LHMexicoRevolution
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LHMexicoRevolution
A personal diary and view of the revolution in Mexico from the point of view of the revolutionary leaders. This diary will both be educational but also personal, because of the role myself and other students with be taking on to really understand the struggles those went through during that time.
Curated by Lauren Howe
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After Revolution

Historians often refer to the years 1823–1855 in Mexico as the "Age of Santa Anna," which refers to Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna, the leader of the coup that overthrew Iturbide. During the next 30 years, Santa Anna played a prominent part in Mexican politics by serving as president several times. The country was in economic chaos, as it was burdened with a huge internal debt. The nation was split by liberals, who wished to model Mexico on the United States, and conservatives, who were backed by the military and government. 

In 1836, the current U.S. state of Texas declared its independence, and 10 years later, Mexico became embroiled in the Mexican-American War. The Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty (1848) fixed the Río Grande as Texas's southern boundary and effectively sliced the Mexican territory in half; the United States acquired the current states of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming. In 1853, Santa Anna returned from exile (banished after the war), declared himself dictator, and sold to Washington, D.C., territory that clarified the present day borders of southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase. 

In 1855, a group of liberals led by Benito Juárez forced Santa Anna from power and instituted a series of reforms that secularized church property and reduced the power of the military. The liberals also passed a new constitution. Conservative opposition to the liberals resulted in a civil war, known as the War of Reform, that lasted until 1861

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Dates of Revolution

1808
Napoleon conquers Spain, expanding his empire and weakening Spain's colonial authority by forcing King Carlos IV to abdicate his throne. 

1810

Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a Mexican parish priest, calls for independence on September 16. Many Mexican "castas," mixed blood or Indians, attack local authorities and sack large towns before being defeated by the smaller but more disciplined armies of Creoles and Spanish. 

1814 

Mexican parish priest José María Morelos y Pavón leads a fight for independence

1815

José María Morelos y Pavón is defeated in Mexico by Augustín de Iturbide. 

1820
A liberal legislature gains control of the Spanish government and implements reforms that anger the privileged class in Mexico. Augustín de Iturbide, ordered by the Spanish government to crush an uprising in southern Mexico, joins forces with the rebels to create an independent, but conservative, government. 

1821

Spain grants Mexico independence on September 28.

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Basics

* issues began in the colonies because of instability back in spain because of Napoleon's take over The 1808 occupation of Spain by Napoleon I, which left the home government in a state of disarray, contributed to arguments toward New Spain's independence.

*spain tried to initiate reforms into its colonies, colonies rejected them 

*The sharp division in social classes added to the tension with antagonism growing between Europeans born in Spain and those born in New Spain. 

*Mexico's formal quest for independence began in 1810 with the issuing of a revolutionary treatise by the priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, who called for racial equality. Although Hidalgo was killed the following year, his rebellion was taken on by another priest, José María Morelos, in 1814. Morelos was later defeated by Augustín de Iturbide. 

* in 1820 mexicos formal leaders came together with the revolutionaries and attempted to seperate from spain's rule--> led  by Vincent guerrero 

*Their treaty, the Plan of Iguala, called for Mexico to be an independent nation ruled by a monarchy, racial equality, and the establishment of the Roman Catholic Church as the state religion. Independence of Spanish America was achieved when Spain granted Mexico independence in 1821. The following year, Iturbide declared himself Emperor Augustín I, but he was overthrown in a coup 10 months later.

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Britannica Mobile - iPhone Edition (cause of revolution)

Began with Napoleon taking over control of Spain in 1808 and then putting brother Joseph on the throne King Ferdinand VII was imprisoned
Colonies gave a a Cortes rule (Representitive assembly). And tried to come up with a constitution to have the king sign
1812 promulgated a liberal constitution in the king’s name. The document provided for a constitutional monarch, popular suffrage, a representative government, and other features taken from the French and U.S. constitutions. But as Spain sent contradictory commands to Mexico, it stimulated rivalries and revolts. The viceregal establishment put down sporadic rebellions by those who professed loyalty to the imprisoned king but who demanded some form of self-government. 

leaders over in spain had representitives over in mexico and focused more on the issues in spin and not in the colonies 

the reps were left to lead the colonies and the mexicans saw this as a oppertunity for revolution 

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