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Frustrated endocytosis controls contractility-independent mechanotransduction at clathrin-coated structures

Frustrated endocytosis controls contractility-independent mechanotransduction at clathrin-coated structures | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Cells sense mechanical properties of their environment using various cellular structures including focal adhesions. Here, the authors identify flat clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) as mechanosensitive signaling platforms that form independently of contractility and in response to substrate rigidity.
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A PECTIN METHYLESTERASE gene at the maize Ga1 locus confers male function in unilateral cross-incompatibility

A PECTIN METHYLESTERASE gene at the maize Ga1 locus confers male function in unilateral cross-incompatibility | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Unilateral cross-incompatibility between certain varieties of maize prevents cross-fertilization and can facilitate hybrid breeding. Here the authors show that a PECTIN METHYLESTERASE gene is able to overcome this reproductive barrier and confer fertility when expressed in pollen of the male parent.
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Remarkable mechanism involving interaction between 2 PMEs

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Gene-edited plants cross European event horizon

By lumping gene-edited plants together with other genetically modified organisms (GMOs), Europe's highest court has consigned this plant-breeding approach to a regulatory black hole.
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Phosphocode-dependent functional dichotomy of a common co-receptor in plant signalling

Phosphocode-dependent functional dichotomy of a common co-receptor in plant signalling | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
The plant receptor kinase co-receptor BAK1 contains phosphosites that are required for immune function but not for brassinosteroid-regulated growth in Arabidopsis thaliana; an additional tyrosine phosphosite may be required for the function of many Arabidopsis receptor kinases.
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Decrease in plasma membrane tension triggers PtdIns(4,5)P 2 phase separation to inactivate TORC2

Decrease in plasma membrane tension triggers PtdIns(4,5)P 2 phase separation to inactivate TORC2 | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Using a small-molecule modulator of TORC2 signalling and a mechanosensitive probe, Riggi et al. reveal that decreased plasma membrane tension induces distinct PIP2-enriched domains that sequester and inactivate TORC2.
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No, the world is not going to end now that CRISPR is GMO in Europe, but ... > Instituut voor Landbouw en Visserijonderzoek > All media - Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO)

No, the world is not going to end now that CRISPR is GMO in Europe, but ... > Instituut voor Landbouw en Visserijonderzoek > All media - Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO) | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
"That’s really too bad!", was a repeated reaction from the research and agriculture world to the judgment of the European Court of Justice o
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Nice nuanced point of view !

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« Il faut évaluer au cas par cas les organismes obtenus par mutagénèse »

« Il faut évaluer au cas par cas les organismes obtenus par mutagénèse » | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
OPECST
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Enfin un avis raisonnable !

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Modulating plant growth–metabolism coordination for sustainable agriculture

Modulating plant growth–metabolism coordination for sustainable agriculture | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
The balance of DELLA and GRF4 proteins in plants ensures the co-regulation of growth with metabolism and tipping this balance towards GRF4 leads to higher efficiency of nitrogen use.
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Viewpoint: Greenpeace and 'the awful reality of anti-science activism'

Viewpoint: Greenpeace and 'the awful reality of anti-science activism' | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
he Austrian research portal "Addendum" released a bombshell video regarding the facts, figures, and positions regarding GMO foods. In this report that
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Nitrogen fixation in a landrace of maize is supported by a mucilage-associated diazotrophic microbiota

Nitrogen fixation in a landrace of maize is supported by a mucilage-associated diazotrophic microbiota | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Author summary Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plants, and for many nonlegume crops, the requirement for nitrogen is primarily met by the use of inorganic fertilizers. These fertilizers are produced from fossil fuel by energy-intensive processes that are estimated to use 1% to 2% of the total global energy supply and produce an equivalent share of greenhouse gases. Because maize (Zea mays L.) is a significant recipient of nitrogen fertilization, a research goal for decades has been to identify or engineer mechanisms for biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen in association with this crop. We hypothesized that isolated indigenous landraces of maize grown using traditional practices with little or no fertilizer might have evolved strategies to improve plant performance under low-nitrogen nutrient conditions. Here, we show that for one such maize landrace grown in nitrogen-depleted fields near Oaxaca, Mexico, 29%–82% of the plant nitrogen is derived from atmospheric nitrogen. High levels of nitrogen fixation are supported, at least in part, by the abundant production of a sugar-rich mucilage associated with aerial roots that provides a home to a complex nitrogen-fixing microbiome.
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Beyond Bar and Line Graphs: Time for a New Data Presentation Paradigm

Beyond Bar and Line Graphs: Time for a New Data Presentation Paradigm | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
A systematic review of research articles reveals widespread poor practice in the presentation of continuous data. The authors recommend training for investigators and supply templates for easy use.
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GM crop ruling shows why the EU's laws are wholly inadequate

Genetic modification rules now cover gene edited crops but exclude plants bred traditionally with the same properties.
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Context‐specific dependence on FERONIA kinase activity - Duan - - FEBS Letters - Wiley Online Library

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UP Magazine - La révolution en cours de la biologie végétale bouleverse notre conception du vivant

UP Magazine - La révolution en cours de la biologie végétale bouleverse notre conception du vivant | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Nous avons très longtemps considéré la vie des plantes comme une forme de vie inférieure, entre le minéral et l’animal, celle d’un état végétatif précisément. Les plantes constituaient le Lumpenproletariat du vivant, celles qui organisent l’interface entre l’organique et l’inorganique, mais dont l’existence serait à l’image de leur fonction d’intermédiation : entre la vie et la non-vie. Or depuis au moins une décennie, de multiples travaux ont fini par remiser aux oubliettes de l’histoire cette conception pourtant pluriséculaire. Les plantes vivent, aussi pleinement que nous-mêmes, même si elles déroulent leur existence d’une tout autre manière que la nôtre. Elles ne possèdent pas d’organes vitaux et sont capables de se régénérer, condition à leur survie, elles qui sont condamnées au mouvement sur place, ne pouvant fuir devant leurs prédateurs.
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Nice interview with Ted Farmer

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Rescooped by Herman Höfte from Life Sciences Université Paris-Saclay
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Receptor Kinase THESEUS1 is a Rapid Alkalinisation Factor 34 receptor in Arabidopsis

Receptor Kinase THESEUS1 is a Rapid Alkalinisation Factor 34 receptor in Arabidopsis | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it

Plant cells, like fungi and bacteria, have the ability to monitor the integrity of their cell walls and to trigger adaptive modifications in cell wall polymer interactions. Herman Höfte from the Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin (INRA/AgroParisTech/CNRS/UPSaclay, Versailles) and his colleagues previously showed that the receptor kinase THESEUS1 (THE1) is required for the inhibition of growth and stress responses upon the perturbation of the cell wall but so far neither the ligand was known nor the role of the receptor in normal development. In a paper that just came out in Current Biology, they now report that THE1 is a receptor for the peptide Rapid Alkalinisation Factor (RALF) 34 and that this signalling module also has a role in normal development, for instance in the fine-tuning of lateral root initiation. They also show that THE1 together with FERONIA, a related receptor kinase, is part of a signalling network that integrates information on the integrity of the cell wall with the coordination of normal morphogenesis.

 

Contact: hermanus.hofte@inra.fr


Via Life Sciences UPSaclay
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We now have a roadmap for a second green revolution

We now have a roadmap for a second green revolution | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Imagine a future where agriculture depends not just on crops and livestock, but artificial intelligence, mobile apps, microbes and good old-fashioned teamwork. That’s the scenario envisioned by a committee of scientists, who last summer were recruited by the National Academy of Sciences to answer one question: What key advances over the next decade are essential …
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Global Compression Reorients Cortical Microtubules in Arabidopsis Hypocotyl Epidermis and Promotes Growth - ScienceDirect

Global Compression Reorients Cortical Microtubules in Arabidopsis Hypocotyl Epidermis and Promotes Growth - ScienceDirect | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Plants are able to sense external mechanical stress, such as those due to gravity or obstacles, and alter their growth accordingly [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, …
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Opinion: Trait-based regulation of GM plants is on the horizon – at last! | 2018-08-15 | Agri-Pulse

Opinion: Trait-based regulation of GM plants is on the horizon – at last! | 2018-08-15 | Agri-Pulse | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
USDA’s Sid Abel[*] and Doug McKalip[†] just briefed me on the new regulatory framework that is shaping up for the oversight of plants modified by what they are now calling “plant breeding innovations.”  These include the much-touted CRISPR/Cas-based gene editing, as well as other new approaches to the modification of plants’ genetic material.  I could barely believe what I was hearing.  So here goes….. To begin with, as announced in late March by USDA Secretary Perdue, the agency does not and will not regulate plants . . .
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Japanese Authorities Recommend Not Regulating Gene Editing

Japanese Authorities Recommend Not Regulating Gene Editing | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Unlike judges in the European Union, a government panel in Japan says transgenic modification and genome editing are not the same.
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Massive crossover elevation via combination of HEI10 and recq4a recq4b during Arabidopsis meiosis

Massive crossover elevation via combination of HEI10 and recq4a recq4b during Arabidopsis meiosis | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
The majority of eukaryotes reproduce sexually, creating genetic variation within populations. Sexual reproduction requires gamete production via meiotic cell division. During meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair and undergo exchange, called crossover. Crossover is vital for crop breeding and remains a major tool to combine useful traits. Despite the importance of crossovers for breeding, their levels are typically low, with one to two forming per chromosome, irrespective of physical chromosome size. Here we genetically engineer superrecombining Arabidopsis , via boosting the major procrossover pathway (using additional copies of the HEI10 E3-ligase gene), and simultaneously removing a major antirecombination pathway (using mutations in RECQ4A and RECQ4B helicase genes). This strategy has the potential to drive massive crossover elevations in crop genomes and accelerate breeding.
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Nouvelle opération des Faucheurs Volontaires contre des OGM de la RAGT en Aveyron - 15/08/2018

Nouvelle opération des Faucheurs Volontaires contre des OGM de la RAGT en Aveyron - 15/08/2018 | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Délinquant de l’agriculture, voyous, vandales : RAGT Semences ne manque pas de qualificatifs pour dénoncer la nouvelle dégradation menée par les Faucheurs Volontaires. Mercredi 15 août au matin, peu avant 7 heures, près de 80 personnes venue
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French NGOs are pushing their stupid and obscurantist logic to its limits: Worrysome consequences of the European Court of Justice decision on NBTs, not only for plant biotechnology but for plant breeding in general !!

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Plants send small RNAs in extracellular vesicles to fungal pathogen to silence virulence genes

Plants send small RNAs in extracellular vesicles to fungal pathogen to silence virulence genes | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Plants can use small RNAs (sRNAs) to interfere with virulence factor gene expression in pathogens. Cai et al. show that the small mustard plant Arabidopsis shuttles defensive sRNAs into the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea via extracellular vesicles (see the Perspective by Thomma and Cook). The vesicles are associated with tetraspanin proteins, which can interact and form membrane microdomains. Several dozen different sRNAs targeting the pathogenic process were transported from Arabidopsis to B. cinerea in a selective manner.

Science , this issue p. [1126][1]; see also p. [1070][2]

Some pathogens and pests deliver small RNAs (sRNAs) into host cells to suppress host immunity. Conversely, hosts also transfer sRNAs into pathogens and pests to inhibit their virulence. Although sRNA trafficking has been observed in a wide variety of interactions, how sRNAs are transferred, especially from hosts to pathogens and pests, is still unknown. Here, we show that host Arabidopsis cells secrete exosome-like extracellular vesicles to deliver sRNAs into fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea . These sRNA-containing vesicles accumulate at the infection sites and are taken up by the fungal cells. Transferred host sRNAs induce silencing of fungal genes critical for pathogenicity. Thus, Arabidopsis has adapted exosome-mediated cross-kingdom RNA interference as part of its immune responses during the evolutionary arms race with the pathogen.

[1]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.aar4142
[2]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.aat9343
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How Record Heat Wreaked Havoc on Four Continents - The New York Times

We talked to people who found themselves on the front lines of climate change this year. Here are their stories.
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Mutagenèse et arrêt de la CJUE : des effets hors-cible dévastateurs

Mutagenèse et arrêt de la CJUE : des effets hors-cible dévastateurs | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Mutagenèse et arrêt de la CJUE : des effets hors-cible dévastateurs Il n'y aura presque plus rien dans les champs… et rien dans l'assiette... Répondant à une question préjudicielle du Conseil d'État français , lui-même saisi par la Confédératio
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About the absurdities of the ECJ decision on CRISPR-Cas9

With illustrations from an excellent powerpoint from Fabien Nogue

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The Observer view on Europe’s ban on gene-editing crops | Observer editorial | Opinion | The Guardian

The Observer view on Europe’s ban on gene-editing crops | Observer editorial | Opinion | The Guardian | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
This absurd ruling restricts highly targeted plant breeding but allows random changes caused by carcinogenic chemicals
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We haven't seen such an analysis of the absurdity of the ECJ decision in the mainstream  french press yet !

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