-level configuration file for Apache HTTP server, which …Continu
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How to improve the security of Magento e-commerce website - Xmodulo

How to improve the security of Magento e-commerce website - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Magento is an e-commerce software platform used by small businesses and leading brands, and its community edition is a freely available open-source program. Thanks to the huge collection of third-party developed plugins and themes which extend the default functionality and design, Magento is evolving into the WordPress of the e-commerce industry. However, the growing popularity …Continu
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How to record a particular area of desktop screen on Linux - Ask Xmodulo

How to record a particular area of desktop screen on Linux - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: I want to create a screencast of a particular area on my Linux desktop (not the entire desktop). Is there screen recorder software that allows me to do that? When you need to demonstrate your desktop activities to someone else, using a screencast (i.e., recording of desktop screen) is far more effective than a …Continu
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netdata - Xmodulo List

netdata - Xmodulo List | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
netdata is a web-based, real-time performance monitoring system which visualizes the system resource usage of a local Linux server (which netdata is running on) via time-series statistics. Monitored system properties include CPU usage (core …
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How to validate JSON from the command line on Linux - Xmodulo

How to validate JSON from the command line on Linux - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Due to its syntactic simplicity and flexibility, JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) has become pretty much the de-facto standard data exchange format in many web applications. As JSON becomes widely used to represent structured data with a great degree of flexibility, the need arises for being able to "validate" JSON representations. Thus there came something called …Continu
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How to move Unity launcher to the bottom of screen on Ubuntu - Xmodulo

How to move Unity launcher to the bottom of screen on Ubuntu - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
By design Unity launcher is placed at the left side of Ubuntu desktop and has remained immovable ever since it was introduced to the public in 2010. Ubuntu users who wanted to have Mac OS X-style launcher have had to either replace Unity launcher with an alternative dock such as CairoDock or Docky, or even …Continu
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How to install Newsbeuter command-line RSS reader on Linux - Ask Xmodulo

How to install Newsbeuter command-line RSS reader on Linux - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: I want to try Newsbeuter RSS reader. How can I install Newsbeuter on [Debian, Ubuntu, CentOS, Fedora or RHEL]? Newsbeuter is a command-line RSS feed reader designed to access RSS/Atom feeds in a terminal environment. Used together with a text-mode web browser such as elinks, lynx or w3m, Newsbeuter allows you to read RSS/Atom …Continu
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